Educational Practice (educational + practice)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Education

Selected Abstracts

The Puzzle of Museum Educational Practice: A Comment on Rounds and Falk

Daniel Spock
The mandate that museums place education at the center of their public service role has had the effect of framing a new set of questions and,inevitably,problems. If museums have primary value to society as educational institutions, what kind of learning actually happens in them? Jay Rounds and John Falk, writing at the leading edge of this inquiry, explore curiosity, motivation and self-identity as paramount considerations for the special type of learning museums promote. Their analyses present interesting challenges for the museum practitioner, who may observe that people find the pursuit of curiosity pleasurable and value it more highly than knowledge acquisition. The practitioner may conclude that museums have a calling: They stand for the value of curiosity for its own sake, and for that reason will never wear out their welcome. [source]

Learning as Problem Design Versus Problem Solving: Making the Connection Between Cognitive Neuroscience Research and Educational Practice

Jason L. Ablin
ABSTRACT, How can current findings in neuroscience help educators identify particular cognitive strengths in students? In this commentary on Immordino-Yang's research regarding Nico and Brooke, I make 3 primary assertions: (a) the cognitive science community needs to develop an accessible language and mode of communicating applicable research to educators, (b) educators need proper professional development in order to understand and relate current research findings to practice in the classroom, and (c) the specific research on Nico and Brooke clearly suggests that educators need to rethink the classroom as a place not of problem solving but rather problem design in order to further understand and use the cognitive strengths of each individual student. [source]

Knowing Truth: Peirce's epistemology in an educational context

Christine L. McCarthy
Abstract In this paper I examine Peirce's epistemological and ontological theories and indicate their relevance to educational practice. I argue that Peirces conception of Firsts, Seconds and Thirds entails a fundamental ontological realism. I further argue that Peirce does have a theory of truth, that it is a particular non-traditional ,correspondence' theory, consistent with, and implicit in, an over-arching position of pragmatic realism. Peirce's epistemological position is subject to misinterpretation when the ontological realism on which it rests is overlooked. Finally I suggest that such a re-consideration of Peirce's pragmatic ontology and epistemology in an educational context is needed. [source]


Thomas A. Schwandt
This essay offers a diagnosis of what may be at stake in the current preoccupation with defining science-based educational research. The diagnosis unfolds in several readings: The first is a charitable and considerate appraisal that draws attention to the fact that advocating experimental methods as important to a science of educational research is not an inherently evil thing to do. Subsequent readings are grimmer, suggesting more deleterious consequences of the science-based research movement for the entire enterprise of educational practice and research. The central thesis of the essay is that making arguments about method and science the focal point in the current quarrel may be largely beside the point. Instead, educational researchers should join the political and public (not just the academic) conversation about the place of educational science in society and about how science is both implicated in and confronts the politics of what counts as knowledge. [source]

Building Intercultural Citizenship through Education: a human rights approach

This article analyses the challenges posed by traditional ethnic and linguistic minorities in multicultural states and more specifically the problems faced by indigenous peoples and communities. Their educational and cultural needs and demands are increasingly being framed in the language of human rights, based on the expanding international legal and institutional human rights system. The United Nations World Conference on Human Rights, held in Vienna in 1993, endorsed a rights-based approach to development, human rights education is a growing field in educational practice, respect for cultural diversity is now enshrined in international and domestic laws, and the right of every person to education and to culture has become a mainstay of international human rights principles to which a majority of the world's states has subscribed. [source]

Test anxiety, evaluative stress, and susceptibility to distraction from threat

Edmund Keogh
Examinations are perhaps one of the main methods of assessment in education. Unfortunately, there are some individuals who are so fearful of such events that performance is impaired. Test anxiety is believed to be the trait that predisposes individuals to react negatively to examinations and tests. One way in which it is believed that test anxiety affects performance is by increasing susceptibility to distraction from task-irrelevant material. However, few studies have directly investigated this impairment. An experiment was therefore conducted to investigate susceptibility to distraction in high and low test-anxious students. The task used was based on one developed by Mathews, May, Mogg and Eysenck (1990), which distinguishes between focused attention and selective search. In order to determine whether a specific susceptibility to distraction exists, the distractors were varied in terms of valence and relevance to examinations. Since test anxiety is a situation-specific trait, an evaluation-related stressor was used to trigger test-anxious reactions. A specific susceptibility to distraction from threat was found amongst high test-anxious participants who received the evaluation-related stressor. However, this effect was only found when participants were using focused attention. This suggests that the disturbed performance often found to be associated with test anxiety might be due to an inability to ignore threatening material when attempting to focus attentional resources. These results are discussed in light of current theories of test anxiety and implications for educational practice. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The second educational revolution: rethinking education in the age of technology

A. Collins
Abstract This paper drew upon a recent book (Rethinking Education in the Age of Technology) to summarize a number of prospects and challenges arising from the appropriation of digital technology into learning and educational practice. Tensions between traditional models of schooling and the affordances of digital media were noted, while the promise of these technologies for shaping a new system of education was reviewed. It was argued that new technology brings radical opportunities but also significant challenges. The urgency of seeking a coherent model for the future of education in a technological age was stressed. [source]

Teaching and Learning as a Way of Life

Pdraig Hogan
This essay seeks to show that teaching and learning are to be properly understood, not as an undertaking carried out on the will of a higher power or party, but as a way of life with an integrity of its own, arising from its own integral purposes. The essay thus seeks to provide an understanding of educational practice and of educational thought that contrasts in key respects with Alasdair MacIntyre's understanding, though also with a some notable parallels. A largely forgotten ,Socrates of Athens' is identified as furnishing the original inspiration for the understanding of education explored in the essay. Some influential modern (and postmodern) negations of this understanding are then reviewed. Arising from its investigation of teaching and learning as a singular kind of relationship, the essay concludes with a brief sketch of some virtues that might constitute the way of life in question, in its more active and its more reflective moments. [source]

Long-Term Episodic Memory in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Jeffrey S. Skowronek
Twenty-nine grade-matched 4th,8th-grade males, 12 with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (age M= 12.2 years, SD= 1.48), and 17 without (age M= 11.5, SD= 1.59), completed two working memory tasks (digit span and the Simon game) and three long-term episodic memory tasks (a personal event memory task, story memory task, and picture recognition task). In line with clinical observations, children with ADHD performed worse than peers on all working memory tasks, but performed as well as or better than peers on long-term episodic tasks, demonstrating particularly detailed memory for personally experienced past events. Participants' parents also completed questionnaires about their children's memories in daily life. Parents rated children with ADHD lower than children without ADHD on working and semantic memory (e.g., remembering names, spelling, and math), but rated them as high or higher on memory for events. Implications for theory and educational practice are discussed. [source]

Subgroups of Attributional Profiles in Students with Learning Difficulties and Their Relation to Self-Concept and Academic Goals

Jos Carlos Nez
The aim of this article was fourfold: first, to determine whether there are significant differences between students with (N= 173) and without learning disabilities (LD; N= 172) in the dimensions of self-concept, causal attributions, and academic goals. Second, to determine whether students with LD present a uniform attributional profile or whether there are subgroups of attributional profiles among students with LD. Third, to explore differences between these profiles on the dimensions of self-concept, academic goals, perception of competence-incompetence, persistence when faced with failure, peer relationships, and academic achievement. Fourth, to determine whether there are significant differences in the dimensions of self-concept and academic goals between NLD students and the different LD subgroups. The results indicate the existence of two very distinct attributional profiles in students with LD (Helplessness Profile and Adaptive Profile). The implications of these data with regard to theory and research, as well as educational practice, are discussed. [source]

Putting teamwork in context

Noel Boaden
Multidisciplinary teamwork is becoming more important in both the delivery of health care and in the organization and management of that delivery. The first of these has been accepted but traditional professional education has done little to address the challenge it presents to professionals. Recent reforms in the British NHS have made the challenge more urgent. Professionals must work together but in increasingly flexible and innovatory ways. They are also required to play more formal roles in NHS management and policy. Where teamwork has been addressed in professional education it has concentrated on the inter-personal dynamics of working teams. This remains important but to respond effectively to the new challenges curricula and educational practice will have to be clearer about the variety of teams involved and the importance of the context within which teams work. One view is offered as to how that context might be understood in order to map team diversity. Two models are offered to help develop multidisciplinary team learning. One of these deals with key aspects of the organizational setting and the other with factors that affect team processes. It is argued that both should help to facilitate multidisciplinary curriculum development but also suggest learning needs to be met within unidisciplinary professional education. Concentration on team dynamics alone will not deliver the teamwork required in the new NHS. [source]

Examining the "Whole Child" to Generate Usable Knowledge

Gabrielle Rappolt-Schlichtmann
ABSTRACT Despite the promise of scientific knowledge contributing to issues facing vulnerable children, families, and communities, typical approaches to research have made applications challenging. While contemporary theories of human development offer appropriate complexity, research has mostly failed to address dynamic developmental processes. Research typically fragments or splits the human organism into "investigatable" units,biology, behavior, culture, genetics, relationships, innate modules of mind, etc.,resulting in the inevitable loss of the person as an integrated, embodied center of agency. This is problematic for generating knowledge that is usable because in educational practice the unit of analysis and application is the whole person. We discuss the problems inherent to generating usable knowledge when theory and research methodology are so deeply incongruent. In an illustrative example, we adopt a "person-in-context" perspective to demonstrate how research has led to the mischaracterization of maltreated children as immature, disorganized, and dysregulated. Using this "person-in-context" perspective in research can facilitate generating usable knowledge. [source]

Educational developers: The multiple structures and influences that support our work

Mary Deane Sorcinelli
Recognizing that educational development is an important strategic lever for ensuring institutional quality, this chapter examines aspects of the careers of educational developers, including the kinds of positions they hold, the influences on their educational practice, and the factors that affect their programmatic priorities. [source]

Responding to the crisis: RALLY's developmental and relational approach

Gil G. Noam
The authors introduce the RALLY (Responsive Advocacy for Life and Learning in Youth) approach. RALLY is a school- and afterschool-based approach addressing academic success, youth development, and mental health for youth. Based on developmental and relational principles, RALLY's main goals are to promote students' resiliency, development, and academic functioning, as well as to reduce the typical adolescent's risks. By implementing a new professional role of RALLY practitioners, who are developmental specialists and interconnect the different social worlds of students, RALLY creates the resources to provide social opportunities and quality practices to meet students' needs and facilitate their growth. A three-tiered system helps to implement mental health and educational practice, thus providing differential support for students with different needs. Early identification of risks and resiliencies helps to avoid chronicity and pinpoint adequate treatments as soon as possible. [source]

Mobilizing Foucault: history, subjectivity and autonomous learners in nurse education

Chris Darbyshire
In the past 20, years the impact of progressive educational theories have become influential in nurse education particularly in relation to partnership and empowerment between lecturers and students and the development of student autonomy. The introduction of these progressive theories was in response to the criticisms that nurse education was characterized by hierarchical and asymmetrical power relationships between lecturers and students that encouraged rote learning and stifled student autonomy. This article explores how the work of Michel Foucault can be mobilized to think about autonomy in three different yet overlapping ways: as a historical event; as a discursive practice; and as part of an overall strategy to produce a specific student subject position. The implications for educational practice are that, rather than a site where students are empowered, nurse education is both a factory and a laboratory where new subjectivities are continually being constructed. This suggests that empowering practices and disciplinary practices uneasily co-exist. Critical reflection needs to be directed not only at structural dimensions of power but also on ourselves as students and lecturers by asking a Foucauldian question: How are you interested in autonomy? [source]

Thinking about learning: Implications for principle-based professional education

Dr. Karen V. Mann PhD
Abstract The understanding of teaching and learning in medical education has increased to improve medical education at all levels. Selected approaches to understanding learning provide a basis for eliciting principles that may inform and guide educational practice. In this article, these approaches are discussed from two perspectives: the cognitive and the environmental. The cognitive perspective includes activation of prior knowledge, elaboration of new learning, learning in context, transfer of learning, and organization of knowledge. The environmental perspective includes the dynamic interaction of learners with their environment, observational learning, incentives and rewards in the environment, goal setting and self-monitoring, self-efficacy, and situated learning. Implications are presented for facilitation of effective learning and support of the learning environment throughout the continuum of medical education. [source]

Bilingual Education Policy and Practice in the Andes:Ideological Paradox and Intercultural Possibility

Professor Nancy H. HornbergerArticle first published online: 8 JAN 200
Recent developments in language policy and education reform in Peru, Ecuador, and Bolivia, paralleling similar developments in the United States and elsewhere, have opened up new possibilities for indigenous languages and their speakers through bilingual intercultural education. Examining the use and meanings of the term interculturality in policy documents and short practitioner narratives, this article explores the ideological paradox inherent in transforming a standardizing education into a diversifying one and in constructing a national identity that is also multilingual and multicultural. It concludes with implications for educational practice in linguistically and culturally diverse classrooms. [source]

Memory awareness and schematization: learning in the university context

Debra M. B. Herbert
Following the application of the remember/know paradigm to student learning by Conway et al. (1997), this study examined changes in learning and memory awareness of university students in a lecture course and a research methods course. The proposed shift from a dominance of ,remember' awareness in early learning to a dominance of ,know' awareness as learning progresses and schematization occurs was evident for the methods course but not for the lecture course. The patterns of remember and know awareness and proposed associated levels of schematization were supported by a separate measure of the quality of student learning using the SOLO (Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes) Taxonomy. As found by previous research, the remember-to-know shift and schematization of knowledge is dependent upon type of course and level of achievement. Findings are discussed in terms of the utility of the methodology used, the theoretical implications and the applications to educational practice. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Pupil-centred learning, ICT, and teacher behaviour: observations in educational practice

Ed Smeets
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is believed to contribute to innovative, pupil-centred learning environments. In these environments, curriculum characteristics fit pupil characteristics better and teachers act as coaches instead of lecturers. This article presents results from a study of teaching,learning characteristics and the role of the teacher in ICT learning environments. Observations were carried out in classrooms of 25 technology-rich primary and secondary schools in five European countries. Qualitative and quantitative results show that in many cases ICT is used to facilitate traditional ways of teaching. Some examples of promising ICT teaching,learning situations are presented. In addition, quantitative results indicate that learning environments are more pupil-centred when there is a higher degree of curriculum differentiation and when teachers act as coaches. However, even if teachers act as coaches, they tend to stay firmly in control of the learning environment. [source]

Parental Guidance in Preschoolers' Understanding of Spatial-Graphic Representations

Lisa E. Szechter
This research was designed to observe whether parents guide their children's understanding of spatial-graphic representations and, if so, to describe the quality of the strategies they use. Parents read a picture book to their preschoolers (3 or 5 years, N=31) and children completed spatial-graphic comprehension tasks. Observational data revealed a range of creative behaviors used to address the book's spatial-graphic challenges. The incidence and quality of parental spatial-graphic behaviors were significantly related to 5-year-old children's performance on spatial-graphic measures. These findings, as well as the paucity of parent attention to aesthetics or graphic production techniques, are discussed in relation to representational development and educational practice. [source]

Clumsiness, Dyspraxia and Developmental Co-ordination Disorder: how do health and educational professionals in the UK define the terms?

JM Peters
Summary At the turn of the century, the idea that there might be a discrete childhood syndrome, which had ,clumsiness' of movement as its defining symptom, began to emerge. Since then numerous labels have been applied to the syndrome. In spite of recent attempts to standardise the terminology used, variation continues to compromise inter-professional communication and interpretation of research. The aim of this study was to determine how the three terms ,Clumsy', ,Dyspraxia' and ,Developmental Co-ordination Disorder (DCD)' are viewed by health and educational professionals in the UK. Two hundred and thirty-four adults (57% from the health professions and 43% from education) provided a written definition of each term. Content analysis of the 702 definitions was used to determine: (1) the extent to which the terms were familiar/acceptable to the respondents; and (2) to capture differences in the meaning of the term being defined. The results indicated that the terms ,DCD' and ,Dyspraxia' were less familiar than the term ,clumsy' which was, however, least acceptable. Amongst those professionals who were familiar with all three terms, there was general agreement that all were used to describe some sort of overall movement difficulty. Beyond that point, divergence of understanding and inter-professional differences in emphasis emerged. The implications of these differences for clinical and educational practice, research and policy making are discussed. [source]

Creating Research Questions from Strategies and Perspectives of Contemporary Art

G. Thomas Fox
This essay considers how strategies and perspectives from contemporary art can suggest new questions for educational research. Although arts-based research has become more prominent lately, the concern of this paper is that the arts have become used primarily as decorative features to educational research (to further illuminate, depict, and explain the ambiguities and complexities of educational practices, see Donmoyer 1997), rather than deeply moving or disorientating perspectives on education. Another stimulant for looking into contemporary art is the concern that education must focus more on the edges of what is understood, rather than on the centers (see, for example, Fox 1995). The essay uses examples to demonstrate how a number of themes from contemporary art can be interpreted to redirect our curiosity about educational practices, policies, and theories. The paper concludes that further consideration of contemporary art can move researchers to ask more varied questions, especially about the wisdom of our progressive, critical, or humanistic views of students and learning that we have built over this century. [source]


Bert Lambeir
Given their confidence with postmodern and poststructuralist perspectives, the educationalization of social problems is easily perceived as a set of questionable interventions by governments into educational practices. In this essay, Bert Lambeir and Stefan Ramaekers question the extent to which one can conceive of social problems without an understanding of education or, put more sharply, the extent to which social problems are conceivable without some form of educationalization. After describing four meanings of the concept of educationalization, Lambeir and Ramaekers discuss three popular criticisms of it. With these criticisms as context, the authors use the example of concerns about and initiatives in health education to investigate whether education can be completely freed from the educationalization of social issues. They conclude that it cannot. [source]

Self-scaffolding mediated by languaging: microgenetic analysis of high and low performers

Ibtissem Knouzi
The growing literature about the positive effect of languaging or self-explaining has so far failed to determine why some learners benefit from languaging more than others. We attempt to address this gap through a microgenetic analysis of the languaging behaviour of two university students learning French as a second language, whom we identify as a high and a low languager. We trace the development of their understanding of the grammatical concept of voice in French. Our findings suggest that languaging is a self-scaffolding tool that our high languager used efficiently to solve cognitive conflicts, mediate mental processes, and construct meaning in general. On the basis of our results, we call for a change in educational practices that would allow for more learner agency through self-scaffolding mediated by languaging. [source]

Aligning Deweyan Pragmatism and Emersonian Perfectionism: Re-imagining Growth and Educating Grown-Ups

This essay examines in detail the triangulated conversation Naoko Saito constructs, in The Gleam of Light, among the voices of R. W. Emerson, John Dewey and Stanley Cavell. The pivot around which everything turns is the Emersonian ideal of moral perfectionism and, in particular, the implications of this ideal for the philosophy of education. As explicated by Cavell, this ideal concerns ,the dimension of moral thought directed less to restraining the bad than to releasing the good'. For the conscientious person, it is, at once, unavoidable and unattainable. In constructing a conversation among these and other authors, Saito establishes herself as an arresting voice by her thoughtful contributions to many contemporary controversies bearing upon our educational practices, not least of all ones about curricular reform as well as personal transformation. [source]

Developing Critical Rationality as a Pedagogical Aim

Christopher Winch
The development of a conception of critical pedagogy is itself an aspect of the development of critical rationality within late modern societies, closely connected with the role of education in developing critical rationality. The role of critique pervades all aspects of life: for people as citizens, workers and self-determining private individuals. Late modern societies depend on a critically minded population for their viability, for the democratic management of a competing balance of interests and for a capacity for rapid renewal. These requirements put a demand on the education system for the development of critical rationality. However, its development contains within itself the seeds, not just of renewal, but of transformation or even anarchy. This is discussed in relation to three major aspects of education,liberal, civic and vocational,and it is argued that there is a tension within each that arises from the requirement of critique for their successful functioning as educational practices in liberal societies and from the implausibility of developing forms of critique that are inherently self-limiting. Societies that espouse the development of critical rationality as a key educational aim exist in a state of tension and of uncertainty as to the extent to which it can be developed. Attempts to limit critique to consideration only of what is worthwhile are bound to be futile. On the other hand, education must be concerned with preparation for the worthwhile. Critique thus performs the important function of ensuring that our conception of the worthwhile does not remain fixed, but is itself an agent of social change. This paper explores this issue and argues that the problem of reconciling preparation for social participation with preparation for critical engagement exists in all three spheres. The problems may not be resolvable ones but should encourage continual awareness of the scope and limits of educational critique in liberal societies. [source]

Cultural Constructions of Childhood and Early Literacy

LITERACY, Issue 2 2001
Tricia David
This paper is based on the findings of two research teams, working collaboratively, between 1998 and 2000 in four countries: Australia, Singapore, France and England (see David et al 2000). Taking an ecological stance (Bronfenbrenner 1979), both teams adopted a cross-cultural approach in order to gain a better understanding of the contexts in which young children become familiar with literacy. The team led by Bridie Raban worked in Singapore and Australia, that led by Tricia David in France and England. Early years practitioners in all four countries responded to questionnaires, were observed in action and interviewed. (Information about their training and about entry to primary school in each of the countries is given in the endnote.) In addition, the research teams carried out document analyses on Governmental, research and training literature and teachers' plans, and discussed their findings with others in positions to be able to ,authenticate', or refute , findings. Further data were obtained through group interviews with parents of children attending selected settings involved in the research. Here we provide some of the evidence about the different views expressed by practitioners, our observational findings and analysis of the different pressures relating to literacy experienced in early childhood education and care settings. In each case the learning experiences practitioners provided for children were influenced by a range of factors, such as the contested role of preschools as preparation for schooling. In some settings this preparation was not explicit and practitioners often emphasised the importance of the ,here and now' nature of young children's experiences. Rosenthal's (2000) framework for exploring ,collectivist' and ,individualist' cultures in relation to their valued educational practices was applied to our findings, in order to identify how the cultural assumptions about literacy, learning and young children influenced the teaching approaches selected. [source]

Community family medicine teachers' perceptions of their teaching role

Karen V Mann
Objectives Our study explored community preceptors' perceptions of their teaching role, to better understand effective ambulatory and community-based teaching. Methods Bandura's social cognitive theory and Schn's notion of reflective practice guided conceptual development of an interview exploring preceptors' views of their role, teaching goals, teaching techniques, student assessment practices, factors affecting teaching and learning, and balance of patient and student needs. Preceptors reflected also on a significant personal teaching experience. A total of 17 highly student-rated preceptors participated. A trained interviewer conducted each interview; all were transcribed and subjected to content analysis. Results Preceptors (male, 14; female, 3) described learner-centred approaches, setting goals jointly with the student. Demonstration, guided practice, observation and feedback were integral to the experience. Preceptors saw student comfort in the environment as key to effective learning; they attempted to maximize students' learning and breadth of experience. They wanted students to understand content, ,know-how' and ,being a family physician'. Patients remained the primary responsibility, but learners' needs were viewed as compatible with that responsibility. Many preceptors perceived a professional responsibility as ,role models'. Conclusions Preceptors recognized the dynamic environment in which they taught students, and they described strategies which demonstrated how they adapted their teaching to meet the needs of the learner in that environment. These teachers combined learner-centred approaches with sound educational practices, broad learning experiences, attention to student learning and concern for development of professional expertise and judgement. These findings may assist faculty development in family medicine, and other disciplines, in providing effective ambulatory care teaching. [source]

Promoting persistence and success of underrepresented students: Lessons for teaching and learning

Jillian Kinzie
This chapter explores the relationships between indicators of student success such as persistence and student engagement in effective educational practices focusing on historically underrepresented populations. [source]

Indigenous School Policies and Politics: The Sociopolitical Relationship of Waypi Amerindians to Brazilian and French Guianan Schooling

Silvia Lopes Da Silva Macedo
In this article, I aim to demonstrate the relationships between the educational policies of the Brazilian and French Guyana governments and the sociopolitical structure of the Waypi in respect to these educational practices. My main objective is to go beyond the normal concept that the school is an external interference that catalyzes processes of "Indigenous acculturation," to make clear that the Waypi sociopolitical forms of interaction that govern their relationships with alterity also govern their relationships with the state and its representatives. This article is based on my ethnographic study of the school experiences among the Waypi living in villages in both countries.,[Waypi Amerindians, Brazil, schooling, sociopolitical interaction, alterity] [source]