Element Methods (element + methods)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Element Methods

 boundary element methods finite element methods

Selected Abstracts

p-FEM2000,International Conference on p and hp Finite Element Methods: Mathematics and Engineering Practice

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN ENGINEERING, Issue 1 2002
Guest Editor, Zohar Yosibash Conference Chairman

hp -Adaptive Finite Element Methods for Variational Inequalities

PROCEEDINGS IN APPLIED MATHEMATICS & MECHANICS, Issue 1 2008
Andreas SchröderArticle first published online: 25 FEB 200
In this work, we combine an hp,adaptive strategy with a posteriori error estimates for variational inequalities, which are given by contact problems. The a posteriori error estimates are obtained using a general approach based on the saddle point formulation of contact problems and making use of a yposteriori error estimates for variational equations. Error estimates are presented for obstacle problems and Signorini problems with friction. Numerical experiments confirm the reliability of the error estimates for finite elements of higher order. The use of the hp,adaptive strategy leads to meshes with the same characteristics as geometric meshes and to exponential convergence. (© 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

The three-dimension finite element analysis of stress in posterior tooth residual root restored with postcore crown

DENTAL TRAUMATOLOGY, Issue 1 2010
Gang Fu
Some researchers have analyzed the stress of the anterior teeth after postcore crown restoration, but the stress of the posterior teeth after such restoration has not been reported. We used three-dimension finite element methods to analyze the stress magnitude and distribution of remaining dentin in posterior tooth residual root restored with postcore crown. The binding material, loading direction, number, length and material of posts were studied. Methods:, The models of residual root of maxillary first molar restored with postcore crown were created by CT scanning, mimics software and abaqus software. Different number, length and material of posts were used in the modeling. The posts were cemented with zinc-phosphate cement or composited resin. A load of 240 N was applied to the occlusal surface in four directions and tensile, shear, and von Mises stresses were calculated. Result:, (i) The maximum stress on remaining dentin changed irregularly as the number and length of posts changed. (ii) The maximum stress on remaining dentin decreased slightly as elastic modulus of the material of posts increased. (iii) The maximum stress on bonding layer and remaining dentin was lower when bonded with resin luting agent than with zinc-phosphate cement. (iv) The maximum stress on remaining dentin increased markedly as loading angle increased. Conclusion:, The number, length, material of posts, bonding material and loading angle all have influence on the magnitude and distribution of stress. The influence of loading angle is most apparent. [source]

Casualty occurrence mechanism in the collapse of timber-frame houses during an earthquake

EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS, Issue 12 2004
Junji Kiyono
Abstract The collapse of timber-frame houses during an earthquake was analyzed by the 2-dimensional (2D) and 3-dimensional (3D) distinct element methods (DEM). The DEM is a numerical analysis technique in which positions of elements are calculated by solving equations of motion step by step. Both individual and group behavior can be simulated. The structure is modeled as an assembly of distinct elements connected by virtual springs and dashpots where elements come into contact. A timber-frame house with simple structural elements; beams, columns, floors, and a roof, was modeled. Injury to human bodies also was considered. Human bodies modeled as circles (2D) or rectangular parallelepipeds (3D) were placed on its floors. The maximum impact acceleration on the human body during an earthquake was calculated. Injury to humans in houses was assessed by the Chest-G index and Head Injury Criteria (HIC) widely used in automobile engineering. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Similarities of stress concentrations in contact at round punches and fatigue at notches: implications to fretting fatigue crack initiation

FATIGUE & FRACTURE OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, Issue 7 2000
Giannakopoulos
A linear elastic model of the stress concentration due to contact between a rounded flat punch and a homogeneous substrate is presented, with the aim of investigating fretting fatigue crack initiation in contacting parts of vibrating structures including turbine engines. The asymptotic forms for the stress fields in the vicinity of a rounded punch-on-flat substrate are derived for both normal and tangential loading, using both analytical and finite element methods. Under the action of the normal load, P, the ensuing contact is of width 2b which includes an initial flat part of width 2a. The asymptotic stress fields for the sharply rounded flat punch contact have certain similarities with the asymptotic stress fields around the tip of a blunt crack. The analysis showed that the maximum tensile stress, which occurs at the contact boundary due to tangential load Q, is proportional to a mode II stress intensity factor of a sharp punch divided by the square root of the additional contact length due to the roundness of the punch, Q/(,(b,,,a),,b). The fretting fatigue crack initiation can then be investigated by relating the maximum tensile stress with the fatigue endurance stress. The result is analogous to that of Barsom and McNicol where the notched fatigue endurance stress was correlated with the stress intensity factor and the square root of the notch-tip radius. The proposed methodology establishes a ,notch analogue' by making a connection between fretting fatigue at a rounded punch/flat contact and crack initiation at a notch tip and uses fracture mechanics concepts. Conditions of validity of the present model are established both to avoid yielding and to account for the finite thickness of the substrate. The predictions of the model are compared with fretting fatigue experiments on Ti,6Al,4V and shown to be in good agreement. [source]

Comparison of methods to model the gravitational gradients from topographic data bases

GEOPHYSICAL JOURNAL INTERNATIONAL, Issue 3 2006
Christopher Jekeli
SUMMARY A number of methods have been developed over the last few decades to model the gravitational gradients using digital elevation data. All methods are based on second-order derivatives of the Newtonian mass integral for the gravitational potential. Foremost are algorithms that divide the topographic masses into prisms or more general polyhedra and sum the corresponding gradient contributions. Other methods are designed for computational speed and make use of the fast Fourier transform (FFT), require a regular rectangular grid of data, and yield gradients on the entire grid, but only at constant altitude. We add to these the ordinary numerical integration (in horizontal coordinates) of the gradient integrals. In total we compare two prism, two FFT and two ordinary numerical integration methods using 1, elevation data in two topographic regimes (rough and moderate terrain). Prism methods depend on the type of finite elements that are generated with the elevation data; in particular, alternative triangulations can yield significant differences in the gradients (up to tens of Eötvös). The FFT methods depend on a series development of the topographic heights, requiring terms up to 14th order in rough terrain; and, one popular method has significant bias errors (e.g. 13 Eötvös in the vertical,vertical gradient) embedded in its practical realization. The straightforward numerical integrations, whether on a rectangular or triangulated grid, yield sub-Eötvös differences in the gradients when compared to the other methods (except near the edges of the integration area) and they are as efficient computationally as the finite element methods. [source]

Research on the human thermal model with a poly-segmented hand

HEAT TRANSFER - ASIAN RESEARCH (FORMERLY HEAT TRANSFER-JAPANESE RESEARCH), Issue 2 2008
Ding Li
Abstract A more integral human thermal model was built by combining the human thermal cylindrical model and the manual poly-segment thermal model. Finite element methods (FEM) was used to define the body thermal model. It was in good agreement with the experimental results. The results show: the experimental results are consistent with the calculated value, when suitable blood flux is taken into consideration. The blood flux is in a certain range when the manual temperature is stable. Blood flux is the major factor in the manual temperature field. Body temperature and intake artery temperature have little effect on the hand temperature. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Heat Trans Asian Res, 37(2): 94,100, 2008; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/htj.20187 [source]

Curvature- and displacement-based finite element analyses of flexible slider crank mechanisms

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, Issue 10 2010
Y. L. Kuo
Abstract The paper presents the applications of the curvature- and displacement-based finite element methods to flexible slider crank mechanisms. The displacement-based method usually needs more elements or high-degree polynomials to obtain highly accurate solutions. The curvature-based method assumes a polynomial to approximate a curvature distribution, and the expressions are investigated to obtain the displacement and rotation distributions. During the process, the boundary conditions associated with displacement, rotation, and curvature are imposed, which leads the great reduction of the number of degrees of freedom that are required. The numerical results demonstrate that the errors obtained by applying the curvature-based method are much smaller than those by applying the displacement-based method, based on the comparison of the same number of degrees of freedom. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

A discontinuous Galerkin method for elliptic interface problems with application to electroporation

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, Issue 10 2009
Grégory Guyomarc'h
Abstract We solve elliptic interface problems using a discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method, for which discontinuities in the solution and in its normal derivatives are prescribed on an interface inside the domain. Standard ways to solve interface problems with finite element methods consist in enforcing the prescribed discontinuity of the solution in the finite element space. Here, we show that the DG method provides a natural framework to enforce both discontinuities weakly in the DG formulation, provided the triangulation of the domain is fitted to the interface. The resulting discretization leads to a symmetric system that can be efficiently solved with standard algorithms. The method is shown to be optimally convergent in the L2 -norm. We apply our method to the numerical study of electroporation, a widely used medical technique with applications to gene therapy and cancer treatment. Mathematical models of electroporation involve elliptic problems with dynamic interface conditions. We discretize such problems into a sequence of elliptic interface problems that can be solved by our method. We obtain numerical results that agree with known exact solutions. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Comparison of two wave element methods for the Helmholtz problem

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, Issue 1 2009
T. Huttunen
Abstract In comparison with low-order finite element methods (FEMs), the use of oscillatory basis functions has been shown to reduce the computational complexity associated with the numerical approximation of Helmholtz problems at high wave numbers. We compare two different wave element methods for the 2D Helmholtz problems. The methods chosen for this study are the partition of unity FEM (PUFEM) and the ultra-weak variational formulation (UWVF). In both methods, the local approximation of wave field is computed using a set of plane waves for constructing the basis functions. However, the methods are based on different variational formulations; the PUFEM basis also includes a polynomial component, whereas the UWVF basis consists purely of plane waves. As model problems we investigate propagating and evanescent wave modes in a duct with rigid walls and singular eigenmodes in an L-shaped domain. Results show a good performance of both methods for the modes in the duct, but only a satisfactory accuracy was obtained in the case of the singular field. On the other hand, both the methods can suffer from the ill-conditioning of the resulting matrix system. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

An improved meshless collocation method for elastostatic and elastodynamic problems

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, Issue 8 2008
P. H. Wen
Abstract Meshless methods for solving differential equations have become a promising alternative to the finite element and boundary element methods. In this paper, an improved meshless collocation method is presented for use with either moving least square (MLS) or compactly supported radial basis functions (RBFs). A new technique referred to as an indirect derivative method is developed and compared with the direct derivative technique used for evaluation of second-order derivatives and higher-order derivatives of the MLS and RBF shape functions at the field point. As the derivatives are obtained from a local approximation (MLS or compact support RBFs), the new method is computationally economical and efficient. Neither the connectivity of mesh in the domain/boundary nor integrations with fundamental/particular solutions is required in this approach. The accuracy of the two techniques to determine the second-order derivative of shape function is assessed. The applications of meshless method to two-dimensional elastostatic and elastodynamic problems have been presented and comparisons have been made with benchmark analytical solutions. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Finite element and finite volume simulation and error assessment of polymer melt flow in closed channels

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, Issue 11 2006
M. Vaz Jr.
Abstract This work aims at evaluating the discretization errors associated to the finite volume and finite element methods of polymer melt flow in closed channels. Two strategies are discussed: (i) Richardson extrapolation and (ii) a posteriori error estimation based on projection/smoothing techniques. The numerical model accounts for the full interaction between the thermal effects caused by viscous heating and the momentum diffusion effects dictated by a shear rate and temperature-dependent constitutive model. The simulations have been performed for the commercial polymer Polyacetal POM-M90-44. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Efficiency of boundary element methods for time-dependent convective heat diffusion at high Peclet numbers

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, Issue 4 2005
M. M. Grigoriev
Abstract A higher-order boundary element method (BEM) recently developed by the current authors (Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 2003; 192: 4281,4298; 4299,4312; 4313,4335) for time-dependent convective heat diffusion in two-dimensions appears to be a very attractive tool for efficient simulations of transient linear flows. However, the previous BEM formulation is restricted to relatively small time step sizes (i.e. ,t,4,/V2) owing to the convergence issues of the time series for the kernel representation within a time interval. This paper extends the boundary element formulation in a way to allow time step sizes several orders of magnitude larger than in the previous approach. We consider an example problem of thermal propagation, and investigate the accuracy and efficiency of BEM formulations for Peclet numbers in the range from 103 to 105. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Evaluation of well performance using the coupling of boundary element with finite element methods

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, Issue 11 2004
L. Jeannin
Abstract In this paper, we apply an FEM,BEM coupling method in petroleum engineering to evaluate complex wells (or fractures) performance. We use boundary element methods around wells and fractures, and finite elements in the remaining part of the reservoir. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

On the calculation of normals in free-surface flow problems

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, Issue 5 2004
M. A. Walkley
Abstract The use of boundary-conforming finite element methods is considered for the solution of surface-tension-dominated free-surface flow problems in three dimensions. This class of method is based upon the use of a moving mesh whose velocity is driven by the motion of the free surface, which is in turn determined via a kinematic boundary condition for the normal velocity. The significance of the method used to compute the normal direction at the finite element node points for a C0 piecewise-polynomial free surface is investigated. In particular, it is demonstrated that the concept of mass-consistent normals on an isoparametric quadratic tetrahedral mesh is flawed. In this case an alternative, purely geometric, normal is shown to lead to a far more robust numerical algorithm. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

A note on energy conservation for Hamiltonian systems using continuous time finite elements

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, Issue 12 2001
Peter HansboArticle first published online: 5 NOV 200
Abstract In this note we suggest a new approach to ensure energy conservation in time-continuous finite element methods for non-linear Hamiltonian problems. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Upper and lower bounds for natural frequencies: A property of the smoothed finite element methods

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN ENGINEERING, Issue 2 2010
Zhi-Qian Zhang
Abstract Node-based smoothed finite element method (NS-FEM) using triangular type of elements has been found capable to produce upper bound solutions (to the exact solutions) for force driving static solid mechanics problems due to its monotonic ,soft' behavior. This paper aims to formulate an NS-FEM for lower bounds of the natural frequencies for free vibration problems. To make the NS-FEM temporally stable, an ,-FEM is devised by combining the compatible and smoothed strain fields in a partition of unity fashion controlled by ,,[0, 1], so that both the properties of stiff FEM and the monotonically soft NS-FEM models can be properly combined for a desired purpose. For temporally stabilizing NS-FEM, , is chosen small so that it acts like a ,regularization parameter' making the NS-FEM stable, but still with sufficient softness ensuring lower bounds for natural frequency solution. Our numerical studies demonstrate that (1) using a proper ,, the spurious non-zero energy modes can be removed and the NS-FEM becomes temporally stable; (2) the stabilized NS-FEM becomes a general approach for solids to obtain lower bounds to the exact natural frequencies over the whole spectrum; (3) ,-FEM can even be tuned for obtaining nearly exact natural frequencies. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Thermodynamically consistent phase-field models of fracture: Variational principles and multi-field FE implementations

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN ENGINEERING, Issue 10 2010
C. Miehe
Abstract The computational modeling of failure mechanisms in solids due to fracture based on sharp crack discontinuities suffers in situations with complex crack topologies. This can be overcome by a diffusive crack modeling based on the introduction of a crack phase-field. In this paper, we outline a thermodynamically consistent framework for phase-field models of crack propagation in elastic solids, develop incremental variational principles and consider their numerical implementations by multi-field finite element methods. We start our investigation with an intuitive and descriptive derivation of a regularized crack surface functional that ,-converges for vanishing length-scale parameter to a sharp crack topology functional. This functional provides the basis for the definition of suitable convex dissipation functions that govern the evolution of the crack phase-field. Here, we propose alternative rate-independent and viscous over-force models that ensure the local growth of the phase-field. Next, we define an energy storage function whose positive tensile part degrades with increasing phase-field. With these constitutive functionals at hand, we derive the coupled balances of quasi-static stress equilibrium and gradient-type phase-field evolution in the solid from the argument of virtual power. Here, we consider a canonical two-field setting for rate-independent response and a time-regularized three-field formulation with viscous over-force response. It is then shown that these balances follow as the Euler equations of incremental variational principles that govern the multi-field problems. These principles make the proposed formulation extremely compact and provide a perfect base for the finite element implementation, including features such as the symmetry of the monolithic tangent matrices. We demonstrate the performance of the proposed phase-field formulations of fracture by means of representative numerical examples. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Decoupling and balancing of space and time errors in the material point method (MPM)

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN ENGINEERING, Issue 10 2010
Michael Steffen
Abstract The material point method (MPM) is a computationally effective particle method with mathematical roots in both particle-in-cell and finite element-type methods. The method has proven to be extremely useful in solving solid mechanics problems involving large deformations and/or fragmentation of structures, problem domains that are sometimes problematic for finite element-type methods. Recently, the MPM community has focused significant attention on understanding the basic mathematical error properties of the method. Complementary to this thrust, in this paper we show how spatial and temporal errors are typically coupled within the MPM framework. In an attempt to overcome the challenge to analysis that this coupling poses, we take advantage of MPM's connection to finite element methods by developing a ,moving-mesh' variant of MPM that allows us to use finite element-type error analysis to demonstrate and understand the spatial and temporal error behaviors of MPM. We then provide an analysis and demonstration of various spatial and temporal errors in MPM and in simplified MPM-type simulations. Our analysis allows us to anticipate the global error behavior in MPM-type methods and allows us to estimate the time-step where spatial and temporal errors are balanced. Larger time-steps result in solutions dominated by temporal errors and show second-order temporal error convergence. Smaller time-steps result in solutions dominated by spatial errors, and hence temporal refinement produces no appreciative change in the solution. Based upon our understanding of MPM from both analysis and numerical experimentation, we are able to provide to MPM practitioners a collection of guidelines to be used in the selection of simulation parameters that respect the interplay between spatial (grid) resolution, number of particles and time-step. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Stress and strain-driven algorithmic formulations for finite strain viscoplasticity for hybrid and standard finite elements

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN ENGINEERING, Issue 7 2009
C. S. Jog
Abstract This work deals with the formulation and implementation of finite deformation viscoplasticity within the framework of stress-based hybrid finite element methods. Hybrid elements, which are based on a two-field variational formulation, are much less susceptible to locking than conventional displacement-based elements. The conventional return-mapping scheme cannot be used in the context of hybrid stress methods since the stress is known, and the strain and the internal plastic variables have to be recovered using this known stress field. We discuss the formulation and implementation of the consistent tangent tensor, and the return-mapping algorithm within the context of the hybrid method. We demonstrate the efficacy of the algorithm on a wide range of problems. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

A space,time discontinuous Galerkin method for the solution of the wave equation in the time domain

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN ENGINEERING, Issue 3 2009
Steffen Petersen
Abstract In recent years, the focus of research in the field of computational acoustics has shifted to the medium frequency regime and multiscale wave propagation. This has led to the development of new concepts including the discontinuous enrichment method. Its basic principle is the incorporation of features of the governing partial differential equation in the approximation. In this contribution, this concept is adapted for the simulation of transient problems governed by the wave equation. We present a space,time discontinuous Galerkin method with Lagrange multipliers, where the shape approximation in space and time is based on solutions of the homogeneous wave equation. The use of hierarchical wave-like basis functions is enabled by means of a variational formulation that allows for discontinuities in both the spatial and the temporal discretizations. Numerical examples in one space dimension demonstrate the outstanding performance of the proposed method compared with conventional space,time finite element methods. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

A posteriori error estimation for extended finite elements by an extended global recovery

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN ENGINEERING, Issue 8 2008
Marc Duflot
Abstract This contribution presents an extended global derivative recovery for enriched finite element methods (FEMs), such as the extended FEM along with an associated error indicator. Owing to its simplicity, the proposed scheme is ideally suited to industrial applications. The procedure is based on global minimization of the L2 norm of the difference between the raw strain field (C,1) and the recovered (C0) strain field. The methodology engineered in this paper extends the ideas of Oden and Brauchli (Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng 1971; 3) and Hinton and Campbell (Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng 1974; 8) by enriching the approximation used for the construction of the recovered derivatives (strains) with the gradients of the functions employed to enrich the approximation employed for the primal unknown (displacements). We show linear elastic fracture mechanics examples, both in simple two-dimensional settings, and for a three-dimensional structure. Numerically, we show that the effectivity index of the proposed indicator converges to unity upon mesh refinement. Consequently, the approximate error converges to the exact error, indicating that the error indicator is valid. Additionally, the numerical examples suggest a novel adaptive strategy for enriched approximations in which the dimensions of the enrichment zone are first increased, before standard h - and p -adaptivities are applied; we suggest to coin this methodology e-adaptivity. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Smooth finite element methods: Convergence, accuracy and properties

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN ENGINEERING, Issue 2 2008
Hung Nguyen-Xuan
Abstract A stabilized conforming nodal integration finite element method based on strain smoothing stabilization is presented. The integration of the stiffness matrix is performed on the boundaries of the finite elements. A rigorous variational framework based on the Hu,Washizu assumed strain variational form is developed. We prove that solutions yielded by the proposed method are in a space bounded by the standard, finite element solution (infinite number of subcells) and a quasi-equilibrium finite element solution (a single subcell). We show elsewhere the equivalence of the one-subcell element with a quasi-equilibrium finite element, leading to a global a posteriori error estimate. We apply the method to compressible and incompressible linear elasticity problems. The method can always achieve higher accuracy and convergence rates than the standard finite element method, especially in the presence of incompressibility, singularities or distorted meshes, for a slightly smaller computational cost. It is shown numerically that the one-cell smoothed four-noded quadrilateral finite element has a convergence rate of 2.0 in the energy norm for problems with smooth solutions, which is remarkable. For problems with rough solutions, this element always converges faster than the standard finite element and is free of volumetric locking without any modification of integration scheme. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Coupling electrical and mechanical effects in discrete element simulations

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN ENGINEERING, Issue 2 2008
M. Renouf
Abstract When investigating the electrical characteristics of granular assemblies under dynamical solicitations (powder, steel bead assemblies, etc.), it is difficult to distinguish between effects that are purely electrical and those that are strongly dependent on mechanical effects. Although numerous experimental works have permitted better understanding of the static electrical behaviour of such media, it is difficult to determine the effects control the multi-physical behaviour of the medium, especially under dynamical solicitations. In the present paper, numerical investigations of the electrical characteristics of granular material are proposed. Moreover, it presents the formulation of a new model, embedded in the general scheme of discrete element methods, that couples electrical and mechanical effects and takes into account the oxidation phenomenon. Numerical simulations on the basis of experimental works are performed to validate the model, and the results of dynamical simulations are discussed. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Hybrid and enhanced finite element methods for problems of soil consolidation

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN ENGINEERING, Issue 2 2007
X. X. Zhou
Abstract Hybrid and enhanced finite element methods with bi-linear interpolations for both the solid displacements and the pore fluid pressures are derived based on mixed variational principles for problems of elastic soil consolidation. Both plane strain and axisymmetric problems are studied. It is found that by choosing appropriate interpolation of enhanced strains in the enhanced method, and by choosing appropriate interpolations of strains, effective stresses and enhanced strains in the hybrid method, the oscillations of nodal pore pressures can be eliminated. Several numerical examples demonstrating the capability and performance of the enhanced and hybrid finite element methods are presented. It is also shown that for some situations, such as problems involving high Poisson's ratio and in other related problems where bending effects are evident, the performance of the enhanced and hybrid methods are superior to that of the conventional displacement-based method. The results from the hybrid method are better than those from the enhanced method for some situations, such as problems in which soil permeability is variable or discontinuous within elements. Since all the element parameters except the nodal displacements and nodal pore pressures are assumed in the element level and can be eliminated by static condensation, the implementations of the enhanced method and the hybrid method are basically the same as the conventional displacement-based finite element method. The present enhanced method and hybrid method can be easily extended to non-linear consolidation problems. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Radial point interpolation based finite difference method for mechanics problems

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN ENGINEERING, Issue 7 2006
G. R. Liu
Abstract A radial point interpolation based finite difference method (RFDM) is proposed in this paper. In this novel method, radial point interpolation using local irregular nodes is used together with the conventional finite difference procedure to achieve both the adaptivity to irregular domain and the stability in the solution that is often encountered in the collocation methods. A least-square technique is adopted, which leads to a system matrix with good properties such as symmetry and positive definiteness. Several numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the accuracy and stability of the RFDM for problems with complex shapes and regular and extremely irregular nodes. The results are examined in detail in comparison with other numerical approaches such as the radial point collocation method that uses local nodes, conventional finite difference and finite element methods. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Efficient non-linear solid,fluid interaction analysis by an iterative BEM/FEM coupling

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN ENGINEERING, Issue 11 2005
D. Soares Jr
Abstract An iterative coupling of finite element and boundary element methods for the time domain modelling of coupled fluid,solid systems is presented. While finite elements are used to model the solid, the adjacent fluid is represented by boundary elements. In order to perform the coupling of the two numerical methods, a successive renewal of the variables on the interface between the two subdomains is performed through an iterative procedure until the final convergence is achieved. In the case of local non-linearities within the finite element subdomain, it is straightforward to perform the iterative coupling together with the iterations needed to solve the non-linear system. In particular a more efficient and a more stable performance of the new coupling procedure is achieved by a special formulation that allows to use different time steps in each subdomain. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

A fast multi-level convolution boundary element method for transient diffusion problems

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN ENGINEERING, Issue 14 2005
C.-H. Wang
Abstract A new algorithm is developed to evaluate the time convolution integrals that are associated with boundary element methods (BEM) for transient diffusion. This approach, which is based upon the multi-level multi-integration concepts of Brandt and Lubrecht, provides a fast, accurate and memory efficient time domain method for this entire class of problems. Conventional BEM approaches result in operation counts of order O(N2) for the discrete time convolution over N time steps. Here we focus on the formulation for linear problems of transient heat diffusion and demonstrate reduced computational complexity to order O(N3/2) for three two-dimensional model problems using the multi-level convolution BEM. Memory requirements are also significantly reduced, while maintaining the same level of accuracy as the conventional time domain BEM approach. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The modelling of multi-fracturing solids and particulate media

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN ENGINEERING, Issue 1 2004
D. R. J. Owen
Abstract Computational strategies in the context of combined discrete/finite element methods for effective modelling of large-scale practical problems involving multiple fracture and discrete phenomena are reviewed in the present work. The issues considered include: (1) Fracture criteria and propagation mechanisms within both the finite and discrete elements, together with mesh adaptivity procedures for discretization and introduction of fracture systems; (2) Detection procedures for monitoring contact between large numbers of discrete elements; (3) Interaction laws governing the response of contact pairs; (4) Parallel implementation; (5) Other issues, such as element methodology for near incompressible behaviour and generation of random packing of discrete objects. The applicability of the methodology developed is illustrated through selected practical examples. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Stabilized finite element methods with reduced integration techniques for miscible displacements in porous media

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN ENGINEERING, Issue 4 2004
C. M. Dias
Abstract The objective of this work is to study some techniques to increase computational performance of stabilized finite element simulations of miscible displacements. We propose the use of a reduced integration technique for bilinear quadrilateral elements in the determination of the pressure and concentration fields. We also study the evaluation of pressure gradient (Darcy's velocity) by differentiation at super-convergent points. Numerical examples are shown to validate our approach, accessing its efficiency and accuracy. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]