Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Educators

  • adult educator
  • dental educator
  • health educator
  • medical educator
  • nurse educator
  • nursing educator
  • peer educator
  • science educator
  • surgical educator
  • teacher educator

  • Selected Abstracts

    Notes of a Progressive Educator from the Academy and the Classroom

    CURRICULUM INQUIRY, Issue 1 2009
    First page of article [source]

    Radiation therapists' perspective on barriers to clinical trials research

    C Agustin
    Summary This study investigates the barriers to the conduct of research as perceived by radiation therapists (RT) particularly with regards to their activity as part of collaborative clinical trials groups such as the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group. These were examined to identify solutions that might promote research by RT working within busy clinical services. In September to October 2005, surveys were sent to an RT Educator and RT Chiefs in four public hospitals in New South Wales, Australia, with a request to distribute and collect the surveys from RT employed at their centres. The overall response rate across these centres was 59% (78/133). Most of the respondents felt that their managers regarded research to be of high priority (79%) and that others in their workplace considered initiating and conducting research as important (79%). The RT considered lack of time during working hours to be the greatest barrier to research (87%). However, the RT felt that the availability of a research mentor would facilitate research in their workplace (90%). Based on our findings, the availability of structural support from radiation oncology centres may promote the clinical trials research participation of RT. [source]

    John Morrill: Scientist, Educator, Friend (Nov. 20, 1929 , Aug. 9, 2010)

    Joshua Waxman
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Marshall Goldsmith, Executive Educator, Coach and Author

    Marshall Goldsmith
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    ,Educator talk' and patient change: some insights from the DESMOND (Diabetes Education and Self Management for Ongoing and Newly Diagnosed) randomized controlled trial

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 9 2008
    T. C. Skinner
    Abstract Aims To determine whether differences in the amount of time educators talk during a self-management education programme relate to the degree of change in participants' reported beliefs about diabetes. Method Educators trained to be facilitative and non-didactic in their approach were observed delivering the DESMOND self-management programme for individuals newly diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes. Observers used 10-s event coding to estimate the amount of time educators spoke during different sessions in the programme. Facilitative as opposed to didactic delivery was indicated by targets for levels of educator talk set for each session. Targets were based on earlier pilot work. Using the revised Illness Perceptions Questionnaire (IPQ-R) and the Diabetes Illness Representations Questionnaire (DIRQ), participants completed measures of: perceived duration of diabetes (timeline IPQ-R), understanding of diabetes (coherence IPQ-R), personal responsibility for influencing diabetes (personal responsibility IPQ-R), seriousness of diabetes (seriousness DIRQ) and impact on daily life (impact DIRQ), before and after the education programme. Results Where data from the event coding indicated educators were talking less and meeting targets for being less didactic, a greater change in reported illness beliefs of participants was seen. However, educators struggled to meet targets for most sessions of the programme. Conclusion The amount of time educators talk in a self-management programme may provide a practical marker for the effectiveness of the education process, with less educator talk denoting a more facilitative/less didactic approach. This finding has informed subsequent improvements to a comprehensive quality development framework, acknowledging that educators need ongoing support to facilitate change to their normal educational style. [source]

    Additional Resources for Medical Student Educators: An Annotated Review

    Tamara Howard MD
    There are numerous resources available to help educators of medical students improve their methods of instruction. For example, several Internet sites exist that describe specific ways to teach and reinforce concepts basic to emergency medicine. Some of these sites also allow users to share their own experiences and teaching techniques. There are professional associations and organizations that specifically cater to the needs of those involved in the education and training of medical students and resident physicians. Educators may wish to take advantage of distance learning programs that offer instruction in areas such as adult learning, curriculum and teaching methods, and medical education evaluation and research. Finally, educators may wish to participate in professional development opportunities such as fellowships and online modules that have been designed to offer instruction on teaching skills, provide an arena for exchange of effective techniques, and acclimate faculty to academic medicine. [source]

    Educators at Work in two Sectors of Adult and Vocational Education: an overview of two European Research projects

    Adult learning staff play a key role in making lifelong learning a reality. It is they who facilitate learners to develop knowledge, skills and attributes. At the European level there is a lack of information about various aspects of the profession, such as who they are, how they are recruited, what their specific roles and tasks are, what competences and qualifications they are expected or required to possess, what their employment status is, how their professional development is organised, how they are assessed, and how attractive their profession is. This article is meant to bridge this gap and describes the variety of contexts in which adult learning staff are working. Furthermore, it seeks to reveal the factors that promote or affect the quality of the work provided by these practitioners and will address a number of issues that should be on the agenda of policy makers. This article is based on the outcomes of a study that have been carried out by an international research group in the period 2007 -2008, under guidance of Research voor Beleid and PLATO University Leiden under contract of the European Commission (DG Education and Culture). [source]

    Meta-analysis of the Effectiveness of Resident Fathering Programs: Are Family Life Educators Interested in Fathers?

    FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 3 2010
    Erin K. Holmes
    Using meta-analysis, we reviewed the effectiveness of resident fathering education programs. Our review identified 16 studies with over 200 reported effect sizes. Results revealed a significant overall effect size of d = .26, with specific significant outcomes ranging from d = .14 to d = .61. Studies with father-only reports produced significantly larger effects than multiple-reporter studies; studies with no-treatment control groups produced larger effects than studies with minimal-treatment comparison groups. A lack of long-term follow-up evaluation limited our ability to examine the strength of these effects over time. Although there is some reason for optimism, more fathering education program research is needed. Indeed, the dearth of work in this area may be the most important finding of this meta-analysis. [source]

    "It's a Balancing Act!": Exploring School/Work/Family Interface Issues Among Bilingual, Rural Nebraska, Paraprofessional Educators

    FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 3 2006
    Rochelle L. Dalla
    Abstract: Nebraska's rural school districts have a rapidly growing Spanish-speaking student body and few qualified instructors to meet their educational needs. This investigation examined factors that promote and challenge the ability of rural Nebraska paraprofessional educators to complete an online B.S. program in elementary education, with a K-12 English as a second language endorsement. Interviews focused on the interface between school, work, and family, with special attention on family system change and adaptation. Twenty-six bilingual paraprofessional educators enrolled (or formerly enrolled) in the education program were interviewed. Twenty were first- (n= 15) or second-generation (n= 5) immigrant Latino/as. Influences of program involvement on the marital and parent-child relationships are discussed, as are implications for future work with unique populations. [source]

    Authentic Education Helps Educators Clarify Goals, Create Assessments

    Article first published online: 31 DEC 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Heaven-Appointed Educators of Mind: Catharine Beecher and the Moral Power of Women

    HYPATIA, Issue 2 2004
    CATHERINE VILLANUEVA GARDNERArticle first published online: 9 JAN 200
    Catharine Beecher held that women possessed a moral power that could allow them to play a vital role in the moral and social progress of nineteenth century America. Problematically, this power could only be obtained through their subordination to the greatest social happiness. I wish to argue that this notion of subordination, properly framed within her ethico-religious system, can in fact lead to economic independence for women and a surprisingly robust conception of moral power. [source]

    Spiritual health, clinical practice stress, depressive tendency and health-promoting behaviours among nursing students

    Ya-Chu Hsiao
    hsiao y.-c., chien l.-y., wu l.-y., chiang c.-m. & huang s.-y. (2010) Spiritual health, clinical practice stress, depressive tendency and health-promoting behaviours among nursing students. Journal of Advanced Nursing,66(7), 1612,1622. Abstract Title.,Spiritual health, clinical practice stress, depressive tendency and health-promoting behaviours among nursing students. Aim., This paper is a report of an exploration of the association of spiritual health with clinical practice stress, depressive tendency and health-promoting behaviours among nursing students. Background., Several studies in western countries have demonstrated an association between spirituality and health. Spirituality-related research in eastern countries, however, is still in its infancy. Methods., A cross-sectional design was adopted and structured questionnaires were used for data collection. We adopted the Probability Proportional to Size cluster sampling method to recruit nursing students in senior grades. Data were collected in 2005 using the Spiritual Health Scale, Perceived Clinical Practice Stress Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-II and Health Promotion Behaviours Scale. Results., A total of 1276 nursing students with an average age of 20·1 years (sd = 1·6 years) participated in the study. Spiritual health was negatively associated with clinical practice stress (r = ,0·211, P < 0·001) and depressive tendency (r = ,0·324, P < 0·001) and positively associated with health-promoting behaviours (r = 0·611, P < 0·001). Using hierarchical regression analysis to control for demographic factors, spiritual health was found to be an important predictive factor for clinical practice stress, depressive tendency and health-promoting behaviours. Conclusion., These results are consistent with research findings from western countries. Educators should develop strategies to address nursing students' spiritual health. This may help nursing students to manage their stress, to reduce depressive symptoms and to enhance health-promoting behaviours. [source]

    Perceptions of Professionalism: Interior Design Practitioners Working for the Top 100 Firms

    Craig Birdsong M.S.
    ABSTRACT A necessary gauge of a profession is its members' commitment to the components of a profession. This study examined interior design practitioners' perceptions of selected components. Interior designers employed by the top 100 firms identified in Interior Design magazine were surveyed about their perceptions of accreditation of undergraduate programs, state licensing, the NCIDQ examination, research and graduate education. Ninety-four (94) responses representing 34 firms were analyzed using frequencies, percentages, and mean scores. Spearman rho correlation coefficients were calculated to determine relationships and Horowitz's categorizations and descriptions of coefficient values were used for summarizing the Spearman correlation coefficients. In general, practitioners perceived an advantage of most components of a profession for interior design. Graduate education was the one professional component they did not view as important or advantageous as the other four. Practitioners might consider increased involvement in the various components interior design has developed to meet the requirements of a profession and acquire additional credentials for themselves. Educators and the professional organizations must work more diligently to help practitioners understand the importance of graduate education and its relevance to the continuing and successful growth of the profession. [source]

    Performance of students in project-based science classrooms on a national measure of science achievement

    Rebecca M. Schneider
    Reform efforts in science education emphasize the importance of supporting students' construction of knowledge through inquiry. Project-based science (PBS) is an ambitious approach to science instruction that addresses concerns of reformers. A sample of 142 10th- and 11th-grade students enrolled in a PBS program completed the 12th-grade 1996 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) science test. Compared with subgroups identified by NAEP that most closely matched our student sample, White and middle class, PBS students outscored the national sample on 44% of NAEP test items. This study shows that students participating in a PBS curriculum were prepared for this type of testing. Educators should be encouraged to use inquiry-based approaches such as PBS to implement reform in their schools. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 39: 410,422, 2002 [source]

    Early Adolescents Perceptions of Health and Health Literacy,

    Stephen L. Brown PhD
    ABSTRACT Background:, Health illiteracy is a societal issue that, if addressed successfully, may help to reduce health disparities. It has been associated with increased rates of hospital admission, health care expenditures, and poor health outcomes. Because of this, much of the research in the United States has focused on adults in the health care system. This study investigated the effect of aspects of health literacy on the motivation to practice health-enhancing behaviors among early adolescents. Methods:, Measures were generally based on 3 National Health Education Standards for grades 5-8. Data were obtained from 1178 9- to 13-year-old students visiting 11 health education centers in 7 states. Students responded via individual electronic keypads. Results:, Multivariate logistic regression revealed that, in addition to age, difficulty understanding health information and belief that kids can do little to affect their future health, decreased the likelihood for interest in and desire to follow what they were taught about health. Further, low interest independently decreased motivation to follow what was taught. Girls were more likely to turn to school, parents, and medical personnel for health information. Older students were more likely to turn to school and to the Internet. Conclusions:, Programs and curricula should be designed to increase student interest in health issues and their self-efficacy in controlling their own health destinies. Educators should also teach students to more effectively use nonconventional health information sources such as the Internet, parents, and medical professionals. [source]

    Privacy, professionalism and Facebook: a dilemma for young doctors

    MEDICAL EDUCATION, Issue 8 2010
    Joanna MacDonald
    Medical Education 2010: 44: 805,813 Objectives, This study aimed to examine the nature and extent of use of the social networking service Facebook by young medical graduates, and their utilisation of privacy options. Methods, We carried out a cross-sectional survey of the use of Facebook by recent medical graduates, accessing material potentially available to a wider public. Data were then categorised and analysed. Survey subjects were 338 doctors who had graduated from the University of Otago in 2006 and 2007 and were registered with the Medical Council of New Zealand. Main outcome measures were Facebook membership, utilisation of privacy options, and the nature and extent of the material revealed. Results, A total of 220 (65%) graduates had Facebook accounts; 138 (63%) of these had activated their privacy options, restricting their information to ,Friends'. Of the remaining 82 accounts that were more publicly available, 30 (37%) revealed users' sexual orientation, 13 (16%) revealed their religious views, 35 (43%) indicated their relationship status, 38 (46%) showed photographs of the users drinking alcohol, eight (10%) showed images of the users intoxicated and 37 (45%) showed photographs of the users engaged in healthy behaviours. A total of 54 (66%) members had used their accounts within the last week, indicating active use. Conclusions, Young doctors are active members of Facebook. A quarter of the doctors in our survey sample did not use the privacy options, rendering the information they revealed readily available to a wider public. This information, although it included some healthy behaviours, also revealed personal information that might cause distress to patients or alter the professional boundary between patient and practitioner, as well as information that could bring the profession into disrepute (e.g. belonging to groups like ,Perverts united'). Educators and regulators need to consider how best to advise students and doctors on societal changes in the concepts of what is public and what is private. [source]

    Conceptual frameworks to illuminate and magnify

    MEDICAL EDUCATION, Issue 4 2009
    Georges Bordage
    Context, In a recent study of the quality of reporting experimental studies in medical education, barely half the articles examined contained an explicit statement of the conceptual framework used. Conceptual frameworks represent ways of thinking about a problem or a study, or ways of representing how complex things work. They can come from theories, models or best practices. Conceptual frameworks illuminate and magnify one's work. Different frameworks will emphasise different variables and outcomes, and their inter-relatedness. Educators and researchers constantly use conceptual frameworks to guide their work, even if they themselves are not consciously aware of the frameworks. Methods, Three examples are provided on how conceptual frameworks can be used to cast development and research projects in medical education. The examples are accompanied by commentaries and a total of 13 key points about the nature and use of conceptual frameworks. Conclusions, Ultimately, scholars are responsible for making explicit the assumptions and principles contained in the conceptual framework(s) they use in their development and research projects. [source]

    The Utility of Simulation in Medical Education: What Is the Evidence?

    Yasuharu Okuda MD
    Abstract Medical schools and residencies are currently facing a shift in their teaching paradigm. The increasing amount of medical information and research makes it difficult for medical education to stay current in its curriculum. As patients become increasingly concerned that students and residents are "practicing" on them, clinical medicine is becoming focused more on patient safety and quality than on bedside teaching and education. Educators have faced these challenges by restructuring curricula, developing small-group sessions, and increasing self-directed learning and independent research. Nevertheless, a disconnect still exists between the classroom and the clinical environment. Many students feel that they are inadequately trained in history taking, physical examination, diagnosis, and management. Medical simulation has been proposed as a technique to bridge this educational gap. This article reviews the evidence for the utility of simulation in medical education. We conducted a MEDLINE search of original articles and review articles related to simulation in education with key words such as simulation, mannequin simulator, partial task simulator, graduate medical education, undergraduate medical education, and continuing medical education. Articles, related to undergraduate medical education, graduate medical education, and continuing medical education were used in the review. One hundred thirteen articles were included in this review. Simulation-based training was demonstrated to lead to clinical improvement in 2 areas of simulation research. Residents trained on laparoscopic surgery simulators showed improvement in procedural performance in the operating room. The other study showed that residents trained on simulators were more likely to adhere to the advanced cardiac life support protocol than those who received standard training for cardiac arrest patients. In other areas of medical training, simulation has been demonstrated to lead to improvements in medical knowledge, comfort in procedures, and improvements in performance during retesting in simulated scenarios. Simulation has also been shown to be a reliable tool for assessing learners and for teaching topics such as teamwork and communication. Only a few studies have shown direct improvements in clinical outcomes from the use of simulation for training. Multiple studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of simulation in the teaching of basic science and clinical knowledge, procedural skills, teamwork, and communication as well as assessment at the undergraduate and graduate medical education levels. As simulation becomes increasingly prevalent in medical school and resident education, more studies are needed to see if simulation training improves patient outcomes. Mt Sinai J Med 76:330,343, 2009. © 2008 Mount Sinai School of Medicine [source]

    Discriminative justice: Can discrimination be just?

    Tonette S. Rocco
    Educators of urban adults should attempt to deconstruct the dynamics in the classroom that replicate the social, political, and economic discourse of the dominant group. We must work to surface the complexity of diverse experiences represented by multiple oppressed groups. [source]

    Learning the New Technologies: Strategies for Success

    Kathleen P. King
    Educators of adults come to professional development in educational technology with many needs and concerns. The model presented in this chapter provides principles, insights, and strategies to meet these needs and prepare educators for lifelong learning in this challenging area. [source]

    A Collegial Mentoring Model for Nurse Educators

    NURSING FORUM, Issue 1 2003
    Karran Thorpe RN
    First page of article [source]

    Educators and Armaments in Cold War America

    PEACE & CHANGE, Issue 4 2009
    Charles L. DeBenedetti
    This essay was written prior to the end of the Cold War. It may very well be the last scholarly essay that peace movement historian Charles DeBenedetti wrote prior to his death. Charles sent it to me in 1984, and for many years it was kept in one of my files. It is a historical commentary about the nuclear arms race based upon a thorough reading of education journals. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that in the very early years of the Cold War educators paid particular attention to the militarization of society and the construction of weapons of mass destruction. What is most telling is that from 1945 to the early 1950s concerned teachers voiced their worries regarding a race between catastrophe and education. However, by 1953, educators had dropped out of the race, falling victim to McCarthyism and the national government's concern for civil defense. This scholarly article points out that educators had a responsibility to teach the public about the horrors of nuclear armaments as an overwhelming threat and danger to humankind, but failed to do so as prosperity and government pressure silenced their voices. By the time of Sputnik in 1957, DeBenedetti tells us, they considered "nuclear weaponry as the very symbol of the uncharted ocean that separated advancing scientific and technological revolutions from the hoary human politics that made for an intractable Cold War." How can educators today rekindle that awareness and replace complacency with determination? What historical lessons can peace educators today learn from DeBenedetti's research on peace educators of the Cold War period? [source]

    The digital divide: Who really benefits from the proposed solutions for closing the gap

    Roland D. Houston
    The authors conducted an exploratory content analysis of 269 English language articles about the digital divide to identify potential connections between proposed solutions and the strategic interests of the proposers, or stakeholders. Articles were coded by type of suggested solution and by type of stakeholder offering the solution. Educators predominated in the study literature, stressing the need for a change in Internet connectivity, educational content, and a change in user education, socioeconomic status (SES), and culture. The digital industry provided the next largest number of articles, suggesting governmental policy changes to promote new equipment, increased Internet connectivity, the training of digital industry workers, and a change in content of the Internet. Articles from the nondigital business community suggested that no gap existed or that market dynamics (the status quo) would close it. [source]

    Special Features: Education: Challenges and Opportunities Associated with Preceptored Community Health Clinical Experiences

    Gail H. Wade
    ABSTRACT Preceptored community experiences present challenges different from those of preceptored experiences in the acute care setting. Instead of focusing on psychomotor skills, faculty must address population-based skills and assess students' abilities to practice these skills. Faculty and preceptors' lack of knowledge to teach these skills further complicate the experiences, an issue indirectly related to faculty and nursing shortages. Although preceptors guide students, faculty are responsible for evaluating students in community preceptored experiences. The Association of Community Health Nursing Educators (ACHNE) Essentials of Baccalaureate Education (Essentials) offers opportunities for guiding and evaluating community health preceptored clinical experiences. Assignments and activities that reflect the ACHNE Essentials provide a firm foundation for the population focus of the course. This focus is validated through faculty visits to students in a variety of community settings. To plan successful community experiences and evaluate students, faculty must be knowledgeable about the population focus of community courses, apply this knowledge to students in a variety of settings, and ask challenging questions to assess student learning. [source]

    Essentials of Baccalaureate Nursing Education for Entry-Level Community/Public Health Nursing

    Education Committee of the Association of Community Health Nurse Educators
    ABSTRACT Community/public health nursing (C/PHN) educators and practitioners need a framework from which to plan, implement, and evaluate curriculum and community-based practice. The Association of Community Health Nursing Educators (ACHNE) periodically updates the Essentials of Baccalaureate Nursing Education for Entry Level Community/Public Health Nursing to reflect changes in core knowledge, basic competencies, and practice. This update reflects relevance to 21st-century health care and to national trends influencing nursing education. The 2009 revision is based on critical analysis of key C/PHN literature and input from public health nursing educators and practitioners. A key assumption is that a baccalaureate nursing degree is the minimum requirement for professional C/PHN. Fifteen essential concepts for baccalaureate nursing education are delineated along with related competencies. Newly defined essentials include communication, social justice, and emergency preparedness, response, and recovery. Issues related to didactic and clinical experiences are addressed. The ACHNE Essentials is an important guide for baccalaureate education curriculum planning and evaluation. The Essentials may be useful as a baseline from which to develop competencies of graduate nursing programs. The document is also useful for guiding practice setting orientation and professional development. [source]

    Association of Community Health Nursing Educators: Disaster Preparedness White Paper for Community/Public Health Nursing Educators

    Sandra W. Kuntz
    ABSTRACT The Association of Community Health Nursing Educators (ACHNE) has developed a number of documents designed to delineate the scope and function of community/public health nursing educators, researchers, and practitioners. In response to societal issues, increased emphasis on disaster preparedness in nursing and public health, and requests from partner organizations to contribute to curriculum development endeavors regarding disaster preparedness, the ACHNE Disaster Preparedness Task Force was appointed in spring 2007 for the purpose of developing this document. Task Force members developed a draft of the document in summer and fall 2007, input was solicited and received from ACHNE members in fall 2007, and the document was approved and published in January 2008. The members of ACHNE extend their appreciation to the members of the Emergency Preparedness Task Force for their efforts: Pam Frable, N.D., R.N.; Sandra Kuntz, Ph.D., C.N.S.-B.C. (Chair); Kristine Qureshi, D.N.Sc., C.E.N., R.N.; Linda Strong, Ed.D., R.N. This white paper is aimed at meeting the needs of community/public health nursing educators and clarifying issues for the nursing and public health communities. ACHNE is committed to promotion of the public's health through ensuring leadership and excellence in community and public health nursing education, research, and practice. [source]

    Does Advanced Community/Public Health Nursing Practice Have a Future?

    Ed.D., Julie Fisher Robertson R.N.
    Abstract Societal trends and predicted needs of the health care system indicate that there will be increasing demands for health care professionals who can effectively manage the health needs of populations and communities. Nurses who have master's degrees in community/public health nursing have the educational background to provide this expertise. Although the Association of Community Health Nursing Educators and many nursing leaders maintain that these nurses are advanced practice nurses, most leading nursing organizations and state nurse practice acts do not include population and community health management skills in their definitions of advanced practice nursing. These exclusions have produced a serious status problem for master's programs in community/public health nursing. This article examines issues affecting the current and future status of master's-level community/public health nursing. Solutions are suggested for ensuring the viability of this specialty area. [source]

    The difficulty with experience: Does practice increase susceptibility to premature closure?

    Kevin W. Eva PhD
    Abstract Introduction: A recent review of the physician performance literature concluded that the risk of prematurely closing one's diagnostic search increases with years of experience. To minimize confounding variables and gain insight into cognitive issues relevant to continuing education, the current study was performed to test this conclusion. Methods: Physician participants were shown a series of case histories and asked to judge the probability of a pair of diagnoses. The order in which features were presented was manipulated across participants and the probabilities compared to determine the impact of information order. Two groups of participants were recruited, 1 older than and 1 younger than 60 years. Results: The probability assigned to a diagnosis tended to be greater when features consistent with that diagnosis preceded those consistent with an alternative than when the same features followed those consistent with the alternative. Older participants revealed a greater primacy effect than less experienced participants across 4 experimental conditions. Discussion: Physicians with greater experience appear to weigh their first impressions more heavily than those with less experience. Educators should design instructional activities that account for experience-specific cognitive tendencies. [source]

    Rural Nebraska Elementary School Educators Teach Nutrition Concepts

    H. Darlene Pohlman Ph.D.
    The purpose of this study was to determine if diferences exist in the teaching of nutrition to students in grades one to four in rural (less than 10,000 population); midsized (10,000 to 99,999); and urban (100,000 or more) counties in Nebrash. Surveys me sent to one-fifty of educators teaching grades une to four (n=1,232); the response rate was 37.7%. Sixty eight percent of the teachers responded that the teaching of nutrition was of very high or high priority in the elementary curriculum. Nutrition was taught as part of a nutrition/health unit as well as being integrated into other subject areas. The resources the teachers used me not different by county population size. Significant diferences (p >.05) were observed among county groups as to the frequency of teaching the recommended intakes of grain products, vegetables, fruits, dairy, and meats, with urban teachers teaching these concepts least often. The majority of the teachers rarely, if ever, taught serving sizes and which food groups are in combination foods, with no diferences among county groups. The formal training that the respondents had in nutrition was not different among groups. A larger percentage of teachers in rural and midsized community groups taught food selection concepts me consistently or frequently than did their urban counterparts. [source]

    The Association Between Emergency Medical Technician-Basic (EMT-B) Exam Score, Length of EMT-B Certification, and Success on the National Paramedic Certification Exam

    Antonio R. Fernandez MS, NREMT-P
    Abstract Objectives:, Factors that affect success on the national paramedic certification examination have been identified. However, there are no known studies that have examined success on the paramedic exam with respect to either Emergency Medical Technician-Basic (EMT-B) examination score or length of EMT-B certification (which may reflect field experience gained prior to enrolling in paramedic training). The objectives of this study included assessing the relationship of EMT-B examination score and length of EMT-B certification to success on the national paramedic certification examination. Methods:, Study data were obtained from the National Registry of EMTs (NREMT). First attempts of the NREMT paramedic certification exam from 2002 to 2006 were included. To assure that EMT-B certification exam scores were recorded, analysis was limited to individuals in the 14 states that have utilized NREMT for initial certification of both EMT-Bs and paramedics since January 1, 1997. This also facilitated accurate calculations of the length of EMT-B certification. Results:, There were 11,163 individuals meeting inclusion criteria, and a complete case analysis was performed on 9,148, of whom 5,826 (63.7%) passed the national paramedic exam. The mean (±SD) score on the EMT-B cognitive exam was 75.5 (±6.4%), and the mean (±SD) length of EMT-B certification prior to paramedic testing was 3.2 (±2.3) years. When placed in a logistic regression model, the EMT-B exam score variable was categorized in quartiles (,71%, 72%,75%, 76%,79%, and ,80%), and the length of EMT-B certification variable was dichotomized (,1.6 years vs. >1.6 years). With respect to paramedic exam success, after controlling for known confounders, there was an increase in the odds ratio (OR) across each of the quartiles of EMT-B exam score. The largest difference was seen when comparing the lowest and highest quartiles (paramedic exam pass rates of 45.6 and 80.8%, respectively; OR = 5.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.7 to 6.2). Individuals whose length of EMT-B certification was >1.6 years had increased odds of passing the paramedic examination (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.1 to 1.3). The multivariable logistic regression model demonstrated good fit (p = 0.62). Conclusions:, Both EMT-B examination score and ength of EMT-B certification are associated with success on first attempt at the cognitive portion of the national paramedic certification exam. Educators may wish to consider these two factors when determining paramedic program admission standards and/or consider these variables when determining how to allocate program resources. [source]