Emission Lines (emission + line)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Physics and Astronomy


Selected Abstracts


Gemini near-infrared integral field spectroscopy of the narrow-line region of ESO 428,G14: kinematics, excitation and the role of the radio jet

MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, Issue 1 2006
Rogemar A. Riffel
ABSTRACT We present two-dimensional (2D) gas kinematics and excitation of the inner 300 pc of the Seyfert galaxy ESO 428,G14 at a sampling of 14 pc2, from near-infrared spectroscopic observations at R, 6000 obtained with the Integral Field Unit (IFU) of the Gemini Near-Infrared Spectrograph. From measurements of fluxes and profiles of the emission lines [Fe ii],1.257 ,m, Pa,, H2, 2.121 ,m and Br,, we construct 2D maps of line intensities and ratios, radial velocities and velocity dispersions. Emission line ,tomography' is provided by velocity slices obtained across the line profiles, a unique capability of IFUs, which allows the mapping of not only the peak velocities but including also the wings. We compare these maps with a previously published high spatial resolution radio map and find a tight relation between the radio structure and the emission-line flux distributions and kinematics, revealing that the radio jet plays a fundamental role not only in shaping the narrow-line region but also in the imprint of its kinematics. Blueshifts of up to 400 km s,1 and velocity dispersions of up to 150 km s,1 are observed in association with the radio jet at a position angle (PA) = 129, which is also the PA of the photometric major axis of the galaxy. We conclude that the radio jet is launched at a small angle relative to the galactic plane, with the north-western side slightly oriented towards us. This angle is small enough for the radio jet to shock and compress the gas in the plane of the galaxy, and for the nuclear continuum to ionize and heat it. The distinct kinematics and flux distributions observed for the different emission lines suggest different origins for their emission. The [Fe ii] shows the largest blueshifts and velocity dispersions and its flux distribution is concentrated along the jet, while the H2 shows the lowest velocity dispersions and has additional flux contribution from regions beyond the jet. Both X-rays emitted by the active galactic nucleus and shocks produced by the radio jet can excite the H2 and [Fe ii] emission lines. We use the 2D velocity dispersion maps to estimate upper limits to the contribution of the radio jet to the excitation of [Fe ii] and H2 which may reach 90 per cent for [Fe ii] and 80 per cent for H2 in the jet region. The [Fe ii]/Pa, emission-line ratios and the association of the [Fe ii] flux distribution and kinematics with the radio structure support a stronger contribution of the radio jet to the [Fe ii] excitation than that of H2. In the regions beyond the jet, the observations favour X-ray excitation. [source]


Preparation and Photoluminescence Properties of Novel Color-Tunable MgY4Si3O13:Ce3+, Tb3+ Phosphors for Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes

JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CERAMIC SOCIETY, Issue 7 2010
Hau-Yun Chung
Oxide-based phosphors MgY4Si3O13 codoped with Ce3+ and Tb3+ were prepared in this study. Broad Ce3+ excitation spectra with the highest intensity at 330 nm were found for MgY4Si3O13:Ce3+, Tb3+ phosphors. Emission lines ranging from 450 to 650 nm originated from the 5D4,7FJ (J=6, 5, 4, 3) transitions of Tb3+ ions. The energy transfer from Ce3+ to Tb3+ occurred effectively in MgY4Si3O13:Ce3+, Tb3+ with a dipole,quadrupole interaction. Codoping Ce3+ with Tb3+ significantly increased the emission intensity of the prepared phosphors. Increasing the Tb3+ concentration led to the chromaticity coordinates of the prepared samples greatly shifting from the blue to the green region, extending the applicability of MgY4Si3O13:Ce3+, Tb3+ phosphors in solid-state lighting. [source]


Optical photometry and spectroscopy of the accretion-powered millisecond pulsar HETE J1900.1 , 2455

MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, Issue 4 2008
P. Elebert
ABSTRACT We present phase resolved optical photometry and spectroscopy of the accreting millisecond pulsar HETE J1900.1,2455. Our R -band light curves exhibit a sinusoidal modulation, at close to the orbital period, which we initially attributed to X-ray heating of the irradiated face of the secondary star. However, further analysis reveals that the source of the modulation is more likely due to superhumps caused by a precessing accretion disc. Doppler tomography of a broad H, emission line reveals an emission ring, consistent with that expected from an accretion disc. Using the velocity of the emission ring as an estimate for the projected outer disc velocity, we constrain the maximum projected velocity of the secondary to be 200 km s,1, placing a lower limit of 0.05 M, on the secondary mass. For a 1.4 M, primary, this implies that the orbital inclination is low, ,20. Utilizing the observed relationship between the secondary mass and the orbital period in short-period cataclysmic variables, we estimate the secondary mass to be ,0.085 M,, which implies an upper limit of ,2.4 M, for the primary mass. [source]


On the variability of quasars: a link between the Eddington ratio and optical variability?

MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, Issue 3 2008
Brian C. Wilhite
ABSTRACT Repeat scans by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) of a 278-deg2 stripe along the celestial equator have yielded an average of over 10 observations each for nearly 8000 spectroscopically confirmed quasars. Over 2500 of these quasars are in the redshift range such that the C iv, 1549 emission line is visible in the SDSS spectrum. Utilizing the width of these C iv lines and the luminosity of the nearby continuum, we estimate black hole masses for these objects. In an effort to isolate the effects of black hole mass and luminosity on the photometric variability of our data set, we create several subsamples by binning in these two physical parameters. By comparing the ensemble structure functions of the quasars in these bins, we are able to reproduce the well-known anticorrelation between luminosity and variability, now showing that this anticorrelation is independent of the black hole mass. In addition, we find a correlation between variability and the mass of the central black hole. By combining these two relations, we identify the Eddington ratio as a possible driver of quasar variability, most likely due to differences in accretion efficiency. [source]


The luminosity dependence of the type 1 active galactic nucleus fraction

MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, Issue 2 2005
Chris Simpson
ABSTRACT Using a complete, magnitude-limited sample of active galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we show that the fraction of broad-line (type 1) active galactic nuclei (AGNs) increases with luminosity of the isotropically emitted [O iii] narrow emission line. Our results are quantitatively in agreement with, and far less uncertain than, similar trends found from studies of X-ray and radio-selected active galaxies. While the correlation between broad-line fraction and luminosity is qualitatively consistent with the receding torus model, its slope is shallower and we therefore propose a modification to this model where the height of the torus increases slowly with AGN luminosity. We demonstrate that the faint-end slope of the AGN luminosity function steepens significantly when a correction for ,missing' type 2 objects is made, and that this can substantially affect the overall AGN luminosity density extrapolated from samples of more luminous objects. [source]


The narrow-line quasar NAB 0205 + 024 observed with XMM,Newton

MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, Issue 2 2004
L. C. Gallo
ABSTRACT The XMM,Newton observation of the narrow-line quasar NAB 0205+024 reveals three striking differences since it was last observed in X-rays with ASCA. First, the 2,10 keV power law is notably steeper. Secondly, a hard X-ray flare is detected, very similar to that seen in I Zw 1. Thirdly, a strong and broad emission feature is detected with the bulk of its emission redward of 6.4 keV, and extending down to ,5 keV in the rest frame. The most likely explanation for the broad feature is neutral iron emission emitted from a narrow annulus of an accretion disc close to the black hole. The hard X-ray flare could be the mechanism that illuminates this region of the disc, allowing for the emission line to be detected. The combination of effects can be understood in terms of the ,thunder-cloud' model proposed by Merloni & Fabian. [source]


A physical classification scheme for blazars

MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, Issue 1 2004
Hermine Landt
ABSTRACT Blazars are currently separated into BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs) and flat spectrum radio quasars based on the strength of their emission lines. This is performed rather arbitrarily by defining a diagonal line in the Ca H&K break value,equivalent width plane, following March et al. We readdress this problem and put the classification scheme for blazars on firm physical grounds. We study ,100 blazars and radio galaxies from the Deep X-ray Radio Blazar Survey (DXRBS) and 2-Jy radio survey and find a significant bimodality for the narrow emission line [O iii],5007. This suggests the presence of two physically distinct classes of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN). We show that all radio-loud AGN, blazars and radio galaxies, can be effectively separated into weak- and strong-lined sources using the [O iii],5007,[O ii],3727 equivalent width plane. This plane allows one to disentangle orientation effects from intrinsic variations in radio-loud AGN. Based on DXRBS, the strongly beamed sources of the new class of weak-lined radio-loud AGN are made up of BL Lacs at the ,75 per cent level, whereas those of the strong-lined radio-loud AGN include mostly (,97 per cent) quasars. [source]


An XMM,Newton observation of Ark 120: the X-ray spectrum of a ,bare' Seyfert 1 nucleus

MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, Issue 1 2004
S. Vaughan
ABSTRACT We report on a long (100 ks) XMM,Newton observation of the bright Seyfert 1 galaxy Arakelian 120. The source previously showed no signs of intrinsic reddening in its infrared,ultraviolet continuum and previous observations had shown no evidence for ionized absorption in either the ultraviolet or X-ray bands. The new XMM,Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer data place tight limits on the presence of an ionized X-ray absorber and confirm that the X-ray spectrum of Ark 120 is essentially unmodified by intervening matter. Thus Ark 120 can be considered a ,bare' Seyfert 1 nucleus. This observation therefore offers a clean view of the X-ray spectrum of a ,normal' Seyfert galaxy free from absorption effects. The spectrum shows a Doppler broadened iron emission line (FWHM , 3 104 km s,1) and a smooth, continuous soft excess which appears to peak at an energy ,0.5 keV. This adds weight to the claim that genuine soft excesses (i.e. those due to a real steepening of the underlying continuum below ,2 keV) are ubiquitous in Seyfert 1 spectra. However, the detailed shape of the excess could not be reproduced by any of the simple models tested (power laws, blackbodies, Comptonized blackbodies, accretion disc reflection). This observation therefore demonstrates both the need to understand the soft excess (as a significant contributor to the luminosity of most Seyfert 1s) and the inability of the existing, simple models to explain it. [source]


A star-forming galaxy at z= 5.78 in the Chandra Deep Field South

MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, Issue 3 2003
Andrew J. Bunker
ABSTRACT We report the discovery of a luminous z= 5.78 star-forming galaxy in the Chandra Deep Field South. This galaxy was selected as an ,i -drop' from the GOODS public survey imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys (object 3 in the work of Stanway, Bunker & McMahon 2003). The large colour of (i,,z,)AB= 1.6 indicated a spectral break consistent with the Lyman , forest absorption shortward of Lyman , at z, 6. The galaxy is very compact (marginally resolved with ACS with a half-light radius of 0.08 arcsec, so rhl < 0.5 h,170 kpc). We have obtained a deep (5.5 h) spectrum of this z,AB= 24.7 galaxy with the DEIMOS optical spectrograph on the Keck Telescope, and here we report the discovery of a single emission line centred on 8245 detected at 20, with a flux of f, 2 10,17 erg cm,2 s,1. The line is clearly resolved with detectable structure at our resolution of better than 55 km s,1, and the only plausible interpretation consistent with the ACS photometry is that we are seeing Lyman , emission from a z= 5.78 galaxy. This is the highest redshift galaxy to be discovered and studied using HST data. The velocity width (,vFWHM= 260 km s,1) and rest-frame equivalent width (WLy,rest= 20 ) indicate that this line is most probably powered by star formation, as an AGN would typically have larger values. The starburst interpretation is supported by our non-detection of the high-ionization N v,1240- emission line, and the absence of this source from the deep Chandra X-ray images. The star formation rate inferred from the rest-frame UV continuum is 34 h,270 M, yr,1 (,M= 0.3, ,,= 0.7). This is the most luminous starburst known at z > 5. Our spectroscopic redshift for this object confirms the validity of the i,-drop technique of Stanway et al. to select star-forming galaxies atz, 6. [source]


Measuring the black hole masses of high-redshift quasars

MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, Issue 1 2002
R. J. McLure
Abstract A new technique is presented for determining the black hole masses of high-redshift quasars from optical spectroscopy. The new method utilizes the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the low-ionization Mg ii emission line and the correlation between the broad-line region (BLR) radius and the continuum luminosity at 3000 . Using archival ultraviolet (UV) spectra it is found that the correlation between BLR radius and 3000- luminosity is tighter than the established correlation with 5100- luminosity. Furthermore, it is found that the correlation between BLR radius and 3000- continuum luminosity is consistent with a relation of the form RBLR,,L1/2,, as expected for a constant ionization parameter. Using a sample of objects with broad-line radii determined from reverberation mapping it is shown that the FWHM of Mg ii and H, are consistent with following an exact one-to-one relation, as expected if both H, and Mg ii are emitted at the same radius from the central ionizing source. The resulting virial black hole mass estimator based on rest-frame UV observables is shown to reproduce black hole mass measurements based on reverberation mapping to within a factor of 2.5 (1,). Finally, the new UV black hole mass estimator is shown to produce identical results to the established optical (H,) estimator when applied to 128 intermediate-redshift (0.3 < z < 0.9) quasars drawn from the Large Bright Quasar Survey and the radio-selected Molonglo quasar sample. We therefore conclude that the new UV virial black hole mass estimator can be reliably used to estimate the black hole masses of quasars from z, 0.25 through to the peak epoch of quasar activity at z, 2.5 via optical spectroscopy alone. [source]


X-ray beaming caused by resonance scattering in the accretion column of magnetic cataclysmic variables

MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, Issue 1 2001
Y. Terada
Extremely strong ionized Fe emission lines, with equivalent widths reaching ,4000 eV, were discovered by ASCA from a few Galactic compact objects, including AX J2315,0592, RX J1802.1+1804 and AX J1842.8,0423. These objects are thought to be binary systems containing magnetized white dwarfs (WDs). A possible interpretation of the strong Fe K line is the line-photon collimation in the WD accretion column, as a result of resonance scattering of line photons. The collimation occurs when the accretion column has a flat shape, and the effect is augmented by the vertical velocity gradient, which reduces the resonant trapping of resonant photons along the magnetic field lines. This effect was quantitatively confirmed with Monte Carlo simulations. Furthermore, with ASCA observations of the polar V834 Centauri, this collimation effect was clearly detected as a rotational modulation of the equivalent width of the Fe K emission line. The extremely strong emission lines mentioned above can be explained consistently by our interpretation. Combining this effect with other X-ray information, the geometry and plasma parameters in the accretion column were determined. [source]


The mass of the white dwarf in the recurrent nova U Scorpii

MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, Issue 4 2001
T.D. Thoroughgood
We present spectroscopy of the eclipsing recurrent nova U Sco. The radial velocity semi-amplitude of the primary star was found to be from the motion of the wings of the He ii,4686- emission line. By detecting weak absorption features from the secondary star, we find its radial velocity semi-amplitude to be . From these parameters, we obtain a mass of for the white dwarf primary star and a mass of for the secondary star. The radius of the secondary is calculated to be , confirming that it is evolved. The inclination of the system is calculated to be , consistent with the deep eclipse seen in the light-curves. The helium emission lines are double-peaked, with the blueshifted regions of the disc being eclipsed prior to the redshifted regions, clearly indicating the presence of an accretion disc. The high mass of the white dwarf is consistent with the thermonuclear runaway model of recurrent nova outbursts, and confirms that U Sco is the best Type Ia supernova progenitor currently known. We predict that U Sco is likely to explode within ,700 000 yr. [source]


Dynamical T-matrix theory for high-density excitons in coupled quantum wells

PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (B) BASIC SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 10 2006
R. Zimmermann
Abstract Excitons in coupled quantum wells open the possibility to reach high densities close to equilibrium. In a recent experiment employing a lateral trap potential, a blue shift and a broadening of the exciton emission line has been seen [D. W. Snoke et al., Solid State Commun. 134, 37 (2005)]. The standard Hartree,Fock treatment can explain the blue shift but fails to give a finite broadening. Starting from the (spin-dependent) many-exciton Hamiltonian with direct and exchange potential, we present a dynamical T-matrix calculation for the single-exciton Green's function which is directly related to the frequency- and angle-resolved photoluminescence. The calculated spectrum is blue shifted and broadened due to exciton,exciton scattering. At high excitation, both the spectrum and the angular emission are getting narrow. This is a direct manifestation for off-diagonal long range order and a precursor of condensation. ( 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


Photoluminescence study of isoelectronic traps in dilute GaAsN alloys

PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 7 2007
H. Yaguchi
Abstract We have studied photoluminescence spectra in detail to clarify the character of the isoelectronic traps in dilute GaAsN alloys. Several sharp lines have been observed at the lower energy side of the GaAs bandgap and are in good agreement with the nitrogen pair-related emission lines previously reported. In addition to the nitrogen pair-related lines, some other emission lines have been also observed. Compared with the energies of these emission lines and the nitrogen pair-related emission lines, it was found that the energy differences agree with the longitudinal optical phonon energy at the , point of GaAs, showing that the character of isoelectronic traps due to nitrogen pairs in dilute GaAsN alloys is significantly contributed from the conduction band state at the , point. The temperature dependence of the peak energy of luminescence due to nitrogen pairs also indicates that the character of isoelectronic traps in dilute GaAsN alloys is due to the conduction band edge state at the , point of GaAs. For a dilute GaAsN alloy with lower nitrogen concentration, we have observed that the intensity of an emission line increased superlinearly with excitation power . ( 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


Vertical Bridgman growth and annealing effect of Bi doped ZnSe single crystal

PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 10 2004
C. B. Oh
Abstract In order to prepare p-type ZnSe, bismuth (Bi) as an acceptor dopant was doped into ZnSe single crystal by vertical Bridgman method. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra measured at 4.2 K on as-grown crystal showed the strong shallow donor,acceptor pair (DsAP) emission, deep donor,acceptor pair (DdAP) emission and weak I1Bi emission line. To enhance the activation ratio of Bi in ZnSe single crystals, ZnSe:Bi was annealed in saturated zinc and selenium atmosphere at different temperatures. In the case of annealing in the range of 700,800 C, DdAP emission disappeared and the intensities of DsAP and I1Bi emission relatively increased. From the dependence of PL spectra on excitation light intensity and the temperature, the acceptor activation energy and deep donor level were estimated about 103 meV and 34 meV, respectively. ( 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


X-ray energy spectra of CAL87

ASTRONOMISCHE NACHRICHTEN, Issue 2 2010
K. Ebisawa
Abstract We present X-ray spectral analysis of the super-soft source CAL87 using ASCA, Chandra, XMM-Newton observations. Early ASCA CCD spectrum reported a strong oxygen absorption edge, which is considered to originate in the an optically thick white-dwarf atmosphere. On the other hand, contemporaneous grating observations by Chandra and XMM-Newton indicate emission line dominated spectra, which obviously indicate the optically thin origin. Fitting all the available CCD (ASCA and XMM-Newton) and grating spectra (XMM-Newton and Chandra) simultaneously, we show that the CAL87 X-ray energy spectrum is in fact composed of both an optically thick component with deep absorption edges and an optically thin component with numerous emission lines. The current result supports the standard SSS model that the primary source of X-ray emission is nuclear burning in the white dwarf atmosphere, surrounded by a highly photoionised, optically thin corona ( 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


The iron emission line complex of MCG-5-23-16: the long XMMNewton look

ASTRONOMISCHE NACHRICHTEN, Issue 10 2006
V. Braito
Abstract We present the results of the simultaneous XMM- Newton and Chandra observations of the bright Seyfert 1.9 galaxy MCG,5-23-16, which is one of the best known examples of a relativistically broadened iron K, line. We find that: a) the soft X-ray emission is likely to be dominated by photoionized gas, b) the complex iron emission line is best modelled with a narrow and a broad component with a FWHM ,44000 km/s. This latter component has an EW ,50 eV and its profile is well described with an emission line mainly originating from the accretion disk a few tens of gravitational radii from the central black hole and viewed with an inclination angle ,40. We found evidence of a possible sporadic absorption line at ,7.7 keV which, if associated with Fe XXVI K, resonance absorption, is indicative of a possible high velocity (v , 0.1c) outflow. ( 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


Fluctuating Helium Emission in Optically Thick Divertor Plasmas

CONTRIBUTIONS TO PLASMA PHYSICS, Issue 1-3 2008
F. B. Rosmej
Abstract Simulations of the helium radiative properties carried out with the recently developed multi-level meta-stable resolved collisional-radiative code SOPHIA discovered new unique emission lines to analyze optically thick divertor plasmas relevant for ITER. The comparison of their time dependent line emission obtained from the NAGDIS-II plasma simulator experiments with time dependent temperature probe measurements shows a strong correlation. This indicates that line intensity fluctuations can be transformed to the important quantities of density and temperature fluctuations. A transformation method based on integral line intensity ratios which can be recorded with high time resolution is discussed. ( 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


Spectroscopic Investigation of the Europium(3+) Ion in a New ZnY4W3O16 Matrix

HELVETICA CHIMICA ACTA, Issue 11 2009
bieta Tomaszewicz
Abstract A new Zn and Eu tungstate was characterized by spectroscopic techniques. This tungstate, of the formula ZnEu4W3O16, crystallized in the orthorhombic system and was synthesized by a solid-state reaction. It melts incongruently at 1330. The luminescent properties, including excitation and emission processes, luminescent dynamics, and local environments of the Eu3+ ions in ZnEu4W3O16 and ZnY4W3O16,:,Eu3+ diluted phases (1, 5, and 10,mol-% of Eu3+ ion) were studied basing on the f6 -intraconfigurational transitions in the 250,720,nm spectral range. The excitation spectra of this system (,em 615 and 470,nm) show broad bands with maxima at 265 and 315,nm related to the ligand-to-metal charge-transfer (LMCT) states. The emission spectra under excitation at the O,W (265,nm) and O,Eu3+ (315,nm) LMCT states present the blue-green emission bands. The emission of tungstate groups mainly originate from the charge-transfer state of excited 2p orbitals of O2, to the empty orbitals of the central W6+ ions. On the other hand, in the emission of the Eu3+ ions, both the charge transfer from O2, to Eu3+ and the energy transfer from W6+ ions to Eu3+ are involved. The emission spectra under excitation at the 7F0,5L6 transition of the Eu3+ ion (394,nm) of ZnY4W3O16,:,Eu3+ diluted samples show narrow emission lines from the 5D3, 5D2, and 5D1 emitting states. The effect of the active-ion (Eu3+) concentration on the colorimetric characteristic of the emissions of the compound under investigation are presented. [source]


Spontaneous radiative decay rates in Ga-like ions

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF QUANTUM CHEMISTRY, Issue 4 2008
E. Charro
Abstract The analysis of forbidden lines, such as E2 and M1, in the atomic spectra emitted by certain ions is important for the study of the plasma in astrophysical objects and fusion devices. Atomic data, such as wavelengths and transition rates for 4p3/2 , 4p1/2 emission lines in the gallium sequence have been calculated with the Relativistic Quantum Defect Orbital (RQDO) method. The present results are tested by comparison with other theoretical values available in the literature. The regularity of the transition intensities along the isoelectronic sequence for both (E2 and M1) lines, as well as their relative magnitude, are also analyzed. M1 transitions were found to dominate by at least a factor of ten times, being in many cases bigger that this. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Quantum Chem, 2008 [source]


Analysing metals in bottle-grade poly(ethylene terephthalate) by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 5 2010
Wanderson Romo
Abstract After a rigorous cleaning process, recycled food-grade poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), can be mixed with virgin PET resin in different concentrations and used for packaging of soft drinks. Therefore, it is important to have an experimental method to distinguish the presence of recycled polymer in a batch and to check its "true quality." One of the issues to be verified is the presence of inorganic contaminants due to the recycling process. X-ray fluorescence technique is one alternative for this kind of analysis. The results obtained in this work show that bottle-grade PET samples (PET-btg) are made either via direct esterification or by a transesterification process. Samples that were subjected to thermo-mechanical processings (superclean processing, PET-btg blends processed in our laboratory and soft drink PET packaging) present Fe K, emission lines with higher intensities than those presented by virgin bottle-grade PET. After applying principal component analysis, it can be concluded that Fe is an intrinsic contaminant after the recycling process, furnishing a way to indicate class separations of PET-btg. A calibration and validation partial least squares model was constructed to predict the weight percent of post-consumption bottle-grade PET in commercial PET samples. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010 [source]


Humic acid metal cation interaction studied by spectromicroscopy techniques in combination with quantum chemical calculations

JOURNAL OF SYNCHROTRON RADIATION, Issue 2 2010
M. Plaschke
Humic acids (HA) have a high binding capacity towards traces of toxic metal cations, thus affecting their transport in aquatic systems. Eu(III),HA aggregates are studied by synchrotron-based scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) at the carbon K -edge and laser scanning luminescence microscopy (LSLM) at the 5D0,7F1,2 fluorescence emission lines. Both methods provide the necessary spatial resolution in the sub-micrometre range to resolve characteristic aggregate morphologies: optically dense zones embedded in a matrix of less dense material in STXM images correspond to areas with increased Eu(III) luminescence yield in the LSLM micrographs. In the C 1s -NEXAFS of metal-loaded polyacrylic acid (PAA), used as a HA model compound, a distinct complexation effect is identified. This effect is similar to trends observed in the dense fraction of HA/metal cation aggregates. The strongest complexation effect is observed for the Zr(IV),HA/PAA system. This effect is confirmed by quantum chemical calculations performed at the ab initio level for model complexes with different metal centres and complex geometries. Without the high spatial resolution of STXM and LSLM and without the combination of molecular modelling with experimental results, the different zones indicating a `pseudo'-phase separation into strong complexing domains and weaker complexing domains of HA would never have been identified. This type of strategy can be used to study metal interaction with other organic material. [source]


Synthesis and Luminescence Properties of BaMoO4:Sm3+ Phosphors

JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CERAMIC SOCIETY, Issue 5 2010
Zhiguo Xia
BaMoO4:Sm3+ phosphor system with a tetragonal structure was synthesized via a high-temperature solid-state method. The charge compensated behaviors, 2Ba2+,Sm3++M+, where M+ is a monovalent cation like Li+, Na+, and K+ acting as a charge compensator, were investigated in this paper. It has been found that BaMoO4:Sm3+ phosphor by doping with K+ ions show greatly enhanced reddish orange emission compared with pure BaMoO4:Sm3+ sample. Investigation on Sm3+ and K+ concentration-dependent emission spectra indicated that Ba0.84MoO4:0.08Sm3+,0.12K+ phosphor exhibited the strongest reddish orange emission with a CIE values of x=0.55 and y=0.43. After irradiation under the 402 nm ultraviolet (UV) excitation, three emission peaks centered at 561, 598, and 642 nm corresponding to the 4G5/2 to 6HJ (J=5/2, 7/2, 9/2) emission lines of Sm3+ were obviously observed, and the lifetimes of three emissions (4G5/2,6HJ=5/2, 7/2, 9/2) have been calculated based on the measured decay curves. [source]


Ionized gas in E/S0 galaxies with dust lanes

MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, Issue 4 2010
Ido Finkelman
ABSTRACT We report the results of multicolour observations of 30 E/S0 galaxies with dust lanes. For each galaxy we obtained broad-band images and narrow-band images using interference filters isolating the H,+[N ii] emission lines to derive the amount and morphology of dust and ionized gas. To improve the wavelength coverage we retrieved data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and Two Micron All Sky Survey and combined these with our data. Ionized gas is detected in 25 galaxies and shows in most cases a smooth morphology, although knots and filamentary structure are also observed in some objects. The extended gas distribution closely follows the dust structure, with a clear correlation between the mass of both components. An extinction law by the extragalactic dust in the dark lanes is derived and is used to estimate the dust content of the galaxies. The derived extinction law is used to correct the measured colours for intrinsic dust extinction and the data are fitted with a stellar population synthesis model. We find that the H, emission and colours of most objects are consistent with the presence of an ,old' stellar population (,10 Gyr) and a small fraction of a ,young' population (, 10,100 Myr). To check this we closely examine NGC 5363, for which archival Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera and Galaxy Evolution Explorer data are available, as a representative dust-lane E/S0 galaxy of the sample. [source]


The extraordinary radio galaxy MRC B1221,423: probing deeper at radio and optical wavelengths

MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, Issue 2 2010
Helen M. Johnston
ABSTRACT We present optical spectra and high-resolution multiwavelength radio observations of the compact steep-spectrum radio source MRC B1221,423 (z= 0.1706). MRC B1221,423 is a very young (,105 yr), powerful radio source which is undergoing a tidal interaction with a companion galaxy. We find strong evidence of interaction between the active galactic nucleus (AGN) and its environment. The radio morphology is highly distorted, showing a dramatic interaction between the radio jet and the host galaxy, with the jet being turned almost back on itself. H i observations show strong absorption against the nucleus at an infall velocity of ,250 km s,1 compared to the stellar velocity, as well as a second, broader component which may represent gas falling into the nucleus. Optical spectra show that star formation is taking place across the whole system. Broad optical emission lines in the nucleus show evidence of outflow. Our observations confirm that MRC B1221,423 is a young radio source in a gas-rich nuclear environment, and that there was a time delay of a few times 100 Myr between the onset of star formation and the triggering of the AGN. [source]


High-dispersion spectroscopy of two A supergiant systems in the Small Magellanic Cloud with novel properties

MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, Issue 2 2010
R. E. Mennickent
ABSTRACT We present the results of a spectroscopic investigation of two novel variable bright blue stars in the SMC, OGLE004336.91-732637.7 (SMC-SC3) and the periodically occulted star OGLE004633.76-731204.3 (SMC-SC4), whose photometric properties were reported by Mennickent et al. (2010). High-resolution spectra in the optical and far-UV show that both objects are actually A + B type binaries. Three spectra of SMC-SC4 show radial velocity variations, consistent with the photometric period of 184.26 d found in Mennickent et al. 2010. The optical spectra of the metallic lines in both systems show combined absorption and emission components that imply that they are formed in a flattened envelope. A comparison of the radial velocity variations in SMC-SC4 and the separation of the V and R emission components in the H, emission profile indicate that this envelope, and probably also the envelope around SMC-SC3, is a circumbinary disc with a characteristic orbital radius some three times the radius of the binary system. The optical spectra of SMC-SC3 and SMC-SC4 show, respectively, He i emission lines and discrete blue absorption components (BACs) in metallic lines. The high excitations of the He i lines in the SMC-SC3 spectrum and the complicated variations of Fe ii emission and absorption components with orbital phase in the spectrum of SMC-SC4 suggests that shocks occur between the winds and various static regions of the stars' corotating binary-disc complexes. We suggest that BACs arise from wind shocks from the A star impacting the circumbinary disc and a stream of former wind-efflux from the B star accreting on to the A star. The latter picture is broadly similar to mass transfer occurring in the more evolved (but less massive) algol (B/A + K) systems, except that we envision transfer occurring in the other direction and not through the inner Lagrangian point. Accordingly, we dub these objects prototype of a small group of Magellanic Cloud wind-interacting A + B binaries. [source]


The ionization of the emission-line gas in young radio galaxies

MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, Issue 2 2009
J. Holt
ABSTRACT This paper is the second in a series in which we present intermediate-resolution, wide-wavelength coverage spectra for a complete sample of 14 compact radio sources, taken with the aim of investigating the impact of the nuclear activity on the circumnuclear interstellar medium (ISM) in the early stages of radio source evolution. In the first paper (Holt, Tadhunter & Morganti), we presented the kinematic results from the nuclear emission-line modelling and reported fast outflows in the circumnuclear gas. In this paper, we use the line fluxes to investigate the physical conditions and dominant ionization mechanisms of the emission-line gas. We find evidence for large electron densities and high reddening in the nuclear regions, particularly in the broader, blueshifted components. These results are consistent with the idea that the young, recently triggered radio sources still reside in dense and dusty cocoons deposited by the recent activity triggering event (merger/interaction). In addition, we find that the quiescent nuclear and extended narrow components are consistent with active galactic nucleus (AGN) photoionization, split between simple-slab AGN photoionization and mixed-medium photoionization models. For the nuclear broader and shifted components, the results are less clear. Whilst there are suggestions that the broader components may be closer to shock plus precursor models on the diagnostic diagrams, and that the electron temperatures and densities are high, we are unable to unambiguously distinguish the dominant ionization mechanism using the optical emission-line ratios. This is surprising given the strong evidence for jet,cloud interactions (broad emission lines, large outflow velocities and strong radio-optical alignments), which favours the idea that the warm gas has been accelerated in shocks driven by the radio lobes expanding through a dense cocoon of gas deposited during the triggering event. [source]


The remarkable properties of the symbiotic star AE Circinus

MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, Issue 3 2008
R. Mennickent
ABSTRACT We present new optical spectroscopy and photometry, Two-Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) infrared observations and 24 yr of combined American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) and Association Francaise des Observateurs d'Etoiles Variables (AFOEV) photometry of the symbiotic star candidate AE Cir. The long-term light curve is characterized by outbursts lasting several years and having a slow decline of ,2 10,4 mag d,1. The whole range of variability of the star in the V band is about 4 mag. The periodogram of the photometric data reveals strong signals at ,342 and 171 d. The presence of the emission feature at ,6830 at minimum and the detection of absorption lines of a ,K5 type star confirm the symbiotic classification and suggest that AE Cir is a new member of the small group of s-type yellow symbiotic stars. We estimate a distance of 9.4 kpc. Our spectrum taken at the high state shows a much flatter spectral energy distribution, the disappearance of the ,6830 emission feature and the weakness of the He ii 4686 emission relative to the Balmer emission lines. Our observations indicate the presence of emission-line flickering in time-scales of minutes in 2001. The peculiar character of AE Cir is revealed in the visibility of the secondary star at the high and low state, the light curve resembling a dwarf nova superoutburst and the relatively short low states. The data are hard to reconciliate with standard models for symbiotic star outbursts. [source]


Deep spectroscopy of the FUV,optical emission lines from a sample of radio galaxies at z, 2.5: metallicity and ionization,

MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, Issue 1 2008
A. Humphrey
ABSTRACT We present long-slit near-infrared (NIR) spectra, obtained using the Infrared Spectrometer And Array Camera (ISAAC) instrument at the Very Large Telescope, which sample the rest-frame optical emission lines from nine radio galaxies at z, 2.5. One-dimensional spectra have been extracted and, using broad-band photometry, have been cross-calibrated with spectra from the literature to produce line spectra spanning a rest wavelength of ,1200,7000 . The resulting line spectra have a spectral coverage that is unprecedented for radio galaxies at any redshift. We have also produced a composite of the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV),optical line fluxes of powerful, z, 2.5 radio galaxies. We have investigated the relative strengths of Ly,, H,, H,, He ii,1640 and He ii,4687, and we find that Av can vary significantly from object to object. In addition, we have identified new line ratios to calculate electron temperature: [Ne v],1575/[Ne v],3426, [Ne iv],1602/[Ne iv],2423, O iii],1663/[O iii],5008 and [O ii],2471/[O ii],3728. We calculate an average O iii temperature of 14100+1000,600 K. We have modelled the rich emission line spectra, and we conclude that they are best explained by active galactic nucleus (AGN) photoionization with the ionization parameter U varying between objects. For shock models (with or without the precursor) to provide a satisfactory explanation for the data, an additional source of ionizing photons is required , presumably the ionizing radiation field of the AGN. Single slab photoionization models are unable to reproduce the high- and the low-ionization lines simultaneously: the higher ionization lines imply higher U than do the lower ionization lines. This problem may be alleviated either by combining two or more single slab photoionization models with different U, or by using mixed-medium models such as those of Binette, Wilson & Storchi-Bergmann. In either case, U must vary from object to object. On the basis of N v/N iv] and N iv]/C iv we argue that, while photoionization is the dominant ionization mechanism in the extended emission line regions (EELR), shocks make a fractional contribution (,10 per cent) to its ionization. The N v/N iv] and N iv]/C iv ratios in the broad-line region (BLR) of some quasars suggest that shock ionization may be important in the BLR also. We find that in the EELR of z, 2 radio galaxies the N/H abundance ratio is close to its solar value. We conclude that N/H and metallicity do not vary by more than a factor of 2 in our sample. These results are consistent with the idea that the massive ellipticals which become the hosts to powerful AGN are assembled very early in the history of the universe, and then evolve relatively passively up to the present day. [source]


The polar ring galaxy AM1934,563 revisited,

MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, Issue 4 2007
Noah Brosch
ABSTRACT We report long-slit spectroscopic observations of the dust-lane polar ring galaxy AM1934,563 obtained with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) during its performance verification phase. The observations target the spectral region of the H,, [N ii] and [S ii] emission lines, but also show deep Na i absorption lines, that we interpret as being produced by stars in the galaxy. We derive rotation curves along the major axis of the galaxy that extend out to about 8 kpc from the centre for both the gaseous and the stellar components, using the emission and absorption lines. We derive similar rotation curves along the major axis of the polar ring and point out differences between these and the ones of the main galaxy. We identify a small diffuse object visible only in H, emission and with a low velocity dispersion as a dwarf H ii galaxy and argue that it is probably metal poor. Its velocity indicates that it is a fourth member of the galaxy group in which AM1934,563 belongs. We discuss the observations in the context of the proposal that the object is the result of tidal mater transfer from a major neighbour galaxy and point out some observational discrepancies from this explanation. We argue that an alternative scenario that could better fit the observations may be the slow accretion of cold intergalactic gas, focused by a dense filament of galaxies in which this object is embedded. Given the pattern of rotation we found, with the asymptotic rotation of the gas in the ring being slower than that in the disc while both components have approximately the same extent, we point out that AM1934,563 may be a galaxy in which a dark matter halo is flattened along the galactic disc and the first object in which this predicted behaviour of polar ring galaxies in dark matter haloes is fulfilled. [source]