Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Efforts

  • additional effort
  • advocacy effort
  • breeding effort
  • broader effort
  • campaign effort
  • cessation effort
  • change effort
  • collaborative effort
  • collection effort
  • combined effort
  • communication effort
  • community effort
  • computation effort
  • computational effort
  • concerted effort
  • conservation effort
  • considerable effort
  • considerable research effort
  • continued effort
  • continuing effort
  • continuous effort
  • control effort
  • cooperative effort
  • coping effort
  • current effort
  • development effort
  • discovery effort
  • drug discovery effort
  • early effort
  • education effort
  • educational effort
  • enforcement effort
  • experimental effort
  • extensive effort
  • extra effort
  • fishing effort
  • foraging effort
  • fundraising effort
  • future conservation effort
  • future effort
  • future research effort
  • genomics effort
  • government effort
  • great effort
  • greater effort
  • health effort
  • health promotion effort
  • implementation effort
  • important effort
  • improvement effort
  • increased effort
  • individual effort
  • initial effort
  • intense effort
  • intensive effort
  • international effort
  • intervention effort
  • joint effort
  • large effort
  • little effort
  • local effort
  • long-term effort
  • major effort
  • management effort
  • many effort
  • maternal effort
  • mating effort
  • mediation effort
  • mental effort
  • minimal effort
  • minimum effort
  • mitigation effort
  • modeling effort
  • modelling effort
  • monitoring effort
  • national effort
  • new product development effort
  • ongoing effort
  • outreach effort
  • own effort
  • parental effort
  • particular effort
  • past effort
  • planning effort
  • policy effort
  • prevention effort
  • preventive effort
  • previous effort
  • product development effort
  • programming effort
  • promotion effort
  • public health effort
  • quality improvement effort
  • recent effort
  • reconstruction effort
  • recovery effort
  • recruitment effort
  • rehabilitation effort
  • relief effort
  • remediation effort
  • reproductive effort
  • research effort
  • respiratory effort
  • restoration effort
  • resuscitation effort
  • resuscitative effort
  • sampling effort
  • scientific effort
  • search effort
  • sequencing effort
  • serious effort
  • service effort
  • significant effort
  • special effort
  • stabilization effort
  • state effort
  • structural genomics effort
  • substantial effort
  • successful effort
  • support effort
  • surveillance effort
  • survey effort
  • systematic effort
  • team effort
  • therapeutic effort
  • training effort
  • trapping effort
  • treatment effort
  • unit effort
  • various effort
  • work effort
  • worker effort

  • Terms modified by Efforts

  • effort data
  • effort level

  • Selected Abstracts


    Cleridy E. Lennert-Cody
    Abstract Spotted dolphins in the eastern Pacific Ocean associate with yellowfin tuna. During the chase and encirclement phases of purse-seining for tunas, dolphin attempt to evade encirclement with the purse-seine net. We used data on evasive behavior (1982,2001) and numbers of purse-seine sets (1959,2001) to study the relationship between evasion and fishing effort. Results show that in nearshore areas first exploited by the fishery in the early 1960s, dolphins exhibited high evasion, but with a limited correlation between evasion and cumulative effort. In areas farther offshore next exploited in the mid-to late-1960s, dolphins showed high evasion and a significant correlation between evasion and cumulative effort. Dolphins in far-western and southern areas, first exploited in the late 1960s to early 1970s, exhibited low evasion, with little relationship to cumulative effort. We hypothesize that this spatial pattern is the result of two types of pressure from fishing: early effort in nearshore areas with a high risk of mortality that generated a lasting evasive response, followed by a longer period of even greater effort but with lower risk of mortality that generated evasion by longer-term learning. [source]


    ABSTRACT. Consider a population subjected to constant effort or constant quota fishing with a generaldensity-dependence population growth function (because that function is poorly known). Consider environmental random fluctuations that either affect an intrinsic growth parameter or birth/death rates, thus resulting in two stochastic differential equations models. From previous results of ours, we obtain conditions for non-extinction and for existence of a population size stationary density. Constant quota (which always leads to extinction in random environments) and constant effort policies are studied; they are hard to implement for extreme population sizes. Introducing cut-offs circumvents these drawbacks. In a deterministic environment, for a wide range of values, cutting-off does not affect the steady-state yield. This is not so in a random environment and we will give expressions showing how steady-state average yield and population size distribution vary as functions of cut-off choices. We illustrate these general results with function plots for the particular case of logistic growth. [source]


    Marc Fleurbaey
    First page of article [source]


    ABSTRACT Objective:, To contrast relief efforts for the 26 December 2004 tsunami with current global HIV/AIDS relief efforts and analyse possible reasons for the disparity. Methods:, Literature review and ethical analysis. Results:, Just over 273,000 people died in the tsunami, resulting in relief efforts of more than US$10 bn, which is sufficient to achieve the United Nation's long-term recovery plan for South East Asia. In contrast, 14 times more people died from HIV/AIDS in 2004, with UNAIDS predicting a US$8 bn funding gap for HIV/AIDS in developing nations between now and 2007. This disparity raises two important ethical questions. First, what is it that motivates a more empathic response to the victims of the tsunami than to those affected by HIV/AIDS? Second, is there a morally relevant difference between the two tragedies that justifies the difference in the international response? The principle of justice requires that two cases similarly situated be treated similarly. For the difference in the international response to the tsunami and HIV/AIDS to be justified, the tragedies have to be shown to be dissimilar in some relevant respect. Are the tragedies of the tsunami disaster and the HIV/AIDS pandemic sufficiently different, in relevant respects, to justify the difference in scope of the response by the international community? Conclusion:, We detected no morally relevant distinction between the tsunami and the HIV/AIDS pandemic that justifies the disparity. Therefore, we must conclude that the international response to HIV/AIDS violates the fundamental principles of justice and fairness. [source]


    ECONOMIC AFFAIRS, Issue 1 2009
    Roger Bate
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    ECONOMIC INQUIRY, Issue 2 2009
    Two of the most notable trends in public health over the past 30 yr are the reductions in smoking rates and the rapid rise in obesity rates. Several studies have investigated the relationship between these trends but have drawn different conclusions. In this article, we revisit this issue, attempting to clarify the prior discrepant results. Overall, we find no support for the claim that rising cigarette taxes have significantly contributed to rising obesity rates. Instead, we find only a moderately sized effect among former smokers. (JEL I12) [source]


    Kenneth T. Yetman
    ABSTRACT: The Stream Corridor Assessment survey has been developed by the Maryland Department of Natural Resources as a watershed management tool to identify environmental problems and to help prioritize restoration opportunities on a watershed basis. Potential environmental problems commonly identified during the survey include: stream channel alterations, excessive bank erosion, exposed pipes, inadequate stream buffers, fish migration blockages, trash dumping sites, near stream construction, pipe outfalls, and unusual conditions. In addition, the survey records information on the location of potential wetlands creation sites and collects data on the general condition of instream and riparian habitats. Over the past several years, in collaboration with the Maryland Conservation Corps, watershed associations, and local governments, more than 3,293 km (2,046 miles) of Maryland streams have been surveyed. Overall, the survey has proven to be a cost effective starting point for many watershed restoration efforts. [source]


    BIOETHICS, Issue 7 2010
    First page of article [source]

    Incorporation of Recreational Fishing Effort into Design of Marine Protected Areas

    consulta pública; modelos de reservas marinas; pesca con caña; suposiciones de poza dinámica Abstract:,Theoretical models of marine protected areas (MPAs) that explore benefits to fisheries or biodiversity conservation often assume a dynamic pool of fishing effort. For instance, effort is homogenously distributed over areas from which subsets of reserves are chosen. I tested this and other model assumptions with a case study of the multiple-use Jervis Bay Marine Park. Prior to zoning of the park I conducted 166 surveys of the park's recreational fisheries, plotting the location of 16,009 anglers. I converted these plots into diagrams of fishing effort and analyzed correlates between fishing and habitat and the effect of two reserve designs,the draft and final zoning plans of the park,on the 15 fisheries observed. Fisheries were strongly correlated with particular habitats and had negatively skewed and often bimodal spatial distribution. The second mode of intensely fished habitat could be 6 SD greater than the fishery's mean allocation of effort by area. In the draft-zoning plan, sanctuary zone (no-take) area and potential subduction of fishing effort were similar. In the final plan, which was altered in response to public comment, the area of sanctuary zone increased, and the impact on fishing effort decreased. In only one case was a fishery's most intensely targeted location closed to fishing. Because of the discriminating manner with which fishers target habitats, if simple percentage targets are used for planning, sanctuary location can be adjusted to avoid existing fishing effort. According to modeled outcomes, the implication of this may be diminished reserve effectiveness. To address this, reserve area should be implicitly linked to subducted fishing effort when promoting or modeling MPAs. Resumen:,Los modelos teóricos de áreas marinas protegidas (AMPs) que exploran los beneficios para las pesquerías o la conservación de la biodiversidad a menudo asumen que hay una poza dinámica en el esfuerzo de pesca. Por ejemplo, el esfuerzo es distribuido homogéneamente en áreas en las que se seleccionan subconjuntos de reservas. Probé esta y otras suposiciones del modelo con un estudio de caso del Parque Marino Jarvis Bay. Antes de la zonificación del parque, realicé 166 muestreos de las pesquerías recreativas del parque, dibujando la localización de 16,009 pescadores con caña. Convertí estos dibujos en diagramas de esfuerzo de pesca y analicé las correlaciones entre la pesca, el hábitat y el efecto de dos diseños de reserva,el anteproyecto y los planes finales de zonificación del parque,sobre las 15 pesquerías observadas. Las pesquerías se correlacionaron fuertemente con los hábitats particulares y tenían una distribución espacial sesgada negativamente y a menudo bimodal. El segundo tipo de hábitat pescado intensivamente podría ser 6 DS mayor que la asignación promedio de esfuerzo de pesquería por unidad de área. En el anteproyecto de plan de zonificación, el área santuario (sin pesca) y la subducción potencial del esfuerzo de pesca eran similares. En el plan final, que fue alterado en respuesta a comentarios del público, el área del santuario fue incrementada, y el impacto del esfuerzo de pesca disminuyó. En solo un caso fue cerrado a la pesca la localidad de pesca más intensiva. Debido a la forma discriminada en que los pescadores eligen los hábitats, si se utilizan objetivos porcentuales simples para la planificación, la localización del santuario puede ser ajustada para evitar el esfuerzo de pesca existente. De acuerdo con los resultados del modelo, la implicación puede ser la disminución de la efectividad de la reserva. Para abordar esto, el área de la reserva debiera estar implícitamente relacionada con la reducción del esfuerzo de pesca cuando se promueven o modelan AMPs. [source]

    Outcome measures used in forensic mental health research: a structured review

    Jemma C. Chambers
    Background,The evidence base for forensic mental health (FMH) services has been developing since the late 1990s. Are outcome measures sound enough for the evaluation tasks? Aims,To identify, from published literature, outcome measures used in FMH research and, where feasible, assess their quality. Method,A structured review was undertaken of trials and intervention studies published between 1990 and 2006. Details of outcome variables and measures were abstracted. Evidence regarding most frequently occurring outcome measures was assessed. Results,Four hundred and fifty different instruments were used to assess outcomes, incorporating 1038 distinct variables. Very little evidence could be found to support the measurement properties of commonly used instruments. Conclusions and implications for practice,There is little consistency in the use of outcome measure in FMH research. Effort is required to reach consensus on validated outcome measures in this field in order to better inform practice. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The Role of Interest in Fostering Sixth Grade Students' Identities As Competent Learners

    CURRICULUM INQUIRY, Issue 1 2000
    Jean C. Mcphail
    The combined works of John Dewey and Jerome Bruner provide a framework spanning a century of educational thought which can inform curriculum decisions concerning students' educational development, especially for middle school students whose waning of motivation toward school has been well documented by researchers and has long concerned parents and teachers. This framework, combined with recent contributions of motivation and interest researchers, can create broad understandings of how to collaboratively construct effective educational contexts. As early as 1913, Dewey specifically looked at the pivotal role of students' genuine interests in Interest and Effort in Education. Our current research focus on how students' interest can inform curricular contexts marks the recent shift showing an increased use of interest in education research since 1990. In this article, we discuss our study of a team-taught double classroom of sixth grade students whose interests were determined through a series of brainstorming sessions, and individual and focus group interviews. Students' interests fell into six categories centering around subject areas such as Drama, Science, and Animal Studies. Learning contexts were constructed around four of these subject areas. Students participated in their first or second choice of subject area group. We found significantly higher scores on measures of Affect and Activation if students participated in their first choice group. We found intra-group unities of preferred and dispreferred ways of learning which distinguished each group from the class as a whole. Finally, our findings indicated that students reliably described their genuine interests over time. Students' interests were found to be effective tools for informing curriculum decisions in the creation of sixth grade learning contexts. [source]

    Intertemporal Substitution of Effort: Some Empirical Evidence

    ECONOMICA, Issue 280 2003
    John G. Treble
    The labour economics literature refers often to effort, but there is little empirical evidence as to how productivity and effort respond to wage rate variations. An unusual natural experiment in which wage rates suffered an exogenous change of two weeks' duration gives some insight into the magnitude of this effect. For a group of workers in Victorian County Durham, the effort response, measured as the impact of a temporary wage rate change on output per shift, dominates the response of attendance. Comparison of the estimates presented here with those in Treble (Journal of Economic History, 61, 414,38, 2001) suggests that the effects are short lived. [source]

    Mating Effort and Cryptic Sperm Choice in Scorpionflies: Male Investment Strategy vs.

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 12 2008
    Female Control
    In this study, we examined which sex controls sperm transfer during copulation in scorpionflies. Therefore male scorpionflies were doubly mated to females of high and low fecundity to explore whether they allocate sperm according to female quality. While mating order had no effect males transferred sperm at higher rates when mating with low-quality instead of high-quality females. As there is no obvious benefit from providing low-fecundity females with more sperm, we suggest a condition-dependent female ability to counteract sperm transfer. Therefore, we disabled females at the beginning of copulations using the insecticide Propoxur which leads to total paralysis caused by tremors. While the provoked muscle contractions led to significantly smaller numbers of sperm transferred, Propoxur treatment had no effect on males. We suggest female counteracting of sperm transfer to be adaptive by decreasing the relative amount of sperm transferred by low-quality males and increasing the proportion of offspring sired by high-quality males. [source]

    Maternal Effort is State Dependent: Energetic Limitation or Regulation?

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 4 2008
    Anke Rehling
    Many small altricial rodents have a postpartum oestrus and are often simultaneously pregnant and lactating. Negative influences of concurrent pregnancy and lactation on both lactational performance and the litter in utero are commonly observed and have been interpreted as resulting from high simultaneous energetic demands of gestation and lactation. We studied these effects in the precocial guinea-pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus) that, like many altricial rodents, has a postpartum oestrus, but in which the peaks of energy expenditure on lactation and gestation are widely separated. This life history allowed to investigate whether physiological regulation other than by energetic limitations may be responsible for allocation conflicts arising when lactation and gestation overlap. By comparing simultaneously pregnant and lactating females with lactating non-pregnant females, we show that females in the former group nurse less and wean earlier than females of the latter group. In a comparison of litter size, litter mass, and pup mortality of females that had not been lactating during pregnancy with females that had been simultaneously pregnant and lactating, we show that the latter do not reduce investment in the following litter. In our study, energetic constraints on ad libitum fed females are unlikely and we therefore suggest that the results must be explained by regulatory constraints on lactational effort. We point out that this explanation has not been excluded for the effects observed in altricial small mammals. [source]

    Parental Effort in Relation to Structural Plumage Coloration in the Mountain Bluebird (Sialia currucoides)

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 9 2007
    Susan L. Balenger
    Indicator models of sexual selection suggest that costly ornaments signal reliable information regarding an individual's quality to potential mates. In species that produce altricial offspring, the amount of parental care provided by both males and females can impact reproductive success. The Good Parent Hypothesis proposes that ornamentation in biparental species can act as an honest signal of parental ability to potential mates. We tested this hypothesis using the mountain bluebird (Sialia currucoides), a sexually dichromatic, socially monogamous species in which both sexes have structurally based ornamental plumage coloration. A male's plumage color predicted neither the rate at which it provisioned nestlings nor brood growth rate. The same was true for females. We also found no indication of assortative mating by color or body condition. Feeding rates within pairs were positively correlated, which we suggest may be due to pairs responding similarly to the perceived needs of nestlings or to local area prey availability. In sum, our results do not support the Good Parent Hypothesis as an explanation for the evolution of ornamental plumage color in mountain bluebirds. We suggest alternative hypotheses for the evolution of ornamental plumage color in this species. [source]

    Change of Shift for the Massive Rescue Effort

    Herald Ostovar MSIV
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    New Visions 2000: A Continuing Effort

    Article first published online: 31 DEC 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    The Logic of Action: Indeterminacy, Emotion, and Historical Narrative

    HISTORY AND THEORY, Issue 4 2001
    William M. Reddy
    Modern social theory, by and large, has aimed at reducing the complexity of action situations to a set of manageable abstractions. But these abstractions, whether functionalist or linguistic, fail to grasp the indeterminacy of action situations. Action proceeds by discovery and combination. The logic of action is serendipitous and combinative. From these characteristics, a number of consequences flow: The whole field of our intentions is engaged in each action situation, and cannot really be understood apart from the situation itself. In action situations we remain aware of the problems of categorization, including the dangers of infinite regress and the difficulties of specifying borders and ranges of categories. In action situations, attention is in permanent danger of being overwhelmed. We must deal with many features of action situations outside of attention; in doing so, we must entertain simultaneously numerous possibilities of action. Emotional expression is a way of talking about the kinds of possibilities we entertain. Expression and action have a rebound effect on attention. "Effort" is required to find appropriate expressions and actions, and rebound effects play a role in such effort, making it either easier or more difficult. Recent theoretical trends have failed to capture these irreducible characteristics of action situations, and have slipped into a number of errors. Language is not rich in meanings or multivocal, except as put to use in action situations. The role of "convention" in action situations is problematic, and therefore one ought not to talk of "culture." Contrary to the assertions of certain theorists, actors do not follow strategies, except when they decide to do so. Actors do not "communicate," in the sense of exchanging information, except in specially arranged situations. More frequently, they intervene in the effortful management of attention of their interlocutors. Dialogue, that is, very commonly becomes a form of cooperative emotional effort. From these considerations, it follows that the proper method for gaining social knowledge is to examine the history of action and of emotional effort, and to report findings in the form of narrative. [source]

    Thermal performance of the exhausting and the semi-exhausting triple-glazed airflow windows

    Moo-Hyun Kim
    Abstract The thermal performance of the airflow window systems was studied numerically using the finite-volume method. Effort was directed towards the reduction in space cooling load for the exhausting and the semi-exhausting triple-glazed airflow windows. The effects of various parameters such as exhausting airflow rate, solar insolation, and aspect ratio were presented. Some qualitative and quantitative comparisons between two systems were made. It was disclosed that the space-heat gain was considerably reduced by increasing the exhausting airflow rate, and the decrease in the space-heat gain of the semi-exhausting airflow window was larger than that of the exhausting airflow window by about 10 W throughout most of the Re range (except the range of near Re = 0) of this numerical work. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The Moderating Effect of Situation Strength on the Relationship Between Personality and Provision of Effort,

    Michael J. Withey
    In this research, we examine whether effort-allocation decisions are influenced by the strength of the situation, the personality characteristics of the people involved, and the interaction between these factors. Two role-playing scenarios were created using contextual information (e.g., availability of suitable alternatives) that varied in situation strength. We measured the Big Five personality factors (emotional stability, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) of 418 students prior to the role-playing task and assessed effort-provision decisions after they were exposed to one of the role-playing scenarios. As predicted, our results showed that the effect of personality on provision of effort depended on the strength of the situation. The implications for personality research are discussed. [source]

    Prevention of Youth Violence: Sustaining Our Attention and Effort

    Kathleen Delaney

    Directed Attention in Normal and High-Risk Pregnancy

    Mary Ann Stark
    Objective:, To compare the ability to direct attention in women having a high-risk pregnancy with those having an uncomplicated pregnancy. Design:, Descriptive comparative. Setting:, A tertiary-care hospital. Participants:, Women in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy receiving care from perinatologists were recruited for this study and comprised the high-risk group (n= 67). Women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy with uncomplicated pregnancies and enrolled in prenatal classes were the comparison group (n= 57). Main outcome measures:, Objective measures of directed attention included digit span forward, digit span backward, Trailmaking A, and Trailmaking B. Subjective measures included the Attentional Function Index and Mental Effort in Tasks. Results:, Women having a complicated pregnancy had significantly more difficulty directing attention on all measures than women having normal pregnancies. When all covariates were considered, women having a high-risk pregnancy had significantly more difficulty directing attention as measured by Trailmaking A, Trailmaking B, and Mental Effort in Tasks. Conclusions:, Women having high-risk pregnancies may have more difficulty with activities that require directed attention than women having normal pregnancies. Learning new information and skills, problem solving, and planning may require additional effort for women having complicated pregnancies. JOGNN, 35, 241-249; 2006. DOI: 10.1111/J.1552-6909.2006.00035.x [source]

    Experiencing psychiatric diagnosis: client perspectives on being named mentally ill,

    Y. M. HAYNE rn phd
    In this article is reported result of a phenomenological study whereby privileged view was gained into the lives of persons who had experienced receiving a diagnosis which named ,severe and enduring mental illness'. Thematic analysis yielded the four essential themes of diagnosis as the experience of ,a knowledge that knows', ,destructive (gift) of difference', ,making visible the invisible' and ,making knowledge knowledgeable'. Each of the themes is discussed under its own heading in this paper as a means for describing the nature of ,experiencing psychiatric diagnosis'. Effort is made to provide glimpse into the ,lifeworld' of being diagnosed mentally ill, and the reader's attention is directed to a particular kind of power that exists in the medical language of diagnoses. Discernment is highlighted as most consequential to an ,action sensitive practice' and a case is made for care-providers in psychiatric-mental health care to be sensitized to how medical terminology is experienced and the need to strive for balance within the ,economy of power' contained in these specialized words. [source]

    Calendar year age estimates of Allerød,Younger Dryas sea-level oscillations at Os, western Norway

    Øystein S. Lohne
    Abstract A detailed shoreline displacement curve documents the Younger Dryas transgression in western Norway. The relative sea-level rise was more than 9,m in an area which subsequently experienced an emergence of almost 60,m. The sea-level curve is based on the stratigraphy of six isolation basins with bedrock thresholds. Effort has been made to establish an accurate chronology using a calendar year time-scale by 14C wiggle matching and the use of time synchronic markers (the Vedde Ash Bed and the post-glacial rise in Betula (birch) pollen). The sea-level curve demonstrates that the Younger Dryas transgression started close to the Allerød,Younger Dryas transition and that the high stand was reached only 200,yr before the Younger Dryas,Holocene boundary. The sea level remained at the high stand for about 300,yr and 100,yr into Holocene it started to fall rapidly. The peak of the Younger Dryas transgression occurred simultaneously with the maximum extent of the ice-sheet readvance in the area. Our results support earlier geophysical modelling concluding a causal relationship between the Younger Dryas glacier advance and Younger Dryas transgression in western Norway. We argue that the sea-level curve indicates that the Younger Dryas glacial advance started in the late Allerød or close to the Allerød,Younger Dryas transition. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A Contingency Perspective of Communication, Conflict Resolution and Buyer Search Effort in Buyer-Supplier Relationships

    Cindy Claycomb
    SUMMARY This study investigates the moderating effects of buying context on the relationship between communication elements and the effort buyers exert while searching for new suppliers throughout a buyer-supplier relationship development process. A mail survey of members of the Institute for Supply ManagementÔ was conducted and the data were analyzed using moderated regression. The results suggest that company size, buyer experience, relationship duration and relationship importance affect the association between a buyer's search effort and the communication elements. Interestingly, the buying context affects the relationship between search effort and the communication elements in different ways and to a different extent in each stage of the relationship development process. [source]

    Employment with Alternative Incentive Schemes when Effort is Not Verifiable

    LABOUR, Issue 1 2005
    Nicola Meccheri
    When effort is fully observable, both contracts with bonus and tournaments, unlike efficiency wages, solve the incentive problem without generating involuntary unemployment. Only tournaments, however, allow attainment of the Pareto optimal employment level. If effort is not fully observable, previous results must, to some extent, be reconsidered. Contracts with bonus also produce involuntary unemployment, while tournaments, in addition to continuing to produce a higher level of employment, generate involuntary unemployment only if a shirker who is not caught has some probability of winning. [source]

    Is Atrial Fibrillation Ablation a Futile Effort in Patients Who Have Markedly Enlarged Left Atria?

    First page of article [source]

    Effort,reward imbalance at work and self-rated health of Las Vegas hotel room cleaners

    Niklas Krause MD
    Abstract Background This study investigates the relationship between effort-reward-imbalance (ERI) at work and self-rated health (SF-36) among 941 Las Vegas hotel room cleaners (99% female, 84% immigrant). Methods Logistic regression models adjust for age, health behaviors, physical workload and other potential confounders. Results 50% reported ERI and 60% poor or fair general health. Significant associations were found between ERI and all SF-36 health measures. Workers in the upper quartile of the efforts/rewards ratio were 2,5 times more likely to experience poor or fair general health, low physical function, high levels of pain, fatigue, and role limitations due to physical and mental health problems. Conclusions The cross-sectional design limits causal interpretation of these associations. However, the development of interventions to reduce ERI and to improve general health among room cleaners deserves high priority considering that both high ERI and low self-rated health have predicted chronic diseases and mortality in prospective studies. Am. J. Ind. Med. 53:372,386, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Testing Agency Theory with Entrepreneur Effort and Wealth

    THE JOURNAL OF FINANCE, Issue 2 2005
    ABSTRACT We develop a principal-agent model in an entrepreneurial setting and test the model's predictions using unique data on entrepreneurial effort and wealth in privately held firms. Accounting for unobserved firm heterogeneity using instrumental-variables techniques, we find that entrepreneurial ownership shares increase with outside wealth and decrease with firm risk; effort increases with ownership; and effort increases firm performance. The magnitude of the effects in the cross-section of firms suggests that agency costs may help explain why entrepreneurs concentrate large fractions of their wealth in firm equity. [source]

    EDITORIAL: Peer Review and The Journal of Sexual Medicine: Management and Collaborative Effort

    Jason Roberts PhD Managing EditorThe Journal of Sexual Medicine