Emotional Experience (emotional + experience)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Psychology


Selected Abstracts


Starting a New Job: The Social and Emotional Experience of People with Intellectual Disabilities

JOURNAL OF APPLIED RESEARCH IN INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES, Issue 5 2009
Andrew Jahoda
Background, Employment is viewed by policy makers as both a human right and as a means of changing the marginalized status of people with intellectual disabilities, with important social and emotional benefits. However, there has been little longitudinal research examining the experience of people with intellectual disabilities in the workplace. Methods, Thirty-five individuals with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities participated in this study. They were recruited from supported employment agencies in Scotland. A longitudinal approach was adopted, with the participants being interviewed around the time of starting their jobs, and again 9,12 months later. Results, The content analyses of the semi-structured interviews indicated that the participants perceived continuing benefits from entering mainstream employment, including more purposeful lives and increased social status. However, over the follow-up period the participants reported few social opportunities that extended beyond the workplace, and an anxiety about their competence to meet employers' demands remained a concern for some. Conclusions, The discussion addresses the importance of understanding work in relation to the participants' wider lives, along with the longer-term role for supported employment agencies to help people achieve their social and emotional goals in a vocational context. [source]


Bilingual Minds: Emotional Experience, Expression and Representation, Edited by Aneta Pavlenko

JOURNAL OF SOCIOLINGUISTICS, Issue 1 2007
Susanne Niemeier
[source]


Emotional Experiences and Motivating Factors Associated with Fingerprint Analysis

JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, Issue 2 2010
David Charlton Ug.
Abstract:, In this study, we investigated the emotional and motivational factors involved in fingerprint analysis in day-to-day routine case work and in significant and harrowing criminal investigations. Thematic analysis was performed on interviews with 13 experienced fingerprint examiners from a variety of law enforcement agencies. The data revealed factors relating to job satisfaction and the use of skill. Individual satisfaction related to catching criminals was observed; this was most notable in solving high profile, serious, or long-running cases. There were positive emotional effects associated with matching fingerprints and apparent fear of making errors. Finally, we found evidence for a need of cognitive closure in fingerprint examiner decision-making. [source]


Adolescents' Emotional Experiences of Mother,Adolescent Conflict Predict Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms

JOURNAL OF RESEARCH ON ADOLESCENCE, Issue 4 2008
Meredith L. Gunlicks-Stoessel
Research on adolescent emotion has generally focused on expressions of emotion; however, there are reasons to believe that adolescents' experiences of emotion may be related to adolescent development in unique and important ways. This study examined the relation of adolescents' emotional experiences of conflict with their mothers to their internalizing and externalizing symptoms at three time points, each a year apart. After participating in videotaped conflict negotiation tasks with their mothers, adolescents (N=80) watched the videotape of their interactions and used a joystick to make continuous ratings of how negative, positive, or neutral they felt during the discussions. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was used to assess relations among their continuous emotion ratings and their internalizing and externalizing symptoms 1 year before the interaction task, at the time of the interaction task, and 1 year later. Adolescents' externalizing symptoms at the time of the conflict task were associated with negative emotion that decreased across the conflict discussion. Relations between emotional experience and internalizing symptoms a year later were moderated by adolescent gender, revealing that a tolerance for increasing negative emotion predicts fewer future internalizing symptoms for girls. The importance of adolescents' ability to tolerate negative emotion during normal developmental conflicts is discussed. [source]


Influence of parental deprivation on the behavioral development in Octodon degus: Modulation by maternal vocalizations

DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOBIOLOGY, Issue 3 2003
Katharina Braun
Abstract Repeated separation from the family during very early stages of life is a stressful emotional experience which induces a variety of neuronal and synaptic changes in limbic cortical areas that may be related to behavioral alterations. First, we investigated whether repeated parental separation and handling, without separation from the family, leads to altered spontaneous exploratory behavior in a novel environment (open field test) in 8-day-old Octodon degus. Second, we tested whether the parentally deprived and handled animals display different stimulus-evoked exploratory behaviors in a modified open field version, in which a positive emotional stimulus, the maternal call, was presented. In the open field test a significant influence of previous emotional experience was found for the parameters of running, rearing, and vocalization. Parentally deprived degus displayed increased horizontal (running) and vertical (rearing) motoric activities, but decreased vocalization, compared to normal and handled controls. The presentation of maternal vocalizations significantly modified running, vocalization, and grooming activities, which in the case of running activity was dependent on previous emotional experience. Both deprivation-induced locomotor hyperactivity together with the reduced behavioral response towards a familiar acoustic emotional signal are similar to behavioral disturbances observed in human attachment disorders. 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 42: 237,245, 2003. [source]


Decomposing the construct of ambivalence over emotional expression in a Chinese cultural context

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY, Issue 3 2005
Sylvia Xiaohua Chen
The present study examined the construct of ambivalence over emotional expression proposed by King and Emmons (1990) in the Chinese context, and identified a factor structure different from those proposed in previous Western studies. The results of this study provided discriminant validity for this newly extracted two-factor structure of ambivalence, viz., Emotional Rumination and Emotional Suppression. Emotional Rumination was significantly predicted by the personality scales of introversion and inferiority, and the belief dimension of fate control, whereas Emotional Suppression was predicted by the personality scales of diversity, face, and harmony, and the belief dimension of social complexity. The different effects of Emotional Rumination and Emotional Suppression in predicting life satisfaction showed that emotional experience has its own specific characteristics in Chinese culture, and that responding to its emic characteristics will yield a more culturally responsive understanding of emotional experience and expression. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Neurotoxins in the Neurobiology of Pain

HEADACHE, Issue 2003
Stephen D. Silberstein MD
Migraine is a common, chronic, incapacitating, neurovascular disorder that affects an estimated 12% of the population. Understanding the basic mechanisms of pain is important when treating patients with chronic pain disorders. Pain, an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience, is usually triggered by stimulation of peripheral nerves and often associated with actual or potential tissue damage. Peripheral nerve fibers transmit pain signals from the periphery toward the spinal cord or brain stem. The different diameter pain fibers (A and C) vary in the speed of conduction and the type of pain transmitted (eg, sharp versus dull). When stimulated, peripheral pain fibers carrying sensory input from the body enter at different layers of the dorsal horn, which is then propagated toward the thalamus via the spinothalamic tract within the spinal cord. Conversely, sensory input from the face does not enter the spinal cord but enters the brain stem via the trigeminal nerve. This review describes in detail the neurobiological mechanisms and pathways for pain sensation, with a focus on migraine pain. [source]


Competitive interactions between endogenous LTD and LTP in the hippocampus underlie the storage of emotional memories and stress-induced amnesia

HIPPOCAMPUS, Issue 8 2005
David M. Diamond
Abstract This speculative review serves two purposes. First, it as an extension of the ideas we developed in a previous review (Diamond et al., Hippocampus, 2004;14:281,291), and second, it is a rebuttal to Abraham's (Hippocampus, 2004;14:675,676) critique of that review. We had speculated on the functional significance of the finding that post-training LTP induction produces retrograde amnesia. We noted the similarities between the findings that strong tetanizing stimulation can produce LTP and retrograde amnesia, and that a strong emotional experience can produce a long-lasting memory and retrograde amnesia, as well. The commonalities between LTP induction and emotional learning provided the basis of our hypothesis that an emotional experience generates endogenous LTD/depotentiation, which reverses synaptic plasticity formed during previous learning experiences, and endogenous LTP, which underlies the storage of new information. Abraham raised several concerns with our review, including the criticism that our speculation "falters because there is no evidence that stress causes LTD or depotentiation," and that research on stress and hippocampus has "failed to report any LTP-like changes." Abraham's points are well-taken because stress, in isolation, does not appear to generate long-lasting changes in baseline measures of hippocampal excitability. Here, within the context of a reply to Abraham's critique, we have provided a review of the literature on the influence of stress, novelty, fear conditioning, and the retrieval of emotional memories on cognitive and physiological measures of hippocampal functioning. An emphasis of this review is our hypothesis that endogenous forms of depotentiation, LTD and LTP are generated only when arousing experiences occur in conjunction with memory-related activation of the hippocampus and amygdala. We conclude with speculation that interactions among the different forms of endogenous plasticity underlie a form of competition by synapses and memories for access to retrieval resources. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Mirror exposure for the treatment of body image disturbance

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 2 2006
Sherrie Selwyn Delinsky PhD
Abstract Objective Body image disturbance is a risk factor for the development and persistence of eating disorders. Limitations of current treatments for body image disturbance prompted the development of a mirror exposure (ME) treatment. Method ME involves deliberate, planned, and systematic exposure to body image. The approach is nonjudgmental, holistic in focus, and mindful of present emotional experience. Complementary behavioral assignments aim to reduce avoidance and excessive checking. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of ME therapy (in a three-session format) compared with a nondirective (ND) therapy for 45 women with extreme weight and shape concerns. Results ME resulted in significant improvements at termination and follow-up in body checking and avoidance, weight and shape concerns, body dissatisfaction, dieting, depression, and self-esteem. As hypothesized, ME was significantly better than ND on many of the outcome measures. Conclusion ME is an effective treatment for body image disturbance and should be evaluated in the context of treatments for eating disorders. 2005 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


Experiencing Conversations: Bridging the Gap between Discourse and Activity

JOURNAL FOR THE THEORY OF SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR, Issue 3 2008
ANNALISA SANNINO
ABSTRACT The article introduces the Vygotskian tradition in the realist theoretical discussion of the structure-agency problem. Archer's concept of internal conversation is discussed in terms of internalization and externalization of conversational dynamics. The article addresses in particular the methodological issue of observing how external events trigger internal use of language, and how these internal dynamics are externalized. The experience of talk is proposed as a conceptual key to the understanding of internal conversations and of the relation between structured activity and agency. The experience of talk is defined with the help of the notions of emotional experience, personal sense and inner speech, as they are conceptualized in activity theory and in particular in the works of L.S. Vygotsky and A.N. Leont'ev. Students' experiences of critical conversational events with teachers are analyzed on the basis of written autobiographical accounts. The experience of talk emerges from the analysis as a form of emotional experience in which the horizon of the individual's subjective view relates to specific circumstances external to the individual. Autobiographical accounts of critical conversations are suggested as a type of data which allows access to the experience of talk. [source]


Activating the corrective emotional experience

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 5 2006
Michael R. Bridges
Since the concept of the corrective emotional experience was first introduced, an impressive body of research has supported the contention that patient in-session processing of painful emotional conflicts within a safe and empathic relationship is necessary for therapeutic change. In this article, I summarize what we know about how emotions can be accessed, expressed, and processed within the therapeutic relationship to bring about a corrective emotional experience. I then provide clinical vignettes and data on three patients, all of whom displayed distinct patterns of arousal, experience, expression, and depth of processing that were differentially related to outcome in short-term emotion-focused therapy. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol: In Session 62: 551,568, 2006. [source]


Perspective on Personality: The Relative Accuracy of Self Versus Others for the Prediction of Emotion and Behavior

JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY, Issue 5 2000
Jana S. Spain
This study compares the relative accuracy of targets' self-reports and other-reports of personality in predicting two criteria: (a) emotional experience in daily life and (b) behavior in the laboratory. Ratings of the targets' extraversion and neuroticism were obtained from two knowledgeable informants and the targets themselves. Target participants wore an electronic signaling device (,beeper') for eight days and rated positive and negative emotions at four randomly selected times each day. The participants also interacted with an opposite-sex stranger in a laboratory context and their behavior was coded from videotapes. Targets' self-reports of personality were consistently more accurate than other-reports in predicting daily emotional experience. Self- reports also outperformed other-reports in predicting extraversion-related laboratory behaviors, but not neuroticism-related behaviors. The relative accuracy of self- and other-reports of personality would seem to depend on the criterion employed; self-reports are clearly better for the prediction of emotional experience, while for behavior the picture is mixed. [source]


Adolescents' Emotional Experiences of Mother,Adolescent Conflict Predict Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms

JOURNAL OF RESEARCH ON ADOLESCENCE, Issue 4 2008
Meredith L. Gunlicks-Stoessel
Research on adolescent emotion has generally focused on expressions of emotion; however, there are reasons to believe that adolescents' experiences of emotion may be related to adolescent development in unique and important ways. This study examined the relation of adolescents' emotional experiences of conflict with their mothers to their internalizing and externalizing symptoms at three time points, each a year apart. After participating in videotaped conflict negotiation tasks with their mothers, adolescents (N=80) watched the videotape of their interactions and used a joystick to make continuous ratings of how negative, positive, or neutral they felt during the discussions. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was used to assess relations among their continuous emotion ratings and their internalizing and externalizing symptoms 1 year before the interaction task, at the time of the interaction task, and 1 year later. Adolescents' externalizing symptoms at the time of the conflict task were associated with negative emotion that decreased across the conflict discussion. Relations between emotional experience and internalizing symptoms a year later were moderated by adolescent gender, revealing that a tolerance for increasing negative emotion predicts fewer future internalizing symptoms for girls. The importance of adolescents' ability to tolerate negative emotion during normal developmental conflicts is discussed. [source]


The Emotional Climate of Nations and Their Culture of Peace

JOURNAL OF SOCIAL ISSUES, Issue 2 2007
Joseph De Rivera
Societies seem to have emotional climates that affect how people feel and act in public situations. Unlike the emotions experienced in an individual's personal life, these modal feelings reflect a collective response to the socio-economic-political situation of the society and influence how most people behave toward one another and their government. A government may foster a climate of fear to ensure social control, or it may encourage the formation of heterogeneous social groups to facilitate a climate of trust between people from different groups. On one hand, emotional climates may be viewed as reflecting the relative peacefulness or violence of a society. Thus, an assessment of emotional climate may provide a subjective index of human security to complement objective measures of democracy, human rights, equality, and other factors that we presume are beneficial to human welfare. On the other hand, we may view emotional climates as influences that act to further or to impede the development of the culture of peace advocated by the General Assembly of the United Nations. Thus, their assessment may have predictive power, and measuring a society's emotional climate may help us to create desirable policy. In this article we show that it is possible to measure some important aspects of the emotional climates of three nations that have different degrees of a culture of peace: Norway, the United States, and India. We show that estimates of the collective emotions that constitute climate can be distinguished from reports of personal emotions in that the former are more influenced by nation and the latter by social class. It is the subjective experience of national emotional climate, rather than personal emotional experience, that appears most related to objective indices for the culture of peace in the different nations. [source]


God Image and Happiness in Chronic Pain Patients: The Mediating Role of Disease Interpretation

PAIN MEDICINE, Issue 5 2010
Jessie Dezutter dra
Abstract Objective., The present study explored the role of the emotional experience of God (i.e., positive and negative God images) in the happiness of chronic pain (CP) patients. Framed in the transactional model of stress, we tested a model in which God images would influence happiness partially through its influence on disease interpretation as a mediating mechanism. We expected God images to have both a direct and an indirect (through the interpretation of disease) effect on happiness. Design., A cross-sectional questionnaire design was adopted in order to measure demographics, pain condition, God images, disease interpretation, and happiness. One hundred thirty-six CP patients, all members of a national patients' association, completed the questionnaires. Results., Correlational analyses showed meaningful associations among God images, disease interpretation, and happiness. Path analyses from a structural equation modeling approach indicated that positive God images seemed to influence happiness, both directly and indirectly through the pathway of positive interpretation of the disease. Ancillary analyses showed that the negative influence of angry God images on happiness disappeared after controlling for pain severity. Conclusion., The results indicated that one's emotional experience of God has an influence on happiness in CP patients, both directly and indirectly through the pathway of positive disease interpretation. These findings can be framed within the transactional theory of stress and can stimulate further pain research investigating the possible effects of religion in the adaptation to CP. [source]


Virtual friend or threat?

PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, Issue 5 2009
The effects of facial expression, emotional experience, gaze interaction on psychophysiological responses
Abstract The present study aimed to investigate the impact of facial expression, gaze interaction, and gender on attention allocation, physiological arousal, facial muscle responses, and emotional experience in simulated social interactions. Participants viewed animated virtual characters varying in terms of gender, gaze interaction, and facial expression. We recorded facial EMG, fixation duration, pupil size, and subjective experience. Subject's rapid facial reactions (RFRs) differentiated more clearly between the character's happy and angry expression in the condition of mutual eye-to-eye contact. This finding provides evidence for the idea that RFRs are not simply motor responses, but part of an emotional reaction. Eye movement data showed that fixations were longer in response to both angry and neutral faces than to happy faces, thereby suggesting that attention is preferentially allocated to cues indicating potential threat during social interaction. [source]


Cardiovascular, electrodermal, and respiratory response patterns to fear- and sadness-inducing films

PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, Issue 5 2007
Sylvia D. Kreibig
Abstract Responses to fear- and sadness-inducing films were assessed using a broad range of cardiovascular (heart rate, T-wave amplitude, low- and high-frequency heart rate variability, stroke volume, preejection period, left-ventricular ejection time, Heather index, blood pressure, pulse amplitude and transit time, and finger temperature), electrodermal (level, response rate, and response amplitude), and respiratory (rate, tidal volume and its variability, inspiratory flow rate, duty cycle, and end-tidal pCO2) measures. Subjective emotional experience and facial behavior (Corrugator Supercilii and Zygomaticus Major EMG) served as control measures. Results indicated robust differential physiological response patterns for fear, sadness, and neutral (mean classification accuracy 85%). Findings are discussed in terms of the fight,flight and conservation,withdrawal responses and possible limitations of a valence-arousal categorization of emotion in affective space. [source]


Modulation of spinal reflexes by aversive and sexually appetitive stimuli

PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, Issue 2 2003
Stephanie Both
Abstract In this study, modulation of spinal tendinous (T) reflexes by sexual stimulation was investigated. T reflexes are augmented in states of appetitive and defensive action and modified by differences in arousal intensity. Reflexes were expected to be facilitated by both pleasant (sexual) and unpleasant (anxiety) stimuli. Subjects were exposed to a sexual, an anxiety-inducing, a sexually threatening, and a neutral film excerpt. Genital arousal, emotional experience, subjective action tendencies, and T reflexes were monitored. Self-report and genital data confirmed the affective states as intended. T reflex amplitude significantly increased during viewing of emotionally arousing film excerpts as compared with a neutral film excerpt. T reflexes were facilitated by the sex stimulus to the same extent as by the anxiety and sexual threat stimuli. The results support the view of sexual arousal as an emotional state, generating sex-specific autonomic and general somatic motor system responses, which prepare the organism for action. [source]


The logic of turmoil: Some epistemological and clinical considerations on emotional experience and the infinite

THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOANALYSIS, Issue 4 2008
Pietro Bria
The idea of the infinite has its origins in the very beginnings of western philosophy and was developed significantly by modern philosophers such as Galileo and Leibniz. Freud discovered the Unconscious which does not respect the laws of classical logic, flouting its fundamental principle of non-contradiction. This opened the way to a new epistemology in which classical logic coexists with an aberrant logic of infinite affects. Matte Blanco reorganized this Freudian revolution in logic and introduced the concept of bi-logic, which is an intermingling of symmetric and Aristotelic logics. The authors explore some epistemological and clinical aspects of the functioning of the deep unconscious where the emergence of infinity threatens to overwhelm the containing function of thought, connecting this topic to some of Bion's propositions. They then suggest that bodily experiences can be considered a prime source of the logic of turmoil, and link a psychoanalytic consideration of the infinite to the mind,body relation. Emotional catastrophe is seen both as a defect,a breakdown of the unfolding function which translates unconscious material into conscious experience,and as the consequence of affective bodily pressures. These pressures function in turn as symmetrizing or infinitizing operators. Two clinical vignettes are presented to exemplify the hypotheses. [source]


On holding and containing, being and dreaming

THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOANALYSIS, Issue 6 2004
THOMAS H. OGDEN
Winnicott's concept of holding and Bion's idea of the container-contained are for each of these analysts among his most important contributions to psychoanalytic thought. In this light, it is ironic that the two sets of ideas are so frequently misunderstood and confused with one another. In this paper, the author delineates what he believes to be the critical aspects of each of these concepts and illustrates the way in which he uses these ideas in his clinical work. Winnicott's holding is seen as an ontological concept that is primarily concerned with being and its relationship to time. Initially the mother safeguards the infant's continuity of being, in part by insulating him from the ,not-me' aspect of time. Maturation entails the infant's gradually internalizing the mother's holding of the continuity of his being over time and emotional fl ux. By contrast, Bion's container-contained is centrally concerned with the processing (dreaming) of thoughts derived from lived emotional experience. The idea of the container-contained addresses the dynamic interaction of predominantly unconscious thoughts (the contained) and the capacity for dreaming and thinking those thoughts (the container). [source]


The seventh servant: The implications of a truth drive in Bions theory of ,O'

THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOANALYSIS, Issue 5 2004
JAMES S. GROTSTEIN
Drawing upon Bion's published works on the subjects of truth, dreaming, alpha-function and transformations in ,O', the author independently postulates that there exists a ,truth instinctual drive' that subserves a truth principle, the latter of which is associated with the reality principle. Further, he suggests, following Bion's postulation, that ,alpha-function' and dreaming/phantasying constitute unconscious thinking processes and that they mediate the activity of this ,truth drive' (quest, pulsion), which the author hypothesizes constitutes another aspect of a larger entity that also includes the epistemophilic component drive. It purportedly seeks and transmits as well as includes what Bion (1965, pp. 147-9) calls ,O', the ,Absolute Truth, Ultimate Reality, O' (also associated with infi nity, noumena or things-in-themselves, and ,godhead') (1970, p. 26). It is further hypothesized that the truth drive functions in collaboration with an ,unconscious consciousness' that is associated with the faculty of ,attention', which is also known as ,intuition'. It is responsive to internal psychical reality and constitutes Bion's ,seventh servant'. O, the ultimate landscape of psychoanalysis, has many dimensions, but the one that seems to interest Bion is that of the emotional experience of the analysand's and the analyst's ,evolving O' respectively (1970, p. 52) during the analytic session. The author thus hypothesizes that a sense of truth presents itself to the subject as a quest for truth which has the quality and force of an instinctual drive and constitutes the counterpart to the epistemophilic drive. This ,truth quest' or ,drive' is hypothesized to be the source of the generation of the emotional truth of one's ongoing experiences, both conscious and unconscious. It is proposed that emotions are beacons of truth in regard to the acceptance of reality. The concepts of an emotional truth drive and a truth principle would help us understand why analysands are able to accept analysts' interpretations that favor the operation of the reality principle over the pleasure principle,because of what is postulated as their overriding adaptive need for truth. Ultimately, it would seem that Bion's legacy of truth aims at integrating fi nite man with infi nite man. [source]


Functions of remembering and misremembering emotion

APPLIED COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 8 2009
Linda J. Levine
Memory for the emotions evoked by past events guides people's ongoing behaviour and future plans. Evidence indicates that emotions are represented in at least two forms in memory with different properties. Explicit memories of emotion can be retrieved deliberately, in a flexible manner, across situations. Implicit memories of emotion are brought to mind automatically by cues resembling the context in which an emotional event occurred. One property they share, however, is that both types of memory are subject to forgetting and bias over time as people's goals and appraisals of past emotional events change. This article reviews the cognitive and motivational mechanisms that underlie stability and change in memory for emotion. We also address functions that remembering and misremembering emotion may serve for individuals and groups. Although memory bias is typically viewed as problematic, changes in representations of emotional experience often promote goal-directed behaviour and facilitate coping with challenging situations. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Regression and Reorganization of Intonation Between 6 and 23 Months

CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 2 2006
David Snow
The purpose of this study was to describe the pattern in which English-speaking children acquire intonation. A second goal was to account for emerging intonation from a theoretical perspective. Six groups of 10 children each between the ages of 6 and 23 months participated in individual play sessions with their mothers and an experimenter. Pitch contours were acoustically analyzed in monosyllabic utterances produced by each child. The observed nonlinear shape of intonation development suggested a linguistically based pattern of regression and reorganization. However, the precocious expression of intonation in the youngest infants also pointed to the role of physiological universals and emotional experience. It is concluded that children's early intonation reflects biological, affective, and linguistic influences. [source]


An exploration of emotion regulation in psychosis

CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHOTHERAPY (AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF THEORY & PRACTICE), Issue 5 2009
Karen Livingstone
Abstract The emotional experience of individuals who experience psychosis has historically been neglected, possibly due to the divide between the psychoses and neuroses. This study examined emotional experience and regulation in individuals who had experienced psychosis, individuals experiencing anxiety or mood disorders, and non-patient controls. Participants completed validated measures of emotional experience and emotion regulation. Both clinical groups were found to experience similar levels of emotions, and in comparison to the non-patient controls, they experienced greater levels of negatively valenced emotions and lower levels of happiness. Both clinical groups also used similar emotion regulation strategies, and in comparison to non-patient controls, they used significantly more dysfunctional and less functional strategies, suggesting that the emotional experience and emotion regulation strategies of people who have experienced psychosis are more similar to non-psychotic disorders than have previously been thought to be the case. The theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key Practitioner Message: , Individuals with psychosis experience similar emotions as individuals with anxiety and mood disorders, namely more unhappiness, fear and less happiness. , People with psychosis attempt to regulate these emotions in similar ways to people with mood and anxiety problems, by using more dysfunctional emotional regulation strategies such as ruminating. , Clinicians may want to pay closer attention to assessing the emotion regulation strategies of those who experience psychosis and consider the implications of these in therapy. , They may also want to consider the role emotional dysregulation may play in the development, maintenance and course of psychosis. , An emotion regulation approach to psychosis may be characterised by focussing on emotional experiences and the individual's response to these, as opposed to psychotic symptoms. [source]


,Nothing that feels bad is ever the last step:' the role of positive emotions in experiential work with difficult emotional experiences

CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHOTHERAPY (AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF THEORY & PRACTICE), Issue 1 2004
Diana Fosha
The goal of this paper is to show (i) how the moment-to-moment tracking and processing of emotion to completion,in an emotionally engaged patient,therapist dyad where the individual feels safe and known,constitutes a powerful mechanism of therapeutic transformation, and (ii) how positive emotions are sensitive affective markers of that transformational process. Evidence from transformational studies is used to elaborate the vital role of positive emotions in the process of change in general, and, more specifically, in the course of therapeutic work with painful and overwhelming emotional experience. It is proposed that these emergent positive emotions are affective markers which signal the operation of healing transformational processes in psychotherapy. Several types of positive emotion that arise spontaneously during moment-to-moment experiential therapeutic work will be described and their role as markers of different transformational processes will be elucidated. The paper begins with examples of clinical work with emotion in AEDP (Accelerated Experiential,Dynamic Psychotherapy), an emotion-focused and attachment-based model of therapy that places the dyadic regulation of affect at the centre of both theory and practice.,Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Depression in Long-Term Care: Contrasting a Disease Model with Attention to Environmental Impact

CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY: SCIENCE AND PRACTICE, Issue 3 2005
Antonette M. Zeiss
The preceding review of depression in long-term care (LTC settings recognizes the prevalence of depression in LTC, addresses problems in assessment of depression, and examines empirical literature on the effectiveness of psychotherapy for depression. This commentary expands on the preceding review by focusing on a theoretical understanding of depression and how that understanding can inform treatment recommendations. The basic argument presented is that psychologists could best serve older adults in LTC settings by extending beyond traditional approaches to treatment of individuals who are depressed; psychologists can become good observers of the relationship of environmental factors in LTC to the internal emotional experience of depression, and then help to serve as change agents by collaborating in designing and implementing change in LTC environments. Such a radical shift could improve the quality of life for LTC residents. It also offers the possibility of defining theoretical linkages among external environmental variables, cognitive understanding of them, and emotional experience that could inform depression theory generally. [source]


Applying an Emotion Regulation Framework to Integrative Approaches to Generalized Anxiety Disorder

CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY: SCIENCE AND PRACTICE, Issue 1 2002
Douglas S. Mennin
Integrative conceptualizations like that proposed by Roemer and Orsillo provide exciting new directions for understanding and treating generalized anxiety disorder (CAD). However, these approaches may be further strengthened by adoption of an emotion regulation perspective. Persons with CAD may have difficulty understanding their emotional experience and may possess few skills to modulate their emotions. They may experience emotions as subjectively aversive and use worry and maladaptive interpersonal behaviors as defensive strategies to control, avoid, or blunt emotional experience. An emotion regulation perspective suggests adding treatment components to help clients become more comfortable with arousing emotional experience, more able to access and utilize emotional information in adaptive problem solving, and better able to modulate emotional experience and expression according to contextual demands. [source]


Conceptual background, development, and preliminary data from the unified protocol for transdiagnostic treatment of emotional disorders,

DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY, Issue 10 2010
Zofia A. Wilamowska M.A.
Abstract Anxiety and mood disorders are common, chronic, costly, and characterized by high comorbidity. The development of cognitive behavioral approaches to treating anxiety and mood disorders has left us with highly efficacious treatments that are increasingly widely accepted. The proliferation of treatment manuals targeting single disorders, sometimes with trivial differences among them, leaves the mental health professional with no clear way to choose one manual over another and little chance of ever becoming familiar with most of them, let alone trained to competence in their delivery. Deepening understanding of the nature of emotional disorders reveals that commonalities in etiology and latent structures among these disorders supersedes differences. Based on empirical evidence from the domains of learning, emotional development and regulation, and cognitive science, we have distilled a set of psychological procedures that comprise a unified intervention for emotional disorders. The Unified Protocol (UP) is a transdiagnostic, emotion-focused cognitive behavioral treatment, which emphasizes the adaptive, functional nature of emotions, and seeks to identify and correct maladaptive attempts to regulate emotional experiences, thereby facilitating appropriate processing and extinction of excessive emotional responding to both internal (somatic) and external cues. The treatment components of the UP are briefly outlined. Theory and rationale supporting this new approach are described along with some preliminary evidence supporting its efficacy. Implications for the treatment of emotional disorders using the UP are discussed. Depression and Anxiety, 2010. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Learning from research on the information behaviour of healthcare professionals: a review of the literature 2004,2008 with a focus on emotion

HEALTH INFORMATION & LIBRARIES JOURNAL, Issue 3 2009
Ina Fourie
Objective:, A review, focusing on emotion, was conducted of reported studies on the information behaviour of healthcare professionals (2004,2008). Findings were intended to offer guidelines on information services and information literacy training, to note gaps in research and to raise research interest. Method:, Databases were searched for literature published from January 2004 to December 2008 and indexed on eric, Library and Information Science Abstracts, medline, PsycINFO, Social Services Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition; Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts; Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection; Social Work Abstracts; SocINDEX with Full Text; SPORTDiscus; cinhal; and the ISI Web of Knowledge databases. Key journals were manually scanned and citations followed. Literature was included if reporting on issues concerning emotion. Results:, Emotion in information behaviour in healthcare contexts is scantily addressed. This review, however, offers some insight into the difficulty in identifying and expressing information needs; sense making and the need to fill knowledge gaps; uncertainty; personality and coping skills; motivation to seeking information; emotional experiences during information seeking; self-confidence and attitude; emotional factors in the selection of information channels; and seeking information for psychological or emotional reasons. Conclusion:, Suggestions following findings, address information literacy programs, information services and research gaps. [source]


Knowledge, attitudes and health outcomes in HIV-infected travellers to the USA

HIV MEDICINE, Issue 4 2006
M Mahto
Background The USA bans entry to non-citizens unless they obtain a waiver visa. Aim To establish how many people with HIV infection travelled to the USA, whether they were aware of the travel restriction, whether they travelled with a waiver visa and HIV inclusive medical insurance and how they managed with their antiretroviral medication (ARV). Design Collation of data from cross-sectional studies conducted independently at three different medical centres, Manchester, Brighton and London, using a structured self-completion questionnaire. Results The overall response rate was 66.6% (1113 respondents). 349 (31%) had travelled to the USA since testing HIV positive, of whom only 14.3% travelled with a waiver visa. 64% and 62% of the respondents at Manchester and Brighton were aware of the need of a waiver visa. 68.5% (212) were on ARV medication at the time of travel and, of these, 11.3% stopped their medication. Of those taking ARV medication, only 25% took a doctors' letter, 11.7% posted their medication in advance. Of those discontinuing treatment (n=27), 55.5% sought medical advice before stopping, 11 were on NNRTI-based regimen and one developed NNRTI-based mutation. Only 27% took up HIV inclusive medical insurance. Many patients reported negative practical and emotional experiences resulting from travel restrictions. Conclusion The majority of HIV patients travel to the USA without the waiver visa, with nearly half doing so with insufficient planning and advice. A significant minority (11.3%) stop their medication in an unplanned manner, risking the development of drug resistence. [source]