Empathy

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Psychology

Kinds of Empathy

  • affective empathy

  • Terms modified by Empathy

  • empathy score

  • Selected Abstracts


    A CONCEPTUAL HISTORY OF EMPATHY AND A QUESTION IT RAISES FOR MORAL EDUCATION

    EDUCATIONAL THEORY, Issue 1 2000
    Susan Verducci
    First page of article [source]


    The Limits of Empathy

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 4 2010
    Article first published online: 7 FEB 2010
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Response to Reviews of Empathy and Healing

    ETHOS, Issue 3 2009
    Vieda Skultans Professor
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    On the Problem of Empathy: The Case of Yap, Federated States of Micronesia

    ETHOS, Issue 4 2008
    C. Jason Throop
    After briefly examining foundational philosophical definitions of empathy, the article advances a number of differing cultural phenomenological orientations implicated in the experience and expression of empathy. These orientations are understood to help to foreground the place of empathy in what may otherwise be viewed as a general reluctance to engage in empathetic attunement in Yapese society. [empathy, cultural phenomenology, morality, suffering, Yap] [source]


    Is Empathy Gendered and, If So, Why?

    ETHOS, Issue 4 2004
    An Approach from Feminist Psychological Anthropology
    Difference feminists have argued that women have special virtues. One such virtue would seem to be empathy, which has three main components: imaginative projection, awareness of the other's emotions, and concern. Empathy is closely related to identification. Psychological research and the author's own study of women's and men's talk about poverty and welfare use in the United States demonstrate women's greater empathic concern. However, some cross-cultural research shows greater sex differences in empathy in the United States than elsewhere. This combination of findings (women tend to demonstrate greater empathic concern, but this typical difference varies cross-culturally) requires a complex biocultural explanation, drawing on cognitive, psychoanalytic, and feminist theories. Explanation, and not just description, is a prerequisite for change. [source]


    Empathy and Strategic Interaction in Crises: A Poliheuristic Perspective

    FOREIGN POLICY ANALYSIS, Issue 2 2009
    Jonathan W. Keller
    Empirical evidence supports the poliheuristic (PH) theory of decision making, which states that leaders typically employ a two-stage non-compensatory decision-making process. In stage one leaders reject options that do not meet some minimum criteria of acceptability on one or more dimensions, and in stage two they choose among the remaining options using a more rational utility-maximizing rule. While PH theory has primarily been applied at the monadic level, to explain the process and content of states' decisions, we contend it has important implications for strategic interaction and can help to explain outcomes in world politics. Specifically, we argue that a crucial variable shaping crisis outcomes is the degree to which leaders' non compensatory decision criteria in stage one include options' acceptability to the opponent. When leaders empathize with their opponent and screen out those options the opponent considers unacceptable, crises will be resolved more quickly and with a lower likelihood of escalation. Empathy introduced during the second, utility-maximizing stage, may also dampen conflict but is less effective than stage one empathy. We illustrate this dyadic non compensatory model by examining two cases involving the U.S.,China and U.S.,Iraq bilateral relationships. [source]


    Cultural Background and Individualistic,Collectivistic Values in Relation to Similarity, Perspective Taking, and Empathy

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 11 2009
    Miriam S. Heinke
    A path model testing antecedents and consequences of perceived similarity was examined for Asian and European Australian participants (N = 240). Cultural background and values were measured, and participants read scenarios describing a target in distress acting according to individualistic or collectivistic values. Consistent with past research, feeling similar to the target was linked to perspective taking and empathy. Moreover, Asian participants were more collectivistic, and collectivistic values were linked to higher empathy. In the present data, however, both endorsed higher levels of collectivism than individualism; individualism scores were equal; and the two values were positively correlated. Moreover, neither cultural background nor values were consistently linked to similarity. Implications are discussed for research on cultural background, values, and social interactions. [source]


    Examining Rape Empathy From the Perspective of the Victim and the Assailant,

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 3 2003
    Christine A. Smith
    Two studies using college student samples were conducted to establish reliability and validity for new scales measuring rape victim empathy and rape perpetrator empathy separately. In Experiment 1, two 13-item measures of rape empathy were developed. Variables examined for purposes of construct validity included personal sexual assault experience, general empathy, and perceived rape victim responsibility. In Experiment 2, we added 5 new items to each scale. The final scales were two 18-item measures with high reliability. Variables examined in Experiment 2 included personal sexual assault, general empathy, and acquaintanceship with a victim or a perpetrator. Both studies found gender differences for empathy scores, with women tending to be higher on rape victim empathy, and men tending to be higher on rape perpetrator empathy. Personal sexual experience was related to rape empathy scores. Perceived victim responsibility was negatively correlated with rape victim empathy and positively correlated with rape perpetrator empathy. [source]


    Group membership, group norms, empathy, and young children's intentions to aggress

    AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR, Issue 3 2009
    Drew Nesdale
    Abstract This study assessed the effect of ingroup norms and empathy on 6 and 9-year-old children's (N=161) attitudes and aggressive intentions toward outgroup members. Prior to an intergroup drawing competition against an outgroup, participants' empathy was measured, and they were randomly assigned to a simulated group with a norm of direct or indirect aggression, or no aggression norm. Results indicated participants' attitudes were less positive toward the outgroup vs. the ingroup, and that both direct and indirect aggressive intentions were displayed toward the outgroup. Most importantly, the ingroup was liked less when it had an aggression norm, and the participants' aggressive intentions were not enhanced by the group aggression norm. Empathy was a significant negative predictor of direct but not indirect aggression intentions. Implications for understanding the instigation and inhibition of children's aggression intentions are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 35:244,258, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Understanding the elements of empathy as a component of care-driven leadership

    JOURNAL OF LEADERSHIP STUDIES, Issue 1 2009
    Yosep Undung
    Empathy plays a pivotal role in educational leadership practice. It creates and maintains a sound and dynamic interpersonal milieu in dynamic social enterprises such as schools, colleges, and universities. A phenomenological study was conducted to probe deeper the meaning of empathy as it is lived and constituted in the awareness of a select group of 13 Filipino academic administrators representing colleges in the Philippines. Anchored on the central question, "how do Filipino academic administrators collectively typify in their school leadership practices the elements of empathic concern, perspective taking, and empathic matching," semistructured (Patton, 1990) and in-depth interviews were conducted. Field texts were analyzed via a repertory grid. Through constant comparative analyses, an interesting set of conceptual categories notably describes the human and humane side of a caring leader, typified in the ability to effect listening, confluencing, and scaffolding in the journey with the faculty. [source]


    Nurse Practitioner, Nurse Midwife and Physician Assistant Attitudes and Care Practices Related to Persons with HIV/AIDS

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF NURSE PRACTITIONERS, Issue 2 2000
    Jane E. Martin RN
    ABSTRACT Although multiple studies of nurses' attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWAs) can be found in the literature, little is known about the attitudes, beliefs and practices of nurse practitioners (NPs), certified nurse midwives (CNMs), and physician assistants (PAs). A survey including a 21-item AIDS Attitude Scale measuring the constructs of Avoidance and Empathy was sent to 1,291 NPs, CNMs and PAs in Louisiana, Arkansas and Mississippi to describe their attitudes and care practices related to PLWAs. Respondents who were more comfortable treating PLWAs had significantly lower avoidance scores and significantly higher empathy scores than respondents with lower comfort levels in providing care. Greater than 80% of respondents indicated that they would provide health care to HIV-infected individuals. Respondents who referred HIV/AIDS patients for all care did so primarily due to lack of experience with HIV and the availability of more experienced providers. Avoidance and empathy scores were not found to be significantly associated with referral for care. This study suggests that this group of providers has relatively low avoidance and high empathy toward PLWAs and is willing to care for HIV-infected individuals. This study was supported by Grant No. 5U69PE00112-06 from the Department of Health & Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, HIV/AIDS Bureau, National AIDS Education and Training Center. [source]


    Empathy in medical students as related to academic performance, clinical competence and gender

    MEDICAL EDUCATION, Issue 6 2002
    M Hojat
    Context, Empathy is a major component of a satisfactory doctor,patient relationship and the cultivation of empathy is a learning objective proposed by the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) for all American medical schools. Therefore, it is important to address the measurement of empathy, its development and its correlates in medical schools. Objectives, We designed this study to test two hypotheses: firstly, that medical students with higher empathy scores would obtain higher ratings of clinical competence in core clinical clerkships; and secondly, that women would obtain higher empathy scores than men. Materials and subjects, A 20-item empathy scale developed by the authors (Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy) was completed by 371 third-year medical students (198 men, 173 women). Methods, Associations between empathy scores and ratings of clinical competence in six core clerkships, gender, and performance on objective examinations were studied by using t -test, analysis of variance, chi-square and correlation coefficients. Results, Both research hypotheses were confirmed. Empathy scores were associated with ratings of clinical competence and gender, but not with performance in objective examinations such as the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT), and Steps 1 and 2 of the US Medical Licensing Examinations (USMLE). Conclusions, Empathy scores are associated with ratings of clinical competence and gender. The operational measure of empathy used in this study provides opportunities to further examine educational and clinical correlates of empathy, as well as stability and changes in empathy at different stages of undergraduate and graduate medical education. [source]


    Empathy and Healing: Essays in Medical and Narrative Anthropology by Vieda Skultans

    AMERICAN ETHNOLOGIST, Issue 2 2009
    ANN APPLETON
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Levels of empathy in undergraduate occupational therapy students

    OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY INTERNATIONAL, Issue 3 2010
    Ted Brown
    Abstract Empathy is an important attribute for occupational therapists in establishing rapport and in better understanding their clients. However, empathy can be compromised by high workloads, personal stressors and pressures to demonstrate efficacy. Occupational therapists also work with patients from a variety of diagnostic groups. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of empathy and attitudes towards clients amongst undergraduate occupational therapy students at one Australian University. A cross-sectional study was undertaken using a written survey of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE) and the Medical Condition Regard Scale. Overall, a strong level of empathy was reported amongst students. Four medical conditions that occupational therapists work with (stroke, cerebral palsy, traumatic brain injury and depression) were held in high regard. Substance abuse, however, was held in comparatively low regard. Overall, the year of study appeared to have no significant impact on the students' empathy. Despite having a lower reported empathy level than found in health professions from other studies using the JSPE, occupational therapy students were found to have a good level of empathy. Of concern, however, was the bias reported against the medical condition of substance abuse, highlighting that the there may be a need to reinforce that patients from this diagnostic group are equally deserving of quality care irrespective of their clinical condition. Recommendations for future research include completing a longitudinal study of occupational therapy students' empathy levels and investigating the empathy levels of occupational therapists working with different client groups. Limitations of the study include the convenience sampling of occupational therapy students enrolled at one university which limits the generalizability of the results to groups of participants with similar characteristics. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    The Relationship between Empathy and Estimates of Observed Pain

    PAIN MEDICINE, Issue 2 2009
    A. D. Green MSc
    ABSTRACT Objective., Recent research suggests that higher scores on measures of empathy correlate with a stronger response to observed pain, as well as higher estimates of pain intensity. Little work to date has examined the impact of empathy on evaluations of different levels of expressed pain, or how empathy may alter the accuracy of interpreting these painful facial expressions. This study examines the role of empathy in rating the intensity of facial expressions of pain, and the accuracy of these ratings relative to self-reported pain. The potential mediating role of available pain cues or the moderating role of gender on this relationship are also examined. Methods., Undergraduate participants (observers, N = 130) were shown video clips of facial expressions of individuals from a cold presser pain task (senders), and then asked to estimate that pain experience. This estimate was compared with the video sender's actual pain ratings. Results., Higher empathy was associated with an overall increase in estimates of senders' pain, which was not mediated by video subject or participant gender or the duration of painful facial expressions. Further analyses revealed that high empathy was associated with greater accuracy in inferring pain on only one of three inferential accuracy indices. Conclusions., While observers with greater empathy may infer greater pain in senders, resulting in a smaller underestimation bias overall, they are not necessarily more accurate in estimating pain on any given stimuli. The importance of these potential differences in perceived pain for clinical assessment and interpersonal relationships are discussed. [source]


    Empathy: A Timeless Skill for the Pain Medicine Toolbox

    PAIN MEDICINE, Issue 3 2006
    MPH Editor-in-Chief, Pain Medicine, Rollin M. Gallagher MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Enhancing Intellectual Empathy: The Lived Experience of Voice Simulation

    PERSPECTIVES IN PSYCHIATRIC CARE, Issue 3 2009
    Karen S. Dearing PhD
    PURPOSE., This study aimed to understand the lived experience of voice simulation with the novice nurse and to describe the impact on the nurse's empathy and desire to develop a therapeutic relationship. DESIGN AND METHODS., Twenty-eight women and men participated in a detailed narrative investigation of reflective writing of the lived experience of hearing voices through a voice simulation experience. FINDINGS., A sense of insight was developed, and participants felt they could empathize with this type of suffering. The ability to change attitudes to focus on the development of therapeutic relationships was enhanced. PRACTICE IMPLICATION., Voice simulation assists the novice nurse in developing intellectual empathy. [source]


    Self-Reliance and Empathy: The Enemies of Poverty,and of the Poor

    POLITICAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 3 2001
    Robert E. Lane
    Starting with a brief review of why all post-industrial societies tend to be inegalitarian, this paper develops two main themes: (1) how the idea that people are individually responsible for their own fates reduces poverty but impedes redistribution, and (2) how both the loose ties of individuals to their societies and the selective nature of their empathy and pity for others reduces compassion for the poor, making redistribution unlikely. The first theme is elaborated through psychological research on dispositional versus circumstantial attributions, showing their effects on the widely shared belief in a just world and more generally on the prevailing theory of the justice of deserts. The attribution-affect-action model is used to show how dispositional attributes evoke either anger or pity for victims and, if anger, then unwillingness to help. The development of the second theme shows how people divorce their own fates from those of their nations, how the basic tendency to favor the familiar and similar limits support for redistribution, how converting concern regarding deprivations of the self to concern for (fraternal) deprivation of people like the self excludes those who most need help, how envy fails to lead to redistribution, and finally, how people's ideas of the privileged and the disadvantaged reflect market values and often mark the poor and the different as overprivileged. [source]


    Empathy and error processing

    PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
    Michael J. Larson
    Abstract Recent research suggests a relationship between empathy and error processing. Error processing is an evaluative control function that can be measured using post-error response time slowing and the error-related negativity (ERN) and post-error positivity (Pe) components of the event-related potential (ERP). Thirty healthy participants completed two measures of empathy, the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) and the Empathy Quotient (EQ), and a modified Stroop task. Post-error slowing was associated with increased empathic personal distress on the IRI. ERN amplitude was related to overall empathy score on the EQ and the fantasy subscale of the IRI. The Pe and measures of empathy were not related. Results remained consistent when negative affect was controlled via partial correlation, with an additional relationship between ERN amplitude and empathic concern on the IRI. Findings support a connection between empathy and error processing mechanisms. [source]


    The Meaning of the Steps is in Between: Dancing and the Curse of Compliments

    THE AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF ANTHROPOLOGY, Issue 2 2000
    Franca Tamisari
    This paper shows how Yolngu dancing embodies statements about being-in-the-world and being-with-others and, from a performance perspective based on participation, explores the sensuous and affective nature of intercorporeality. By focusing on virtuosity and the practice of the ,curse of compliments', the paper argues that the meaning of Yolngu dancing is between the steps, between the performers and other participants in a ceremony,in the empathic space one enters through dancing. Empathy, both in the context of Yolngu performance and of engagement in fieldwork, is thus a modality of co-presence and co-presencing, an encounter at a level of intensity which opens the way to an ever-deepening involvement with others. [source]


    The roots of empathy and aggression in analysis

    THE JOURNAL OF ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 4 2005
    Richard Kradin
    Abstract:, Empathy and interpretation have complementary roles in analysis. Empathy diminishes psychological arousal, ego-defences, and promotes the therapeutic relationship. Interpretation, when adopted in the service of character analysis and the uncovering of unconscious conflict, represents one element of a larger set of interventions termed analytic aggression, whose primary goal is to promote insight. Psychoanalysis has been increasingly influenced by derivative theories that promote the therapeutic relationship. Clinical observations suggest that the application of analytic aggression has diminished and that many modern treatments may have become overly skewed towards empathic approaches. This paper explores ethical humanism, Jamesian typology, and feminine psychology, as factors that have contributed to the diminished emphasis on analytic aggression in practice. Eastern myth and Buddhist psychology are used to explicate the core features of narcissistic mental structuring and to support the continued importance of analytic aggression in its treatment. Case material is examined to elucidate the benefits and limits of analytic aggression. [source]


    Empathy Is Associated With Dynamic Change in Prefrontal Brain Electrical Activity During Positive Emotion in Children

    CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 4 2009
    Sharee N. Light
    Empathy is the combined ability to interpret the emotional states of others and experience resultant, related emotions. The relation between prefrontal electroencephalographic asymmetry and emotion in children is well known. The association between positive emotion (assessed via parent report), empathy (measured via observation), and second-by-second brain electrical activity (recorded during a pleasurable task) was investigated using a sample of one hundred twenty-eight 6- to 10-year-old children. Contentment related to increasing left frontopolar activation (p < .05). Empathic concern and positive empathy related to increasing right frontopolar activation (ps < .05). A second form of positive empathy related to increasing left dorsolateral activation (p < .05). This suggests that positive affect and (negative and positive) empathy both relate to changes in prefrontal activity during a pleasurable task. [source]


    The relationship of emotional intelligence with academic intelligence and the Big Five

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY, Issue 2 2002
    Karen Van der Zee
    The present study examines the relationship of self- and other ratings of emotional intelligence with academic intelligence and personality, as well as the incremental validity of emotional intelligence beyond academic intelligence and personality in predicting academic and social success. A sample of 116 students filled in measures for emotional and academic intelligence, the Big Five, and indicators of social and academic success. Moreover, other ratings were obtained from four different raters on emotional intelligence and social success. Factor analysis revealed three emotional intelligence dimensions that were labelled as ,Empathy', ,Autonomy', and ,Emotional Control'. Little evidence was found for a relationship between emotional and academic intelligence. Academic intelligence was low and inconsistently related to emotional intelligence, revealing both negative and positive interrelations. Strong relationships were found of the emotional intelligence dimensions with the Big Five, particularly with Extraversion and Emotional Stability. Interestingly, the emotional intelligence dimensions were able to predict both academic and social success above traditional indicators of academic intelligence and personality. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Mediation and feminism: Common values and challenges

    CONFLICT RESOLUTION QUARTERLY, Issue 1 2000
    Marsha Lichtenstein
    Mediation, and transformative mediation in particular, share several values, despite feminist criticisms of mediation. This article discusses three of the elements that mediation and feminism share. Both promote self-determination, both encourage strengthening values such as empathy and caring in the public sphere, and both deal with the issue of power and have attempted to redefine power to include behaviors other than dominance. Because feminism has gone through the growing pains of shifting from a homogeneous and middle-class movement to a colorful pluralistic social movement, it may serve as a model for the mediation movement as it expands and faces the demands of a demo-graphically diverse constituency. [source]


    A classification of risk factors in serious juvenile offenders and the relation between patterns of risk factors and recidivism

    CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR AND MENTAL HEALTH, Issue 1 2010
    Eva Mulder
    Background,There has been a lot of research on risk factors for recidivism among juvenile offenders, in general, and on individual risk factors, but less focus on subgroups of serious juvenile offenders and prediction of recidivism within these. Objective,To find an optimal classification of risk items and to test the predictive value of the resultant factors with respect to severity of recidivism among serious juvenile offenders. Method,Seventy static and dynamic risk factors in 1154 juvenile offenders were registered with the Juvenile Forensic Profile. Recidivism data were collected on 728 of these offenders with a time at risk of at least 2 years. After factor analysis, independent sample t-tests were used to indicate differences between recidivists and non-recidivists. Logistic multiple linear regression analyses were used to test the potential predictive value of the factors for violent or serious recidivism. Results,A nine-factor solution best accounted for the data. The factors were: antisocial behaviour during treatment, sexual problems, family problems, axis-1 psychopathology, offence characteristics, conscience and empathy, intellectual and social capacities, social network, and substance abuse. Regression analysis showed that the factors antisocial behaviour during treatment, family problems and axis-1 psychopathology were associated with seriousness of recidivism. Conclusions and implications for practice,The significance of family problems and antisocial behaviour during treatments suggest that specific attention to these factors may be important in reducing recidivism. The fact that antisocial behaviour during treatment consists mainly of dynamic risk factors is hopeful as these can be influenced by treatment. Consideration of young offenders by subgroup rather than as a homogenous population is likely to yield the best information about risk of serious re-offending and the management of that risk. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Inhibition deficits of serious delinquent boys of low intelligence

    CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR AND MENTAL HEALTH, Issue 5 2007
    Roos Koolhof
    Introduction,Studies have shown that low intelligence (IQ) and delinquency are strongly associated. This study focuses on inhibitory deficits as the source for the association between low IQ and delinquency. Further, the authors explore whether serious delinquent boys with a low IQ are exposed to more risk factors than serious delinquent boys with an average to high IQ. They also examine the extent to which low IQ and higher IQ serious delinquents incurred contact with the juvenile court because of their delinquent behaviour. Methods,Cross-sectional and longitudinal data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study were used to constitute four groups of boys: low IQ serious delinquents (n = 39), higher IQ serious delinquents (n = 149), low IQ non-to-moderate delinquents (n = 21) and higher IQ non-to-moderate delinquents (n = 219). Results,Low IQ serious delinquents committed more delinquent acts than higher IQ serious offenders. Low IQ serious delinquent boys also exhibited the highest levels of cognitive and behavioural impulsivity. There were no differences between low IQ and higher IQ serious delinquents on measures of empathy and guilt feelings. Instead, elevations on these characteristics were associated with serious offenders as a whole. Compared with higher IQ serious delinquents, low IQ serious delinquents were exposed to more risk factors, such as low academic achievement, being old for grade, depressed mood and poor housing. Conclusions,Inhibition deficits appear important in the aetiology of delinquency, especially among low IQ boys. Serious delinquent boys are all impulsive, but the higher IQ serious delinquents seem to have a better cognitive control system. Interventions aimed at low IQ boys should focus on the remediation of behavioural impulsivity as well as cognitive impulsivity. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    The Anticipated Utility of Zoos for Developing Moral Concern in Children

    CURATOR THE MUSEUM JOURNAL, Issue 4 2009
    John Fraser
    It proposes a new theory regarding the psychological value of such experiences for the development of identity. The study used a constructivist grounded theory approach to explore parenting perspectives on the value of zoo visits undertaken by eight families from three adjacent inner-city neighborhoods in a major American city. The results suggest that parents use zoo visits as tools for promoting family values. These parents felt that experiences with live animals were necessary to encourage holistic empathy, to extend children's sense of justice to include natural systems, and to model the importance of family relationships. The author concludes that parents find zoos useful as a tool for helping their children to develop skills with altruism, to transfer environmental values, to elevate children's self-esteem, and to inculcate social norms that they believe will aid in their children's social success in the future. [source]


    Internet forums: a self-help approach for individuals with schizophrenia?

    ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 6 2005
    H. Haker
    Objective:, To study if and how online self-help forums for individuals with schizophrenia are used. Method:, We analysed 1200 postings of 576 users in 12 international schizophrenia forums regarding communicative skills [fields of interest and self-help mechanisms (SHM)]. Results:, The forums were predominantly used by affected individuals, few relatives or friends. The fields of interest of the users concern daily problems of the illness like symptoms and emotional involvement with the illness. Self-help mechanisms mostly used are disclosure and providing information. Emotional interaction e.g. empathy or gratitude were comparatively rare. Conclusion:, Individuals suffering from schizophrenia participate in online self-help forums using the same SHM, discussing similar topics as do individuals with other psychiatric disorders as well as not affected relatives and caregivers. Therefore, this tool seems to be a useful approach to cope with alienation and isolation, albeit only a small number of schizophrenia forums are found in the Internet. [source]


    When smokers are resistant to change: experimental analysis of the effect of patient resistance on practitioner behaviour

    ADDICTION, Issue 8 2005
    Nick Francis
    ABSTRACT Aims In the field of motivational interviewing, practitioner confrontational behaviour has been associated with lower levels of patient behaviour change. We set out to explore whether resistance to change among smokers affects practitioner confrontational and other behaviours. Design Experimental manipulation of levels of patient resistance in a role play. Setting The study was conducted at the start of a 2-day health behaviour change workshop. Participants Thirty-two practitioners who had registered for the workshop. Intervention The practitioners were assigned randomly to interview a standardized patient (actor) who portrayed a smoker who had been briefed to display either high or low levels of resistance to change. Measurements Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. Practitioners and standardized patients completed interview ratings at the end of each interview. After listening to each taped interview practitioners were assigned a global score for confrontation, empathy and expert instructional style. Interviews were then submitted to a qualitative analysis. Findings Higher levels of practitioner confrontational behaviour were observed in the high resistance group. This was evident both from the global scores (median 2 versus 0, P = 0.001) and the qualitative analysis. Global scores for empathy and expert instruction were not significantly different. Qualitative analysis also suggests a pervasive negative impact on other practitioner behaviours. Conclusions Higher patient resistance probably leads to an increase in confrontational and other negative behaviours in health professionals attempting to promote behaviour change. This challenges important assumptions about the influence of practitioner behaviour on patient behaviour and subsequent health-related outcomes. [source]


    On the Problem of Empathy: The Case of Yap, Federated States of Micronesia

    ETHOS, Issue 4 2008
    C. Jason Throop
    After briefly examining foundational philosophical definitions of empathy, the article advances a number of differing cultural phenomenological orientations implicated in the experience and expression of empathy. These orientations are understood to help to foreground the place of empathy in what may otherwise be viewed as a general reluctance to engage in empathetic attunement in Yapese society. [empathy, cultural phenomenology, morality, suffering, Yap] [source]