Educational System (educational + system)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Flexibility-based competition: Skills and competencies in the new Europe

Andrzej K. Kozminski
In this paper the competitive strength and weaknesses of unifying and enlarging Europe in the global economy are examined. The focus is on people at work, their skills, and competencies. The idea of flexibility-based competition is developed implicating product and services portfolios, technologies, volumes, quality standards, distribution networks, and development cycles. Flexibility calls for speed maximizing management and special work force and labor markets characteristics. A new employment policy should change European labor markets making them more flexible and enabling "high-speed management." People able to adjust to flexible labor markets are described as "niche finders." Those who are equipped to excel in such markets and to win the competition game are presented in this paper as "top performers." Educational systems and particularly management education and development have to undergo deep restructuring to meet the challenge. An outline of new management education is provided. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Hum Factors Man 15: 35,47, 2005. [source]

Education and Social Change: The Case of Israel's State Curriculum

ABSTRACT The aim of this article is to explore, through the case of the official Israeli state curriculum, how the educational system is affected by social changes and how it responds to them, and to suggest curricular directions that go along with the new social reality that has emerged in Israel during the past decade. We offer a conceptual-theoretical analysis based on the examination of 10 subject areas taught at Israeli schools by leading experts who investigated the curriculum documents of the Ministry of Education in their disciplines. We identify three stages of curriculum development in Israel since its establishment: promotion of hegemonic national goals, emphasis on academic structure of knowledge, and in recent decades, multiple conflicting goals. Changes in the Israeli state curricula indeed reflect a response to broader social changes, yet these changes are partial, irresolute, and scattered. There is a need for a transcultural approach, promoting a core curriculum common to all groups in Israel, beyond which each group may express its uniqueness. [source]

Toward Responsive Beginning Language Curricula

Larbi Oukada
An initial phase, the general education phase, would be comprised predominantly of nonmajors who enroll in beginning language courses with the premeditated purpose of satisfying a language requirement or investing on their own a modest amount of credit hours to explore or study a second language. A subsequent phase, the professional phase, would begin with courses intended for prospective majors and minors who are customarily predisposed to commit enough time to reach the necessary proficiency level required for their professional goal. This curricular distinction serves to underscore the particular situation and the particular mission of the general education phase and to propose a particular curricular model, the Indiana Model. This model provides, within the current and autonomous structure of the American educational system, a mechanism for selecting, prioritizing, and structuring the most responsive objectives for general-education foreign language teaching. [source]

Validity of General Mental Ability for the Prediction of Job Performance and Training Success in Germany: A meta-analysis1

Ute R. Hülsheger
A meta-analysis into the operational validity of general mental ability (GMA) measures in Germany is presented. The meta-analysis addresses the question whether findings of US and European meta-analyses are generalizable to Germany given the differences in the education systems of these countries. The high level of differentiation in the German educational system is expected to enhance the homogeneity of applicant pools resulting in a low level of variability in predictor scores which reduces the observed GMA,performance relationships. Our analysis is based on 54 independent German articles and unpublished reports. Results indicated an operational validity of ,=.467 for training success (k=90; N=11,969) and ,=.534 for job performance (k=9; N=746). Moderator analyses showed that job complexity and the year of publication are relevant moderator variables, with lower job complexity levels and older studies being associated with higher operational validities. Findings suggest that overall German operational validities are comparable with findings in the United States or other European countries. However, for training success operational GMA validities are slightly lower in Germany compared with US or European meta-analyses. [source]

Learning and skills formation in the new economy: evidence from Greece

Stella Zambarloukos
In today's knowledge,driven economy, education and training are considered major factors affecting a society's level of economic attainment and growth. Lack of information,related knowledge and skills, in particular, are among the prime factors likely to delay a country's progress towards the information society. Experience, however, has shown that an educated labour force does not automatically translate into dynamic economic development and technological innovation. The human resource potential is not a simple outcome of the education system but it is a much more complex process that involves tacit knowledge, learning by doing and on,the,job training. This means that skills and knowledge acquired depend not only on the educational system but on firm organisation and culture as well as ties between organisations. The present study examines the relationship between skill supply, firm organisation and learning by means of interviews in 23 firms in Greece. It shows that a major problem faced by SMEs in peripheral European countries is the lack of in,house capabilities and knowledge which limits the amount and type of learning that takes place. Finally, the article argues that policy,makers should institute educational policies and training programmes that will compensate for the inability of Greek firms to provide a learning environment. [source]

Social, Economic and Demographic Consequences of Migration on Kerala

K.C. Zachariah
Migration has been the single most dynamic factor in the otherwise dreary development scenario of Kerala during the last quarter of the last century. It has contributed more to poverty alleviation and reduction in unemployment in Kerala than any other factor. As a result of migration, the proportion of the population below the poverty line has declined by 12 per cent. The number of unemployed persons , estimated to be only about 13 lakhs in 1998 compared with 37 lakhs reported by the Kerala Employment Exchanges , has declined by over 30 per cent. Migration has caused nearly a million married women in Kerala to live away from their husbands. Most of these so-called "Gulf wives" experienced extreme loneliness to begin with, and were burdened with added family responsibilities to which they had not been accustomed when their husbands were with them. But over a period, and with a helping hand from abroad over the ISD, most came out of their early gloom. Their gain in autonomy, status, management skills and experience in dealing with the world outside their homes were developed the hard way and would remain with them for the rest of their lives for the benefit of their families and society. In the long run, the transformation of these million women will have contributed more to the development of Kerala society than all the temporary euphoria created by remittances and modern gadgetry. Kerala is dependent on migration for employment, subsistence, housing, household amenities, institution building, and many other developmental activities. The danger is that migration could cease, as shown by the Kuwait war of 1993, and repercussions could be disastrous for the State. Understanding migration trends and instituting policies to maintain the flow of migration is more important today than at any time in the past. Kerala workers seem to be losing out in international competition for jobs in the Gulf market. Corrective policies are needed urgently to raise their competitive edge over workers in competing countries in South and South-East Asia. Like any other industry, migration from Kerala needs periodic technological upgrading of workers. Otherwise, there is a danger that the State might lose the Gulf market permanently. The crux of the problem is Kerala workers' inability to compete with expatriates from other South and South-East Asian countries. The solution lies in equipping workers with better general education and job training. This study suggests a twofold approach. In the short run, the need is to improve the job skills of prospective emigrant workers. This could be achieved through ad hoc training programmes focussed on the job market in Gulf countries. In the long run, the need is to restructure the educational system, taking into consideration the future demand of workers not only in Kerala but also in potential destination countries all over the world, including the US and other developed countries. Kerala emigrants need not always be construction workers in the Gulf countries; they could also be software engineers in developed countries. [source]

The Second Generation in Germany: Between School and Labor Market,

Susanne Worbs
The German "mode of integration" after World War II has been to include migrants and their offspring into general societal institutions. This can be stated despite differences between federal states in some aspects of migrant integration (e.g., the educational sector). Migrant children normally attend the same schools and classes as their German age peers, they participate in the dual system of vocational training, and there are only a few limitations in labor market access. The second generation in Germany consists mainly of children of the "guestworkers" recruited in southern and southeastern European countries from the 1950s onwards. It is not easy to obtain information about their numbers and their socioeconomic position, as most statistical data distinguish only between foreigners and Germans. The achieved integration status of the second generation varies between areas: obvious problems in the educational system go along with considerable progress in the vocational training system and in the labor market. Children of Turkish migrants are the most disadvantaged group among the second generation. [source]

Crosscurrents: against cultural narration in nursing

Dawn Freshwater PhD BA RNT RN
Crosscurrents: against cultural narration in nursing Nurses, like other groups throughout history, have been described as an oppressed group. Writers who describe nurses as lacking in self-esteem, autonomy, accountability and power support this view in the literature. Indeed the cultural narration of nursing is for nurses to be subordinate. This article explores the emergence of horizontal violence within nursing and suggests that it is a result of unexpressed conflict within an oppressed group. The author aims to raise the awareness of horizontal violence in nursing so that practitioners come to understand how this in itself can be an expression of power. Drawing upon theories of reflective practice, the article examines how the educational system in nursing may have contributed to the felt oppression within the group by colluding with the cultural narrative. The crosscurrents of cultural narration are strong and it is argued here that the nurse needs to feel empowered in order to take action to swim against the tide. The author proposes that a model of transformatory learning based upon critical theory creates the possibility of emancipatory action in nursing, both locally and globally. [source]

Adaptation provisioning with respect to learning styles in a Web-based educational system: an experimental study

E. Popescu
Abstract Personalized instruction is seen as a desideratum of today's e-learning systems. The focus of this paper is on those platforms that use learning styles as personalization criterion called learning style-based adaptive educational systems. The paper presents an innovative approach based on an integrative set of learning preferences that alleviates some of the limitations of similar systems. The adaptive methods used as well as their implementation in a dedicated system (WELSA) are presented, together with a thorough evaluation of the approach. The results of the experimental study involving 64 undergraduate students show that accommodating learning styles in WELSA has a beneficial effect on the learning process. [source]

The Transformation of the Educational Semantic within a Changing Society: A Study of the Westernization of Modern Chinese Education1

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the process of westernization of Chinese education , of the Chinese educational "system", was marked by ongoing conflicts between traditional Chinese and modern western culture. This paper looks at the process by which, within the larger context of the "world-society," educational thought was constituted or reconstituted (regenerated) in modern China, thus taking on a more hybrid form. My analysis is guided by a Luhmannian approach which focuses on the distinction between the educational system and its environment, and on the changing concept of "education" throughout an important period in the history of modern China. I will try to analyze the historical description of the distinction between traditional Chinese and modern Western educational ideas. [source]

Educational Progress and Parenting Among Mexican Immigrant Mothers of Young Children

Robert Crosnoe
This study examined the potential for educational investments in Mexican immigrant mothers to enhance their management of their children's pathways through the educational system in the United States, which often disadvantages them. We tested this hypothesis with data on 816 Mexican immigrant women and their children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study,Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K). The results suggest that mothers who pursued their own schooling over a 4-year period, regardless of whether they obtained a degree, increased their engagement with their children's schools during that same period. The results appear to be robust to a wide range of factors that select women into continuing education. [source]

Evolved sex differences and occupational segregation

Kingsley R. Browne
Average sex differences in workplace outcomes are often assumed to be products of a malfunctioning labor market that discourages women from nontraditional occupations and a biased educational system that leaves women inadequately prepared for scientific and technical work. Rather than being a product purely of discriminatory demand, however, many sex differences in occupational distribution are at least partially a result of an imbalance in supply. Sex differences in both temperament and cognitive ability, which are products of our evolutionary history, predispose men and women toward different occupational behavior. The tendency of men to predominate in fields imposing high quantitative demands, high physical risk, and low social demands, and the tendency of women to be drawn to less quantitatively demanding fields, safer jobs, and jobs with a higher social content are, at least in part, artifacts of an evolutionary history that has left the human species with a sexually dimorphic mind. These differences are proximately mediated by sex hormones. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

An encounter between psychology and religion: Humanistic psychology and the Immaculate Heart of Mary nuns

Robert Kugelmann
In the 1960s, humanistic psychology changed the relationship between psychology and religion by actively asserting the value of individual experience and self-expression. This was particularly evident in the encounter group movement. Beginning in 1967, Carl Rogers conducted a series of encounter groups, in order to promote "self-directed change in an educational system," for the Sisters of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, a religious order in California running an educational system. William Coulson, one of Rogers's associates in the project, later charged that the encounter groups undermined the religious order and played a major contributing part in the breakup of the order in 1970. The article examines these charges, situating the incident within the context of the changes occurring in religious life and in psychology in the 1960s. The article concludes that an already existing conflict the nuns had with the conservative Cardinal McIntyre of Los Angeles led to the departure of some 300 nuns from the order, who began the Immaculate Heart Community, an organization existing today. Nevertheless, encounter groups proved to be a psychological technology that helped to infuse a modern psychological,specifically, a humanistic psychological,perspective into contemporary religious life. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Academic achievement of children in China: The 2002 Fulbright experience

LeAdelle Phelps
The 2002 Fulbright team, led by Zheng Zhou of St. John's University, consisted of 12 professionals in the fields of education, counseling psychology, and school psychology. Spending one month visiting elementary schools, universities, governmental bodies, hospitals, and private schools throughout China, the Fulbright team had an opportunity to observe educational systems and mental health services to children in multiple sites (Beijing, Kunming, Shanghai, and Suzhou). This article outlines the educational system currently utilized in China and explores the cultural factors and key variables that impact Asian children. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Psychol Schs 42: 233,239, 2005. [source]

Moving past cultural homogeneity: Suggestions for comparisons of students' educational outcomes in the United States and China

Stephen T. Peverly
Based on observations of the Chinese educational system in the summer of 2002, I argue that comparisons of the performance of students in the United States and China, and by implication, of students in the United States and other East Asian countries, have been too homogeneous. I discuss four variables that could be included in future research between the United States and China (and by implication, in all U.S./East Asian research): urban versus rural education (SES), public versus private schools, China's ethnic minorities, and the education of boys and girls. Recommendations for future research are provided. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Psychol Schs 42: 241,249, 2005. [source]

Sociodynamic relationships between children who stutter and their non-stuttering classmates

Stephen Davis
Background: Previous research has indicated that children who stutter are more likely to be bullied and to hold a lower social position than their peers who do not stutter. However, the majority of this research has used data from respondents who were in the educational system more than 20 years ago. The current policy on integration of children with severe disabilities into mainstream education and the increased awareness of bullying in schools would indicate that attitudes toward children who stutter might have changed in the intervening period. Method: The study uses a sociometric scale (adapted from Coie, Dodge, & Coppotelli, 1982) to assess children who stutter in classroom groups with fluent peers. The peer relationships between 16 children who stutter and their classmates (403 children in total) were examined. Results: Children who stutter were rejected significantly more often than were their peers and were significantly less likely to be popular. When compared to children who do not stutter, the children who stutter were less likely to be nominated as `leaders' and were more likely to be nominated to the `bullied' and `seeks help' categories. Conclusions: The changes in integration policy and the implementation of anti-bullying policies in many schools appear to have made little impact on the social status of children who stutter. The incidence of bullying and rejection reported in this study has implications for schools and clinicians. [source]

Laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery: Japanese experience

F Konishi
Abstract In Japan, laparoscopic colectomy for cancer started in 1992. A national survey has revealed that, since that time, the number of cases that have undergone this procedure has steadily increased, and by 2007, there were over 9000 cases. This figure includes an increase in the percentage of more advanced cases, which has occurred due to technical improvements in lymph node dissection. A Japanese randomized controlled trial comparing laparoscopic to open surgery started in November 2004, with enrollment ending in April 2009 with 1050 cases. For this study, preoperative stage T3 and T4 cases were selected for inclusion, and D3 dissection was required. To assess the technical skill of surgeons, the Japan Society of Endoscopic Surgery established the Endoscopic Surgical Skill Qualification System to encourage high-level surgical techniques. Assessment is conducted by reviewing unedited videos. The success rate for colon and rectal surgeries has ranged between 37%,40%. The Endoscopic Surgical Skill Qualification System has contributed to the establishment of standard technical skills in laparoscopic surgery, the development of an educational system for laparoscopic surgeons, and a reduction in the number complications. Technical difficulties still exist in laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery, but with the technical progress in laparoscopic colorectal surgery, the number of laparoscopic rectal cancer surgeries has been gradually increasing in number. A multicentric phase II study on the feasibility and long-term outcome for stage I and II rectal cancer started in 2008. In this study, the short-term outcomes including anastomotic leakage rate and long-term survival, will be clarified. Combined with continuously improved technologies, training techniques and surgical standards, laparoscopic colorectal surgery is steadily progressing in Japan. [source]

The policy and management of information technology in Jordanian schools

Mohammad Tawalbeh
During the past two decades the introduction of personal computers has been a major innovation in the Hashimite Kingdom of Jordan. This new technology continues to offer an exciting challenge to educationalists. This paper reviews the developments of Information Technology (IT) in Jordanian public schools in the period 1984,1998. My contention is that the highly centralised nature of the Jordanian educational system and the comprehensive policy of the Directorate of Educational Computing (DEC) have made the introduction of computers in schools less difficult. [source]

INCLUSIVE AND SPECIAL EDUCATION: Inclusive and special education in the English educational system: historical perspectives, recent developments and future challenges

Alan Hodkinson
Special education in England has over the past 25 years been subject to rapid development, not least in relation to the emergence of inclusive education. Alan Hodkinson of the Faculty of Education, Community and Leisure, John Moore's University, critically examines the development of inclusion in England and the barriers that can stall the development of this important educational and societal initiative. He discusses the journey towards inclusion from educational segregation to integration and describes the current Government stance on this important subject. Alan Hodkinson suggests that many of the barriers to effective inclusion are in practice located within the loci of Government, local authorities as well as that of schools. He concludes that it is now time to develop a new vision for the education of children with special educational needs and disabilities that is supported by straightforward, co-ordinated and well-resourced policies. If educational policy is to achieve an inclusive consciousness, it must ensure that the views of children, their families and educational professionals are listened to, and that inclusion is by the choice of the pupils and their parents and not by compulsion. [source]

Assessing risk indicators for dental caries in the primary dentition

Jackie Vanobbergen
Abstract , The aim of the present study was to assess indicators shown to be associated with the prevalence of caries in the primary dentition of 7-year-old Flemish schoolchildren. Cross-sectional first year data of the longitudinal Signal-Tandmobiel® survey were analysed (n=4468). Gender, age, oral hygiene habits, use of fluorides, dietary habits, geographical factors and parental modelling were the considered predictors. From the multiple logistic regression analysis, including schools as a random effect, and after adjusting for the confounding variables,educational system and province (stratification variables), gender and age,it became clear that the following risk indicators remained significant (at 5% level) for the presence of caries: frequency of toothbrushing (P=0.05) with an OR 1.24 for brushing less than once a day, age at start of brushing (P<0.001) with an OR=1.22 for a delay of 1 year, regular use of fluoride supplements (P<0.001) with an OR=1.54 for no use, daily use of sugar-containing drinks between meals (P<0.001) with an OR=1.38, and number of between-meals snacks (P=0.012) with an OR=1.22 for using more than 2 between-meal snacks. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in caries experience determined by the geographical spread, with an explicit trend of caries declining from the east to the west. In a model with an ordinal response outcome, the daily use of sugar-containing drinks between meals had a more pronounced effect when caries levels were high. From this study it became obvious that, in Flemish children, an early start of brushing and a brushing frequency of at least once a day need to be encouraged, while the use of sugar-containing drinks and snacks between meals needs to be restricted to a maximum of 2 per day. Geographical differences need to be investigated in more detail. [source]

Inclusive Achievement Testing for Linguistically and Culturally Diverse Test Takers: Essential Considerations for Test Developers and Decision Makers

Shelley B. Fairbairn
Substantial growth in the numbers of English language learners (ELLs) in the United States and Canada in recent years has significantly affected the educational systems of both countries. This article focuses on critical issues and concerns related to the assessment of ELLs in U.S. and Canadian schools and emphasizes assessment approaches for test developers and decision makers that will facilitate increased equity, meaningfulness, and accuracy in assessment and accountability efforts. It begins by examining the crucial issue of defining ELLs as a group. Next, it examines the impact of testing originating from the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) in the U.S. and government-mandated standards-driven testing in Canada by briefly describing each country's respective legislated testing requirements and outlining their consequences at several levels. Finally, the authors identify key points that test developers and decision makers in both contexts should consider in testing this ever-increasing group of students. [source]


Maura Striano
In the globalization scenarios we currently face, educational systems are challenged by different and sometimes competing pressures and requests. These call for a deep transformation of the organization, role, and social function of educational systems. Within this context, the very concept of education has come to be understood in different ways, which sometimes distort its moral and social value. In this essay, Maura Striano contends that from a Deweyan perspective, educational transformation must be seen as strictly connected to social change, and education should be understood as a process that facilitates and supports social growth and development. In order to be effective and fruitful, Striano suggests, this transformation must occur from the inside of educational systems and can only be brought about by reflective and inquiry-based inner processes if it is to have a sound moral and social impact within the changing framework of the globalized world. That education shares in the confusion of transition, and in the demand for reorganization, is a source of encouragement and not of despair. It proves how integrally the school is bound up with the entire movement of modern life. ,John Dewey, The Educational Situation [source]


Steven Burik
In this essay, Steven Burik discusses Jacques Derrida's position with regard to the place of education in philosophy within the university system, and then relates these thoughts to comparative philosophy. Philosophers find themselves constantly having to defend philosophy and the importance of teaching philosophy against pressure from the powers that be. Burik contends that the argument Derrida set forth to "protect" philosophy entails a double bind: Derrida emphasized the value and importance of philosophical thinking while at the same time criticizing the limits of philosophy, both self-mandated and externally imposed. Derrida's defense of philosophy was anything but a protection of the status quo, according to Burik. Derrida ultimately argued that the teaching of philosophy and philosophy itself should be inherently open to new developments. Burik relates Derrida's defense of philosophy and attack on mainstream philosophy to comparative philosophy, demonstrating that both argue for an expansion of thinking beyond the narrow Western confines of philosophy as "pure" reason or rationality by showing how alterity always inserts itself, and that both seek to give this alterity a valid place in educational systems. [source]

The academic environment: the students' perspective

K. Divaris (nci)
Abstract Dental education is regarded as a complex, demanding and often stressful pedagogical procedure. Undergraduates, while enrolled in programmes of 4,6 years duration, are required to attain a unique and diverse collection of competences. Despite the major differences in educational systems, philosophies, methods and resources available worldwide, dental students' views regarding their education appear to be relatively convergent. This paper summarizes dental students' standpoint of their studies, showcases their experiences in different educational settings and discusses the characteristics of a positive academic environment. It is a consensus opinion that the ,students' perspective' should be taken into consideration in all discussions and decisions regarding dental education. Moreover, it is suggested that the set of recommendations proposed can improve students' quality of life and well-being, enhance their total educational experience and positively influence their future careers as oral health physicians. The ,ideal' academic environment may be defined as one that best prepares students for their future professional life and contributes towards their personal development, psychosomatic and social well-being. A number of diverse factors significantly influence the way students perceive and experience their education. These range from ,class size', ,leisure time' and ,assessment procedures' to ,relations with peers and faculty', ,ethical climate' and ,extra-curricular opportunities'. Research has revealed that stress symptoms, including psychological and psychosomatic manifestations, are prevalent among dental students. Apparently some stressors are inherent in dental studies. Nevertheless, suggested strategies and preventive interventions can reduce or eliminate many sources of stress and appropriate support services should be readily available. A key point for the Working Group has been the discrimination between ,teaching' and ,learning'. It is suggested that the educational content should be made available to students through a variety of methods, because individual learning styles and preferences vary considerably. Regardless of the educational philosophy adopted, students should be placed at the centre of the process. Moreover, it is critical that they are encouraged to take responsibility for their own learning. Other improvements suggested include increased formative assessment and self-assessment opportunities, reflective portfolios, collaborative learning, familiarization with and increased implementation of information and communication technology applications, early clinical exposure, greater emphasis on qualitative criteria in clinical education, community placements, and other extracurricular experiences such as international exchanges and awareness of minority and global health issues. The establishment of a global network in dental education is firmly supported but to be effective it will need active student representation and involvement. [source]

Adaptation provisioning with respect to learning styles in a Web-based educational system: an experimental study

E. Popescu
Abstract Personalized instruction is seen as a desideratum of today's e-learning systems. The focus of this paper is on those platforms that use learning styles as personalization criterion called learning style-based adaptive educational systems. The paper presents an innovative approach based on an integrative set of learning preferences that alleviates some of the limitations of similar systems. The adaptive methods used as well as their implementation in a dedicated system (WELSA) are presented, together with a thorough evaluation of the approach. The results of the experimental study involving 64 undergraduate students show that accommodating learning styles in WELSA has a beneficial effect on the learning process. [source]

Academic achievement of children in China: The 2002 Fulbright experience

LeAdelle Phelps
The 2002 Fulbright team, led by Zheng Zhou of St. John's University, consisted of 12 professionals in the fields of education, counseling psychology, and school psychology. Spending one month visiting elementary schools, universities, governmental bodies, hospitals, and private schools throughout China, the Fulbright team had an opportunity to observe educational systems and mental health services to children in multiple sites (Beijing, Kunming, Shanghai, and Suzhou). This article outlines the educational system currently utilized in China and explores the cultural factors and key variables that impact Asian children. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Psychol Schs 42: 233,239, 2005. [source]

Educational inputs and outcomes before the transition from communism,

John Beirne
O11; J24; P27; P39 Abstract Conventional wisdom suggests that the stocks of human capital were one of the few positive legacies from communism. However, if factories under communism were so inefficient, why would the education system not have been? Using the education production function approach and new data on educational inputs and outcomes from 1960 to 1989, we find evidence suggesting that the official human capital stocks figures were ,overestimated' during the communist period. In other words, we find that the official human capital stock numbers are significantly higher than those predicted not only in relation to countries at similar levels of development, but also on the basis of educational systems with comparable features and efficiency levels. [source]

The learning credit card: A tool for managing personal development,

Nick Rushby
This is the report of a five month study, undertaken by Sundridge Park Training Technologies in association with Guildford Educational Services to assess the potential of smart card technology to support learning and the management of learning. The study had two strands,the state of the art of the technology and its potential for supporting, delivering and managing learning. In addition to a study of the literature and extensive discussions with people using smart cards, potential users of smart card and visionaries, the project team developed two illustrative systems using cards to store personal data relating to education and training. The term ,smart card' is often used loosely to describe three different types of card, each of which is similar in general shape and size to a traditional credit card. These are: memory cards, laser cards,and true smart cards incorporating a processor and memory. This study has been concerned with memory cards and smart cards. The focus for smart card applications has been predominantly financial: there are relatively few applications in education or training. A notable exception is the large scale project at the University of Bologna which uses smart cards to manage the progress and achievements of a large number of students in the Department of Electronics. The two illustrative systems provided valuable experience of using memory cards and smart cards in quasi-real education and training applications. They highlighted the problems of limited memory capacities and confirmed the high level of user acceptance reported by other trials. We can expect considerable advances in the technology of both memory cards and smart cards over the next months and years. The memory capacities of both types of cards will increase many-fold and the unit costs will fall as large quantities of cards are produced for financial applications. Education and training applications will benefit from this expanding market. The major surprise from the study was the level of interest in the work and the enthusiasm expressed by almost all of those who came to hear of it. The general level of awareness of smart card technology was found to be low. However, the requirement for a system which will enable individuals to manage and own their learning on an extended timescale was generally recognised. Some of the possible applications for smart cards and memory cards in education and training had emerged before the official start of the study and it is clear that the technology is potentially pervasive. The project team and those consulted identified a wide range of possible applications both in education and in training. These focussed on assessment, personal course planning and management, identification of relevant learning opportunities, and the ownership of learning. It was felt that, over the next few years, smart cards are very likely to be in common use as credit cards for financial applications. Therefore, their use for education and training should be planned now. The recommendations from the study are that: More detailed studies are needed to find out how smart cards and memory cards could be used by different organisations in a fully operational system; Standards should be established for smart card applications in education and training, similar to those governing financial applications; Applications should be developed after the standards have been established. To be convincing, these should take a case study approach with small pilot studies in a variety of contexts and must follow real needs rather than attempt to drive them; The case studies would then form the basis for a campaign to increase awareness of smart cards and their potential for education and training, together with a programme for building an infrastructure to support the proposed systems. The public sector should fund the task of developing standards and providing interfaces with existing educational systems and projects to demonstrate the feasibility of various applications. Since educational standards have a European dimension, the European Community may be a source of support for work in the area of standards. At the same time, private sector funding should be sought for skill development and career development systems in industry and in education. The Training Agency itself should consider the application of smart card technology to the control and management of the Youth Training Scheme (YTS). [source]

Improving schools and educational systems , Edited by Alma Harris & Janet H Chrispeels

Cher Ping LIM
No abstract is available for this article. [source]