Emerging Data (emerging + data)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Prenatal predictors of infant temperament

Elizabeth A. Werner
Abstract Emerging data suggest that prenatal factors influence children's temperament. In 50 dyads, we examined fetal heart rate (FHR) activity and women's antenatal psychiatric illness as predictors of infant temperament at 4 months (response to novelty and the Infant Behavior Checklist). FHR change during maternal challenge was positively associated with observed infant motor reactivity to novelty (p,=,.02). The odds of being classified as high versus low motor among fetuses who had an increase in FHR during maternal stress was 11 times those who had a decrease in FHR (p,=,.0006). Antenatal psychiatric diagnosis was associated with an almost fourfold greater odds of having a high cry reactivity classification (p,=,.03). There also were modest associations between baseline FHR and maternal reports of infant temperament and between observed temperament and that based on mothers' reports. All of the infant results were found independent of the influence of women's postnatal anxiety. These data indicate that physiological markers of individual differences in infant temperament are identifiable in the fetal period, and possibly shaped by the prenatal environment. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 49: 474-484, 2007. [source]

Th17 cells: The emerging reciprocal partner of regulatory T cells in the liver

T helper cells that produce interleukin-17 (IL-17) (Th17 cells) have recently been identified as the third distinct subset of effector T cells, the differentiation of which depends on specific transcription nuclear factor retinoic acid-related orphan nuclear receptor-,t. Emerging data have suggested that Th17 cells play an important role in innate immunity, adaptive immunity and autoimmunity. Interestingly, there is a reciprocal relationship between Th17 cells and regulatory T cells (Treg), not only in development, but also in their effector function. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-, induces Treg-specific transcription factor Forkhead box P3(FOXP3), while the addition of IL-6 to TGF-, inhibits the generation of Treg cells and induces Th17 cells. It is proposed that the fine balance between Th17 and Treg cells is crucial for maintenance of immune homeostasis. In addition to IL-6, other factors such as retinoic acid, rapamycin, or cytokines (e.g., IL-2 and IL-27) could dictate the balance between Th17 and Treg cells. Since Treg cells play an important role in hepatic immunity with overregulation in chronic viral hepatitis and hepatic carcinoma, and inadequate inhibition in autoimmune liver diseases, graft rejection and acute liver failure, it is reasonable to assume that Th17 cells may play a reciprocal role in these diseases. Thus, future research on the Treg/Th17 balance may provide an opportunity to illustrate the pathogenesis of hepatic inflammation and to explore new therapeutic targets for immune-related liver diseases. [source]

Hyperlipidemia: a new therapeutic target for diabetic neuropathy

Andrea M. Vincent
Abstract Emerging data establish dyslipidemia as a significant contributor to the development of diabetic neuropathy. In this review, we discuss how separate metabolic imbalances, including hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, converge on mechanisms leading to oxidative stress in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) sensory neurons. We conclude with suggestions for novel therapeutic strategies to prevent or reverse diabetes-induced nerve degeneration. [source]

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Binge Eating

Samuele Cortese MD
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by a persistent and pervasive pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity. Emerging data suggest higher than expected rates of binge eating occur in subjects with ADHD. Several hypotheses may explain this newly described comorbidity: 1) inattention and/or impulsivity foster binge eating, 2) ADHD and binge eating share common neurobiolog-ical bases, 3) binge eating contributes to ADHD, or 4) psychopathological factors common to both binge eating and ADHD mediate the association. In patients with ADHD and binge eating, both conditions might benefit from common therapeutic strategies. Further research is needed to gain insight into the association between ADHD and binge eating in order to facilitate more appropriate clinical management and, ultimately, a better quality of life for patients with both conditions. [source]

Morphological features of TMPRSS2,ERG gene fusion prostate cancer,

J-M Mosquera
Abstract The TMPRSS2,ETS fusion prostate cancers comprise 50,70% of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-screened hospital-based prostate cancers examined to date, making it perhaps the most common genetic rearrangement in human cancer. The most common variant involves androgen-regulated TMPRSS2 and ERG, both located on chromosome 21. Emerging data from our group and others suggests that TMPRSS2,ERG fusion prostate cancer is associated with higher tumour stage and prostate cancer-specific death. The goal of this study was to determine if this common somatic alteration is associated with a morphological phenotype. We assessed 253 prostate cancer cases for TMPRSS2,ERG fusion status using an ERG break-apart FISH assay. Blinded to gene fusion status, two reviewers assessed each tumour for presence or absence of eight morphological features. Statistical analysis was performed to look for significant associations between morphological features and TMPRSS2,ERG fusion status. Five morphological features were associated with TMPRSS2,ERG fusion prostate cancer: blue-tinged mucin, cribriform growth pattern, macronucleoli, intraductal tumour spread, and signet-ring cell features, all with p -values < 0.05. Only 24% (n = 30/125) of tumours without any of these features displayed the TMPRSS2,ERG fusion. By comparison, 55% (n = 38/69) of cases with one feature (RR = 3.88), 86% (n = 38/44) of cases with two features (RR = 20.06), and 93% (n = 14/15) of cases with three or more features (RR = 44.33) were fusion positive (p < 0.001). To our knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrates a significant link between a molecular alteration in prostate cancer and distinct phenotypic features. The strength of these findings is similar to microsatellite unstable colon cancer and breast cancer involving BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. The biological effect of TMPRSS2,ERG overexpression may drive pathways that favour these common morphological features that pathologists observe daily. These features may also be helpful in diagnosing TMPRSS2,ERG fusion prostate cancer, which may have both prognostic and therapeutic implications. Copyright 2007 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Type 1 von Willebrand disease: application of emerging data to clinical practice

HAEMOPHILIA, Issue 4 2008
Summary., There has been much recent data published on type 1 von Willebrand disease (VWD) predominantly from three multi-centre cohort studies. These data have influenced a revision of the classification of type 1 VWD and have important implications for the management of this disorder. Patients with low von Willebrand factor (VWF) levels tend to have VWF mutations and VWD is transmitted predictably within families. In patients with VWF levels close to the lower end of the normal range, candidate mutations are found less often, ABO blood group is a more important factor and the disease has variable heritability within families. The importance of bleeding symptoms, in addition to VWF levels, in the diagnosis of type 1 VWD has been highlighted. [source]

A Promising Psychosocial Intervention: Next Steps Include Systematic Study and Creative Extension

Cheryl A. King
Sloan and Marx (this issue) provide a comprehensive and thoughtful review of the written exposure paradigm, noting that it is a promising psychosocial intervention. They focus on possible explanatory theories and close their review by advocating for research aimed at understanding mechanisms of action. While this critically important research is being conducted by some investigators, it will be important for others to consider modifications or enhancements that might improve the efficacy and effectiveness of the written exposure paradigm and still others to consider the myriad of related intervention possibilities raised by the promising findings. That is, the emerging data on the written exposure paradigm have substantial heuristic value. There is insufficient psychosocial intervention research being conducted, and we have barely scratched the surface of possibilities related to this strategy. [source]