Embryonic Development (embryonic + development)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Embryonic Development

  • early embryonic development
  • human embryonic development
  • mouse embryonic development
  • normal embryonic development

  • Selected Abstracts

    A Beat Is Born: Embryonic Development of Arrhythmogenesis


    The Effects of Hemodynamic Force on Embryonic Development

    MICROCIRCULATION, Issue 3 2010
    Microcirculation (2010) 17, 164,178. doi: 10.1111/j.1549-8719.2010.00025.x Abstract Blood vessels have long been known to respond to hemodynamic force, and several mechanotransduction pathways have been identified. However, only recently have we begun to understand the effects of hemodynamic force on embryonic development. In this review, we will discuss specific examples illustrating the role of hemodynamic force during the development of the embryo, with particular focus on the development of the vascular system and the morphogenesis of the heart. We will also discuss the important functions served by mechanotransduction and hemodynamic force during placentation, as well as in regulating the maintenance and division of embryonic, hematopoietic, neural, and mesenchymal stem cells. Pathological misregulation of mechanosensitive pathways during pregnancy and embryonic development may contribute to the occurrence of cardiovascular birth defects, as well as to a variety of other diseases, including preeclampsia. Thus, there is a need for future studies focusing on better understanding the physiological effects of hemodynamic force during embryonic development and their role in the pathogenesis of disease. [source]

    Actions of Tumor Necrosis Factor-, on Oocyte Maturation and Embryonic Development in Cattle,

    P. Soto
    Problem:, Infertility can accompany mastitis in cattle. Involvement of tumor necrosis factor- , (TNF- ,) in this phenomenon is suggested by observations that circulating concentrations of TNF- , are elevated after intramammary infection or infusion of endotoxin. It was hypothesized that (1) TNF- , acts on the oocyte during maturation to decrease the percent of oocytes that cleave and develop following fertilization; (2) exposure of embryos to TNF- , after fertilization reduces development to the blastocyst stage; and (3) TNF- , increases the proportion of blastomeres that undergo apoptosis in a stage-of-development dependent manner. Method of study:, In one experiment, oocytes were matured with various concentrations of TNF- , and then fertilized and cultured without TNF- ,. In another study, embryos were cultured with TNF- , for 8 days beginning after fertilization. Finally, embryos were collected at the two or four-cell stage (at 28,30 hr after insemination) or when ,9-cells (at day 4 after insemination) and cultured ± TNF- , for 24 hr. The proportion of blastomeres undergoing apoptosis was then determined by the TUNEL procedure. Results:, Addition of TNF- , to maturation medium did not affect the proportion of oocytes that cleaved. However, the percent of oocytes that developed to the blastocyst stage at day 8 after insemination was reduced (P = 0.05) at all TNF- , concentrations tested (0.1,100 ng/mL). When added during embryo culture, there was no significant effect of TNF- , on the proportion of oocytes that became blastocysts. In addition, TNF- , did not induce apoptosis in two and four-cell embryos. For embryos ,9-cells, however, 10 and 100 ng/mL TNF- , increased (P < 0.05) the percent of blastomeres labeling as TUNEL-positive. Conclusion:, TNF- , can have deleterious actions on oocyte maturation that compromise development of the resultant embryo. While exposure of fertilized embryos to TNF- , did not inhibit development to the blastocyst stage, TNF- , increased the percentage of blastomeres undergoing apoptosis when exposure occurred for embryos ,9-cells. Increased blastomere apoptosis could conceivably compromise subsequent embryo survival. [source]

    Is There a Two-Humped Stage in the Embryonic Development of the Dromedary?

    J. Kinne
    Summary It has been postulated that the one-humped (Arabian) dromedary and the two-humped (Bactrian) camel originated from a single ancestor. Consequently, the dromedary was considered a breed of the two-humped camel, based on an anatomical study by Lombardini L, 1879: Ann. Del. Universita Toscane, 259, 147, who described a reduced second hump like structure in foetal and adult dromedaries. To resolve this lingering issue, we analysed dromedary foetuses and calves. In contrast to the situation in two-humped camels, we never observed any rudimentary second hump in the dromedary foetuses or calves. [source]

    Effect of Anti-Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (Anti-bFGF) on In Vitro Embryonic Development in Rat

    E. Unur
    Summary In this study, we aimed at the in vitro effects of anti-fibroblast growth factor-2 (anti-FGF-2 or anti-bFGF) on embryo culture in rats. In vitro effects of anti-bFGF on total embryonic development were investigated in 40 rat embryos (which were divided into four groups) (obtained from five pregnant females) at 9.5 days of gestation that were cultured in whole rat serum (WRS), and in WRS+ 2.5, 5, and 10 ,g/ml anti-bFGF. After 48 h of culturing, the embryos from each group were harvested to be analysed morphologically according to a morphological scoring system and biochemically to obtain the embryo protein content. The morphological score, embryo protein content, somite number and crown-rump length of embryos indicated that embryos cultured in WRS+ anti-bFGF had significant embryonic retardation. Mean morphological scores for the embryos grown in WRS, in the presence of 2.5, 5 and 10 ,g anti-FGF-2 were 61.4 ± 1.64, 46.3 ± 8.42, 27 ± 2.58 and13.6 ± 0.96 respectively. These results suggest that bFGF is very important for normal embryonic development and rat anti-bFGF neutralizes bFGF effect. [source]

    Investigation of Direct Toxic and Teratogenic Effects of Anticoagulants on Rat Embryonic Development Using In Vitro Culture Method and Genotoxicity Assay

    I. I. Uysal
    Summary Heparin and low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) are used to reduce the incidence of venous thromboembolism in pregnancy. Although, these agents have been shown to be safe when used during pregnancy, the studies about direct toxic and teratogenic effects of these drugs on embryonic development are limited. In this study, the effects of heparin and LMWHs on rat embryonic development were investigated by using in vitro embryo culture and micronucleus (MN) assay methods. Rat embryos were cultured in vitro in the presence of different concentrations of heparin (5,40 IU/ml), dalteparin (2.5,20 IU/ml), enoxaparin (25,100 ,g/ml) and nadroparin (1,4 IU/ml). Effects of anticoagulants on embryonic developmental parameters were compared and embryos were evaluated for the presence of any malformations. After culturing the embryos, classic MN assay was performed. Anticoagulants significantly decreased all growth and developmental parameters dose-dependently. Dalteparin and enoxaparin were found to cause more developmental toxicity than heparin and nadroparin. Along with haematoma in general, heparin and nadroparin caused maxillary deformity, situs inversus and oedema most frequently, while neural tube defects were observed with dalteparin and enoxaparin. All agents also significantly induced MN formation in rat embryonic blood cells. These results indicate the possible genotoxic effects of anticoagulant agents on the developing rat embryo when applied directly. [source]

    Early Embryonic Development of the Camel Lumbar Spinal Cord Segment

    M. E. Abd Elmonem
    The lumbar spinal cord segment of the camel embryo at CVRL 2.4 to 28 cm was examined. Major changes are occurring in the organization of the lumbar spinal cord segments during this early developmental period. At the CVRL 2.4, 2.7 and 3.6 cm the three primary layers, ependymal cells layer, mantle cells layer, marginal cells layer in the developing lumber spinal cord segment were demonstrated. The mantle layer is the first to show striking differentiation, while the marginal layer is represented by thin outer rim. Proliferation and differentiation of the neuroepithelial cells in the developing spinal cord produce the thick lateral walls, thin roof and floor plates. The spinal ganglion and dorsal root of the spinal nerve are differentiated. At 2.7 cm CVRL differential thickening of the lateral walls produces a shallow longitudinal groove called sulcus limitans, which separates the dorsal part (alar plate) from ventral part (basal plate). The ventral root of the spinal nerve, the spinal cord and ganglion are embedded in loose mesenchyme, which tends to differentiate into spinal meninges. At 3.6 cm CVRL the basal plate, which is the future ventral gray horn, seem to be quite voluminous and the dorsal and ventral roots unite to form the beginning of the spinal nerve. At 5.5 cm CVRL the alar plates enlarge forming the dorsal septum. At 8.4 cm to 10.5 cm CVRL the basal plates enlarge, and bulge ventrally on each side of the midline producing the future ventral medium fissure, and the white and gray matters can be recognized. At 28 cm CVRL the lumen of the spinal cord is differentiated into the central canal bounded dorsally and ventrally by dorsal and ventral gray commissures, and therefore the gray matter takes the appearance of a butterfly. The lumber spinal nerve and their roots are well distinguished. [source]

    Vibration Analysis on Incubating Eggs and Its Relation to Embryonic Development

    Bart J. Kemps
    Coucke (1998) was the first to use acoustic resonance analysis to monitor embryo development in chicken eggs. He remarked that at around 100 hours of incubation, the course of the resonant frequency and damping changed abruptly in the case of fertile eggs. He also showed that these changes were related to a physiologic event during early embryonic development. The objective of our study is to monitor the course of the vibration parameters during the early incubation of chicken eggs and to relate these changes to egg and embryo characteristics. A total of 72 Hybro eggs were incubated vertically in a small incubator at standard conditions. Several egg parameters were measured before incubation. During the early stages of incubation the vibration behavior of these eggs was monitored. The time at which the damping of the vibration suddenly changed, the diameter of the eggs and their interaction were found to be significant explanatory variables in order to predict hatching time. A correlation coefficient r of 0.72 was obtained. [source]

    The evolutionary history of crustacean segmentation: a fossil-based perspective

    Dieter Waloszek
    Summary The evolution of segmentation in Crustacea, that is, the formation of sclerotized and jointed body somites and arrangement of somites into tagmata, is viewed in light of historical traits and functional constraints. The set of Early to Late Cambrian ,Orsten' arthropods have informed our current views of crustacean evolution considerably. These three-dimensionally preserved fossils document ancient morphologies, as opposed to purely hypothetical models and, because of the unusual preservation of larval stages, provide us with unparalleled insight into the morphogenesis of body somites and their structural equipment. The variety of evolutionary levels represented in the ,Orsten' including lobopodians, tardigrades, and pentastomids also allows phylogenetic interpretations far beyond the Crustacea. The ,Orsten' evidence and data from representatives of the Lower Cambrian Chengjiang biota in southwestern China, including phylogenetically earlier forms, form the major source of our morphology-based review of structural and functional developments that led toward the Crustacea. The principal strategy of arthropods is the simultaneous development of head somites, as expressed in a basal "head larva," and a successive addition of postcephalic somites from a preterminal budding zone with progressive maturation of metameric structures. This can be recognized in the developmental patterns of extant and fossil representatives of several euarthropod taxa, particularly crustaceans, trilobites, and chelicerates (at least basally). The development of these taxa points to an early somite-poor and free-living hatching stage. Embryonic development to a late stage within an egg, as occurring in recent onychophorans and certain in-group euarthropods, is regarded as achieved several times convergently. [source]

    Direct DNA delivery into zebrafish embryos employing tissue culture techniques

    Raquel Sussman
    Abstract Summary: The production of transfected fish embryos requires expertise in injecting the fertilized eggs and/or expensive equipment for electroporation or microprojectiles. This article demonstrates that by exposure to DNA constructs conjugated with transfecting reagents dechorionated Danio rerio embryos are capable of acquiring extracellular DNA and expressing reporter genes. Embryos incubated with pCMVluc complexed with GeneJammer or GenePORTER expressed luciferase 24,48 h after exposure. pCMVGFP DNA mixed with the same agents generated embryos that exhibited differential patterns of expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP). Embryonic development varied depending on the procedure employed and the reporter gene utilized. Expression of the luciferase gene did not interfere with the subsequent development of the embryos. In contrast, the embryos expressing a high level of GFP were affected, probably due to a very active promoter. These results demonstrate the ease of obtaining transfected fish embryos, which facilitate the mass production of new genotypes and extend the procedure to laboratories with limited resources. genesis 31:1,5, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Short-term cold storage of blowfly Lucilia sericata embryos

    INSECT SCIENCE, Issue 3 2008
    Bo Zhang
    Abstract The developmental rate under low temperatures and cold tolerance were investigated in embryos of the blowfly Lucilia sericata. The larvae of this species are now widely used in maggot debridement therapy. Embryonic development was dependent on temperature, with a lower developmental threshold of 9.0 °C. The duration of the egg stage at a rearing temperature of 25 °C was 14 h, and a low temperature of 12.5 °C successfully prolonged this period to 66 h. Embryonic stages differed markedly in their cold tolerance; young embryos were less tolerant to cold than old ones. Late embryonic stages are suitable for cold storage at 5 °C and the storage for 72 h did not decrease the hatching rate by more than 50%. In the mass-rearing process required for maggot debridement therapy, either of these two simple protocols would be beneficial. [source]

    Larval development in the Homoscleromorpha (Porifera, Demospongiae)

    Nicole Boury-Esnault
    Abstract. Embryonic development from coeloblastula to fully developed larva was investigated in 8 Mediterranean homoscleromorph species: Oscarella lobularis, O. tuberculata, O. microlobata, O. imperialis, Plakina trilopha, P. jani, Corticium candelabrum, and Pseudocorticium jarrei. Morphogenesis of the larva is similar in all these species; however, cell proliferation is more active in species of Oscarella than in Plakina and C. candelabrum. The result of cell division is a wrinkled, flagellated larva, called a cinctoblastula. It is composed of a columnar epithelium of polarized, monoflagellated cells among which are scattered a few non-flagellated ovoid cells. The central cavity always contains symbiotic bacteria. Maternal cells are also present in O. lobularis, O. imperialis, and P. jarrei. In the fully developed larva, cell shape and dimensions are constant for each species. The cells of the anterior pole have large vacuoles with heterogeneous material; those of the postero-lateral zone have an intranuclear paracrystalline inclusion; and the flagellated cells of the posterior pole have large osmiophilic inclusions. Intercellular junctions join the apical parts of the cells, beneath which are other specialized cell junctions. A basement membrane underlying the flagellated cells lines the larval cavity. This is the first observation of a basement membrane in a poriferan larva. The basal apparatus of flagellated cells is characterized by an accessory centriole located exactly beneath the basal body. The single basal rootlet is cross striated. The presence of a basement membrane and a true epithelium in the larva of Homoscleromorpha,unique among poriferan clades and shared with Eumetazoa,suggests that Demospongiae could be paraphyletic. [source]

    Embryonic development of Galloisiana yuasai Asahina, with special reference to external morphology (Insecta: Grylloblattodea)

    Toshiki Uchifune
    Abstract The embryogenesis of Grylloblattodea, one of the most primitive of the polyneopteran orders, is described using Galloisiana yuasai with special reference to external morphology. The egg membranes are characterized by an endochorion crossed by numerous vertical aeropyles and a fairly thin vitelline membrane, features shared by Mantophasmatodea. The inner layer formation is of the fault type. Serosal elements in the amnioserosal fold differentiate into hydropylar cells, to function in water absorption together with specialized amniotic structures, i.e., an amniotic strand and a thickened amnion. The germ band is of the short germ type. The germ band immerses deep into the yolk after its full elongation along the egg surface, and in this respect blastokinesis closely resembles that of Mantophasmatodea. The embryological features, i.e., those on egg membranes and blastokinesis, may suggest a closer affinity of Grylloblattodea and Mantophasmatodea. Appendages, ectodermal invaginations, and sternal and pleural sclerites are discussed in the light of serial homology, to provide a new basis for elucidating the insect body plan. Appendages are divided into the proximal coxopodite and distal telopodite, the former being divided further into the subcoxa and coxa. Subcoxal and coxal elements are identified in the mandible as well as in the abdominal appendages. The subcoxa is divided into the epimeron and episternum by the pleural suture in thoracic segments. Likewise, in the abdominal segments the subcoxa is divided into two, although the homologs of the epimeron and episternum are not sclerotized, and in the labial segment the subcoxal derivative or the postmentum is divided into the submentum and mentum. Two coxal endites bulge out from the medial side of the gnathal appendages. The mandibular molar and incisor, maxillary lacinia and galea, and labial glossa and paraglossa are serially homologous with each other. In the thoracic segments the original embryonic sternum or "protosternum" is largely replaced by subcoxal elements, and merely remains as a small anterior presternum and a posterior spinasternum. A major part of the venter is represented by the derivatives of the episternum such as an extensive basisternum, katepisternum, and trochantin and the medial element of the epimeron. The pleuron is derived from the episternal elements or the anepisternum and preepisternum, which bears a spiracle in the mesothorax and metathorax, and the lateral element of the epimeron. The homolog of the preepisternum in the prothorax is the cervical sclerite, but with no spiracle developed. A median ventral invagination arises in the thoracic segments as a spina, and the homolog of the spina develops into the eversible sac in the first abdominal segment. J. Morphol. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Embryonic development of the oligochaete Enchytraeus coronatus: An SEM and histological study of embryogenesis from one-cell stage to hatching

    Annette Bergter
    Abstract We describe the embryonic development of the soil-living oligochaete Enchytraeus coronatus (Enchytraeidae, Oligochaeta, Annelida). Enchytraeus coronatus is a direct developer. It follows the typical spiral cleavage mode of development that is highly conserved among annelids and a large number of other lophotrochozoan taxa that are collectively named "Spiralia." Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was combined with light microscopic analysis of wholemounted and sectioned embryos, differentially processed through histological stainings, to reconstruct and document cellular movements and organogenesis from early cleavage stages until hatching. With the help of these data we have established a scheme of morphologically defined stages in order to facilitate future studies on the molecular and histological level that will allow a detailed cross-species comparison among annelids and other phyla. J. Morphol. 261:26,42, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Spawning behaviour, early development and first feeding of the bluestriped angelfish [Chaetodontoplus septentrionalis (Temminck & Schlegel, 1844)] in captivity

    Ming-Yih Leu
    Abstract Successful natural spawning of Chaetodontoplus septentrionalis in captivity from 19 March to 11 May, 2008 is described for the first time. A single male dominates a harem of two females, spawning with each at dusk, from 10 min before to 20 min after sunset. Each female laid an average 119 × 103 eggs during the spawning period. Fertilized eggs were spherical, buoyant and had a diameter of 0.83 ± 0.02 mm (mean ± SD). Embryonic development lasted 15,18 h at 28.1 °C. Newly hatched larvae were 1.60 ± 0.07 mm in total length (TL) with 27 myomeres. Larvae completed yolk absorption within 3 days post hatching (ph) at 3.01 ± 0.08 mm TL. Ten days ph, the larvae had attained 3.95 ± 0.12 mm TL. Larvae were fed either 100% s-type rotifers (Brachionus rotundiformis), 100% copepods (Microsetella sp.), a combination of the two (50%:50%) or without live feed (starved control) to determine the effect of live feed on the survival rate. The survival was significantly (P<0.001) higher in larvae fed a combination of diet than the others. These results indicate that C. septentrionalis is a potential species for captive breeding programs and the use of a combination of diet (s-type rotifers and copepods) may be a suitable first food for the larvae. [source]

    Natural spawning, early development and first feeding of the semicircle angelfish [Pomacanthus semicirculatus (Cuvier, 1831)] in captivity

    Ming-Yih Leu
    Abstract Successful natural spawning of Pomacanthus semicirculatus in captivity from 11 September to 18 October, 2006 is described for the first time. Each female laid an average of 230 000 eggs during the spawning period. Fertilized eggs were spherical, transparent and buoyant and had a mean diameter of 0.61 ± 0.03 mm (mean ± SD). Embryonic development lasted 18,21 h at 28.5 °C. Newly hatched larvae were 1.35 ± 0.02 mm in total length (TL) with 27 (12+15) myomeres and had an oil globule in the ventroposterior area of the yolk sac. Larvae completed yolk absorption within 3 days post hatching at 2.37 ± 0.05 mm TL. Larvae were fed either 100% microalgae (Nannochloropsis sp.), 100% s-type rotifers (Brachionus rotundiformis), 100% dinoflagellates (Gonyaulax sp.) or different combinations of the three (50%:50%:0%, 30%:35%:35%) to determine the effect of live feed on the survival rate. The survival was significantly (P<0.001) better in larvae fed a combination of diets (30%: 35%: 35%) than others. These results indicate that P. semicirculatus is a potential species for captive-breeding programmes and the use of a combination of diets (microalgae plus s-type rotifers and dinoflagellates) may be a suitable first food for fish larvae. [source]

    Early development of the silver catfish Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) (Pisces:Heptapteridae) from the São Francisco River Basin, Brazil

    Marcelo Pimenta De Amorim
    Abstract The silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen, is endemic to North, Central and South America with high aquaculture potential and wide acceptance in the market. Breeder fish were subjected to induced reproduction through hypophysation using a crude common carp pituitary extract. Egg characteristics, oocyte surface ultrastructure and histology of larval ontogenesis until whole yolk resorption were described for the first time for this species. Oocytes and semen were obtained by manual extrusion, and fertilization was conducted using the dry method. After fertilization, eggs were kept in incubators at 24 °C. The embryonic development was monitored using a stereomicroscope every 10 min until hatching. To analyse the larval development, larvae samples were collected from incubators daily until the fifth day, fixed in Bouin's fluid and subjected to routine histological techniques. The oocyte extrusion occurred 8 h after the second hormone dose at 26 °C. The oocytes were spherical, non-adhesive and yellow, with a diameter of 1471.75±47.63 ,m. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a thin jelly coat covering the zona radiata in the animal pole around the micropyle. The blastopore closure occurred within 8 h after fertilization, and the fertilization rate was 79.9±5.2% at 24 °C. Embryonic development was completed within 25 h 30 min after fertilization. The complete resorption of the yolk and the formation of the digestive system organs and the mouth opening occurred on the fifth day, indicating a need for exogenous feeding. The results of this study provide information important for improvement in R. quelen culture and management. [source]

    Thermal effects on reptile reproduction: adaptation and phenotypic plasticity in a montane lizard

    Interspecific comparisons suggest a strong association between cool climates and viviparity in reptiles. However, intraspecific comparisons, which provide an opportunity to identify causal pathways and to distinguish facultative (phenotypically plastic) effects from canalized (genetically fixed) responses, are lacking. We documented the reproductive traits in an alpine oviparous lizard, and manipulated thermal regimes of gravid females and their eggs to identify proximate causes of life-history variation. Embryonic development at oviposition was more advanced in eggs laid by females from high-elevation populations than in eggs produced by females from lower elevations. In the laboratory, experimentally imposed low maternal body temperatures delayed oviposition and resulted in more advanced embryonic development at oviposition. Warm conditions both in utero and in the nest increased hatching success and offspring body size. Our intraspecific comparisons support the hypothesis that viviparity has evolved in cold-climate squamates because of the direct fitness advantages that warm temperatures provide developing offspring. © 2010 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2010, 100, 642,655. [source]

    Embryonic development of verongid demosponges supports the independent acquisition of spongin skeletons as an alternative to the siliceous skeleton of sponges

    Approximately 85% of extant sponges (phylum Porifera) belong to the class Demospongiae, which contains 14 taxonomic orders. In the orders Verongida, Dictyoceratida, and Dendroceratida, jointly referred to as ,keratose demosponges', the skeleton does not contain siliceous spicules but only spongin fibres. This shared trait has encouraged placement of these orders together within Demospongiae, although their relationships remain uncertain. The present study documents for the first time embryo development in the order Verongida (Aplysina aerophoba), providing some clues for phylogenetic inference. Spawned eggs were enveloped by a follicle of maternal cells. Embryos and larvae were chimeric organisms, the blastocoel of which was filled with symbionts and maternal cells migrated from the follicle. The ultrastructure of epithelial larval cells revealed: (1) a basal apparatus characterized by a peculiar, angling accessory centriole; (2) a pear-shaped nucleus with a protruding beak connected to the rootlets of the basal body; and (3) a distinctive Golgi apparatus encircling the nuclear apex. Developmental and ultrastructural findings support the concept, in congruence with recent molecular studies, that Verongida are more closely related to Halisarcida (askeletal sponges) and Chondrosida (askeletal sponges + sponges with spongin + spiculate sponges) than to the remaining ,keratose' orders, making a monophyletic ,supra-ordinal unit' equivalent to a subclass (Myxospongia, new subclass). Hence, spongin skeletons have evolved at least twice in Demospongiae. Independent acquisition of ,corneous' materials as an alternative to silica could have been stimulated by the radiation of diatoms at the Cretaceous,Tertiary boundary (approximately 65 Mya), which depleted silicon in the photic zone of the world's ocean. © 2009 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2009, 97, 427,447. [source]

    Embryonic development in the reduced folate carrier knockout mouse is modulated by maternal folate supplementation,,

    Janee Gelineau-van Waes
    Abstract BACKGROUND: The reduced folate carrier (RFC1) is a ubiquitously expressed integral membrane protein that mediates delivery of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate into mammalian cells. In this study, embryonic/fetal development is characterized in an RFC1 knockout mouse model in which pregnant dams receive different levels of folate supplementation. METHODS:RFC1+/, males were mated to RFC1+/, females, and pregnant dams were treated with vehicle (control) or folic acid (25 or 50 mg/kg) by daily subcutaneous injection (0.1 mL/10 g bwt), beginning on E0.5 and continuing throughout gestation until the time of sacrifice. RESULTS: Without maternal folate supplementation, RFC1 nullizygous embryos die shortly postimplantation. Supplementation of pregnant dams with 25 mg/kg/day folic acid prolongs survival of mutant embryos until E9.5,E10.5, but they are developmentally delayed relative to wild-type littermates, display a marked absence of erythropoiesis, severe neural tube and limb bud defects, and failure of chorioallantoic fusion. Fgfr2 protein levels are significantly reduced or absent in the extraembryonic membranes of RFC1 nullizygous embryos. Maternal folate supplementation with 50 mg/kg/day results in survival of 22% of RFC1 mutants to E18.5, but they develop with multiple malformations of the eyelids, lungs, heart, and skin. CONCLUSIONS: High doses of daily maternal folate supplementation during embryonic/fetal development are necessary for early postimplantation embryonic viability of RFC1 nullizygous embryos, and play a critical role in chorioallantoic fusion, erythropoiesis, and proper development of the neural tube, limbs, lungs, heart, and skin. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Effects of oyster extract on the reproductive function of zinc-deficient mice: Bioavailability of zinc contained in oyster extract

    Yoshikazu Matsuda
    ABSTRACT Zinc is a vital nutrient in the normal reproductive function and embryonic development of mammals, and it is well known that oyster extract contains significant amounts of zinc. The effects of oyster extract on reproductive function, such as embryonic development, serum levels of zinc and sperm maturation were examined in zinc-deficient mice. Zinc deficiency in dams during pregnancy induced a decrease in the successful pregnancy rate, maternal weight gain, the number of live fetuses and fetal body weight. Zinc deficiency for 12 weeks in male mice induced a decrease in body weight, testis weight and sperm count in the epididymis. However, reproductive failure, embryonic defects and decreased sperm motility in zinc-deficient mice were improved by supplementation with oyster extract. Some nutrients contained in oyster extract, such as taurine and glycogen, may be related to the recovery of reproductive function. There were significantly lower serum concentrations of zinc in dams fed a zinc-deficient diet However, the serum zinc concentration was normal in the oyster extract-supplemented group. No difference in the concentration of serum zinc was observed between the oyster extract- and zinc carbonate-supplemented groups. From these findings, it is suggested that oyster extract is a useful supplement that can prevent reproductive defects from zinc deficiency, and the bioavailability of zinc may be identical to zinc carbonate. [source]

    Effects of supplemental L-methionine on E-64 [trans-epoxysuccinyl-1-leucyl-amido (4-guanido) butane]-induced dysmorphology in rat embryos cultured in vitro

    Kouichi Yoshidome
    ABSTRACT E-64 [trans-epoxysuccinyl-1-leucylamido (4-guanido) butane] is teratogenic, inducing a spectrum of malformations in vivo and producing similar effects in vitro. Numerous studies support the concept that E-64-induced malformations result from embryonic nutritional deficiency, without affecting the maternal nutritional status. This has provided a useful model with which to investigate the nutritional requirements of the early embryo, as well as the role of various nutrients in the etiology of congenital defects. In the current investigation, we examined effects of L-methionine on E-64-induced embryotoxicity in vitro. For these experiments, we cultured rat embryos 9.5 days postconception (p.c.) for 48 hours with E-64 and/or L-methionine. We found that the addition of L-methionine to E-64-exposed cultures reduced optic abnormality and increased embryo protein. These results suggest that embryopathy largely results from a deficiency of L-methionine although E-64 limits the supply of all amino acids to the embryo. Furthermore, although endocytosis and degradation of proteins by the visceral yolk sac (VYS) supply most amino acids to the embryo, free amino acids may be compensatory when this source is reduced. These results support those of previous investigations that suggest L-methionine is a limiting nutrient for embryonic development. [source]

    Craniorachischisis and Heterotaxia with Heart Disease in Twins: Link or Change Nature?

    Sebastiano Bianca MD
    ABSTRACT Craniorachischisis is a rare neural tube defect in which both acrania and a complete schisis of the vertebral column are present. Heterotaxy results from failure to establish normal left,right asymmetry during embryonic development and is characterized by a variable group of congenital anomalies that include complex cardiac malformations and situs inversus or situs ambiguous. We report a diamniotic twin pregnancy with two malformed fetuses affected one by craniorachischisis and the other by heterotaxya with paired right-sided viscera, asplenia, and complex congenital heart disease. The occurrence of severe congenital anomalies in both members of the twin pair implies a strong influence of genetic factors. At present, the genetic basis determining the different phenotypes observed in our twins is unknown. Our case with the simultaneous presence of both midline and laterality defects in twins supports the hypothesis that the midline plays a critical role in establishing left,right asymmetry in the body and that a mutation in a gene responsible for both heterotaxy and midline defects may be strongly supposed. [source]

    Effects of Conversion of Dry Tropical Forest to Agricultural Mosaic on Herpetofaunal Assemblages

    atributos de vulnerabilidad; bosque tropical seco; ensambles herpetofaunísticos; modificación del hábitat; mosaico agrícola Abstract:,We explored the impact of forest conversion to agricultural mosaic on anuran, lizard, snake, and turtle assemblages of Neotropical dry forests. Over 2 years, we sampled 6 small watersheds on the west coast of Mexico, 3 conserved and 3 disturbed. The disturbed watersheds were characterized by a mosaic of pastures and cultivated fields (corn, beans, squash) intermingled with patches of different successional stages of dry forest. In each watershed, we conducted 11 diurnal and nocturnal time-constrained searches in 10 randomly established plots. We considered vulnerability traits of species in relation to habitat modification. Eighteen anuran, 18 lizard, 23 snake, and 3 turtle species were recorded. Thirty-six species (58%) occurred in both forest conditions, and 14 (22%) and 12 species (19%) occurred only in the conserved and disturbed sites, respectively. Assemblages responded differently to disturbance. Species richness, diversity, and abundance of lizards were higher in disturbed forests. Anuran diversity and species richness were lower in disturbed forest but abundance was similar in both forest conditions. Diversity, richness, and abundance of turtles were lower in disturbed forest. The structure and composition of snake assemblages did not differ between forest conditions. We considered species disturbance sensitive if their abundance was significantly less in disturbed areas. Four anuran (22%), 2 lizard (11%), and 3 turtle (100%) species were sensitive to disturbance. No snake species was sensitive. The decline in abundance of disturbance-sensitive species was associated with the reduction of forest canopy cover, woody stem cover, roots, and litter-layer ground cover. Anuran species with small body size and direct embryonic development were especially sensitive to forest disturbance. An important goal for the conservation of herpetofauna should be the determination of species traits associated with extinction or persistence in agricultural mosaics. Resumen:,Exploramos el impacto de la conversión de bosques a mosaico agrícola sobre ensambles de lagartijas, serpientes y tortugas de bosques Neotropicales secos. Durante 2 años muestreamos 6 cuencas pequeñas, 3 conservadas y 3 perturbadas, en la costa occidental de México. Las cuencas perturbadas se caracterizaron por un mosaico de pastizales y campos cultivados (maíz, frijol, calabaza) entremezclados con parches de bosque seco en diferentes etapas sucesionales. En cada cuenca, realizamos 11 búsquedas diurnas y nocturnas en 10 parcelas establecidas aleatoriamente. Consideramos los atributos de vulnerabilidad de especies en relación con la modificación del hábitat. Registramos 18 especies de lagartijas, 23 de serpientes y 3 de tortugas. Treinta y seis especies (58%) ocurrieron en ambas condiciones de bosque, y 14 (22%) y 12 (19%) especies solo ocurrieron en los sitios conservados y perturbados, respectivamente. Los ensambles respondieron a la perturbación de manera diferente. La riqueza de especies, la diversidad y la abundancia de lagartijas fueron mayores en los bosques perturbados. La diversidad y riqueza de especies de anuros fueron menores en el bosque perturbado pero la abundancia fue similar en ambas condiciones de bosque. La diversidad, riqueza de especies y abundancia de tortugas fueron menores en el bosque perturbado. La estructura y la composición de los ensambles de serpientes no difirieron entre condiciones de bosque. Consideramos que las especies eran sensibles a la perturbación si su abundancia fue significativamente menor en las áreas perturbadas. Cuatro (22%) especies de anuros, 2 (11%) de lagartijas y 3 (100%) de tortugas fueron sensibles a la perturbación. Ninguna especie de serpiente fue sensible. La declinación en la abundancia de especies sensibles a la perturbación se asoció con la reducción en la cobertura del dosel, de tallos leñosos, raíces y hojarasca. Las especies de anuros de cuerpo pequeño y desarrollo embrionario directo fueron especialmente sensibles a la perturbación del bosque. La determinación de atributos de las especies asociadas con su extinción o persistencia en mosaicos agrícolas debería ser una meta importante para la conservación de la herpetofauna. [source]

    Delayed embryonic development and impaired cell growth and survival in Actg1 null mice,

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 9 2010
    Tina M. Bunnell
    Abstract Actins are among the most highly expressed proteins in eukaryotes and play a central role in nearly all aspects of cell biology. While the intricate process of development undoubtedly requires a properly regulated actin cytoskeleton, little is known about the contributions of different actin isoforms during embryogenesis. Of the six actin isoforms, only the two cytoplasmic actins, ,cyto - and ,cyto -actin, are ubiquitously expressed. We found that ,cyto -actin null (Actg1,/,) mice were fully viable during embryonic development, but most died within 48 h of birth due to respiratory failure and cannibalization by the parents. While no morphogenetic defects were identified, Actg1,/, mice exhibited stunted growth during embryonic and postnatal development as well as delayed cardiac outflow tract formation that resolved by birth. Using primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts, we confirm that ,cyto -actin is not required for cell migration. The Actg1,/, cells, however, exhibited growth impairment and reduced cell viability, defects which perhaps contribute to the stunted growth and developmental delays observed in Actg1,/, embryos. Since the total amount of actin protein was maintained in Actg1,/, cells, our data suggests a distinct requirement for ,cyto -actin in cell growth and survival. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Preimplantation development of mouse: A view from cellular behavior

    Toshihiko Fujimori
    A mature animal body contains a variety of different cell types, and these cells are distributed in a well-organized fashion along the body axes. One of the major questions in developmental biology is how cells acquire different characteristics. In addition, it is important to understand how the embryo forms the body axes and how cells are allocated along these axes during development. Among mammalian species, the molecular mechanisms that regulate embryonic development have been well analyzed and characterized in mice. Here, mouse preimplantation embryonic development is briefly summarized and our current understanding of this complex process based on recent observations is reviewed. [source]

    Characterization and expression of AmphiBMP3,/3b gene in amphioxus Branchiostoma japonicum

    Yi Sun
    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are responsible for regulating embryo development and tissue homeostasis beyond osteogenesis. However, the precise biological roles of BMP3 and BMP3b remain obscure to a certain extent. In the present study, we cloned an orthologous gene (AmphiBMP3/3b) from amphioxus (Branchiostoma japonicum) and found its exon/intron organization is highly conserved. Further, in situ hybridization revealed that the gene was strongly expressed in the dorsal neural plate of the embryos. The gene also appeared in Hatschek's left diverticulum, neural tube, preoral ciliated pit and gill slit of larvae, and adult tissues including ovary, neural tube and notochordal sheath. Additionally, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RTqPCR) analysis revealed that the expression displayed two peaks at gastrula and juvenile stages. These results indicated that AmphiBMP3/3b, a sole orthologue of vertebrate BMP3 and BMP3b, might antagonize ventralizing BMP2 orthologous signaling in embryonic development, play a role in the evolutionary precursors of adenohypophysis, as well as act in female ovary physiology in adult. [source]

    Anterior,posterior patterning of neural differentiated embryonic stem cells by canonical Wnts, Fgfs, Bmp4 and their respective antagonists

    Marijke Hendrickx
    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent and can differentiate into every cell type of the body. Next to their potential in regenerative medicine, they are excellent tools to study embryonic development. In this work the processes of neural induction and neural patterning along the antero-posterior (A/P) body axis are studied and evidence suggests a two step mechanism for these events. First, neural induction occurs by default in the primitive ectoderm, forming anterior neural tissue and thereafter, a series of factors can posteriorize this anterior neurectoderm. In a gain-of-function/loss-of-function approach using mouse ES cells, we show that Fgf2 has the strongest caudalizing potential of all Fgfs tested. Furthermore, Bmp4 and Wnt3a, but not Wnt1, can caudalize the neurectodermal cells. The effect of the antagonists of these factors was also examined and though Dkk1 and Noggin clearly have an effect that opposes that of Wnt3a and Bmp4 respectively, they fail to anteriorize the neurectoderm. The patterning effect of SU5402, an Fgf receptor inhibitor, was rather limited. These data confirm that in the mouse, two steps are involved in neural patterning and we show that while Fgf4, Fgf8 and Wnt1 have no strong patterning effect, Fgf2, Wnt3a and Bmp4 are strong posteriorizing factors. [source]

    Retinoic acid affects craniofacial patterning by changing Fgf8 expression in the pharyngeal ectoderm

    Makoto Abe
    Retinoic acid signaling plays important roles in establishing normal patterning and cellular differentiation during embryonic development. In this study, we show that single administration of retinoic acid at embryonic day 8.5 causes homeotic transformation of the lower jaw into upper jaw-like structures. This homeosis was preceded by downregulation of Fgf8 and Sprouty expression in the proximal domain of the first pharyngeal arch. Downregulation of mesenchymal genes such as Dlx5, Hand2, Tbx1 and Pitx2 was also observed. The oropharynx in retinoic acid-treated embryos was severely constricted. Consistent with this observation, Patched expression in the arch endoderm and mesenchyme was downregulated. Thus, retinoic acid affects the expression of subsets of epithelial and mesenchymal genes, possibly disrupting the regional identity of the pharyngeal arch. [source]

    Sp1-like transcription factors are regulators of embryonic development in vertebrates

    Chengtian Zhao
    Sp1-like family is an expanding transcription factor family. Members of this family bind to the GC-box or GT-box elements in the promoter/enhancers and regulate the expression of the target genes. Currently, this family consists of at least nine members, which may act as a transactivator or a repressor on target promoters. Sp1-like transcription factors are expressed during development of vertebrate embryos in ubiquitous or tissue-specific manners and play various roles in embryonic development. This review mainly summarises their expression patterns and functions during vertebrate embryogenesis. [source]