Educational Campaigns (educational + campaign)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Thin primary cutaneous melanomas

CANCER, Issue 7 2002
Associated detection patterns, lesion characteristics, patient characteristics
Abstract BACKGROUND Public awareness and education may lead to the detection of thinner melanomas, which may result in a decrease in morbidity and mortality rates. Which detection patterns, lesion, and patient characteristics are associated with early detection? METHODS Using the University of Michigan prospective melanoma database, the detection patterns, lesion characteristics, and patient characteristics of 1515 consecutive patients with in situ or invasive cutaneous melanomas were reviewed. Tumor thickness (measured in millimeters) was evaluated in relationship to detection patterns (patient, physician, spouse), lesion characteristics (change in color, size, shape/elevation, ulceration, bleeding, tenderness, itching), and patient characteristics (gender, skin type, number of atypical and clinically benign nevi, history of sunburn, personal and family history of melanoma). RESULTS Patient characteristics associated with early detection included female gender, at least one atypical nevus, greater than 20 clinically benign nevi, and/or a personal history of melanoma. Skin types I, II, and III, a history of sunburn, and/or a family history of melanoma were also associated with thinner lesions, but these associations were not statistically significant. Lesion characteristics associated with earlier detection included a change in color, size, shape/elevation, and/or itching. Physician-detected melanomas were significantly thinner than patient or spouse-detected lesions. CONCLUSIONS Educational campaigns should include increasing melanoma awareness in males and educating the public on the early signs and symptoms. Education should be directed at both high and low-risk groups. Physicians should consider performing total skin examinations routinely on patients. Although they detect a relatively small percentage of all melanomas, physicians detect significantly thinner lesions. Cancer 2002;95:1562,8. © 2002 American Cancer Society. DOI 10.1002/cncr.10880 [source]

A Comparison of Perspectives on Breastfeeding Between Two Generations of Black American Women

Marjaneh M. Fooladi MSN, PhDArticle first published online: 24 MAY 200
PURPOSE To determine differences in breastfeeding perspectives between two generations of black American women with and without access to governmental food assistance programs (i.e., WIC). DATA SOURCES Descriptive, comparative study of a convenience sample of 118 black American women in their childbearing years and beyond conducted in a primary rural health care clinic serving an indigent population. CONCLUSIONS A significant difference was found between breastfeeding perceptions and rate among younger black American women on WIC program and their mothers without access to these programs. The availability of free formula through WIC programs has partially influ-enced the rate of breastfeeding among the young black American women. The other sig-nificant influencing factor was public embarrassment at breastfeeding. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE An extensive educational campaign is needed in order to influence the public's perceptions of breastfeeding as an embarrassment. The success of programs such as WIC must be measured beyond the first six months of an infant's life. [source]

Front and Back Covers, Volume 25, Number 3.

June 200
Front & back cover caption, volume 25 issue 3 Front & back cover HERITAGE PROTECTION Created in the aftermath of World War II, UNESCO was mandated to engage in a worldwide educational campaign aimed at establishing the conditions for lasting peace. This involved working out and disseminating a new world view based on a revised conception of human diversity. The founders of UNESCO argued that prejudice relating to human diversity is the main cause of war, and hoped that a radical modification of the existing vision of that diversity would help to guarantee of peace. Over the 60 years of its history UNESCO's doctrine has been subject to numerous modifications. Initially, cultural diversity was often described in terms of unequal economic progress and presented as an obstacle to be overcome. But in the 1960s ,progress', and the resulting cultural homogenization, began to be considered a major threat to human diversity, particularly diversity of culture. Co-ordinated by UNESCO, the international salvage of the Abu Simbel temples, threatened with submersion in Lake Nasser, became a symbol of a new moral obligation, incumbent upon all humans, to safeguard a common ,world heritage' (exemplified in the images on the back and front covers of this issue). Over the last decade, the notion of common heritage of humanity has been extended to all expressions of cultural traditions, thought to be endangered by the deleterious effects of globalization. UNESCO has chosen to put its support behind local identities and the right of the minorities to conserve their traditional differences. Alongside the principle of the equality of individuals, UNESCO now also upholds the equality of cultures, suggesting that the charter of human rights needs to be supplemented by a charter of cultural rights. The major challenge to UNESCO's current ideology is the compatibility of universal human rights with particular cultural rights. If all traditions deserve to be protected, should this privilege be bestowed equally on masterpieces of the past as on traditional practices. Wearing the burqa need not be controversial, but what about practices like genital mutilation or ,honour killings'? As Wiktor Stoczkowski argues in his article, such issues are intensely anthropological challenges deserving our attention. [source]

Evaluation of the knowledge of tooth avulsion of school professionals from Adamantina, São Paulo, Brazil

Graziela Garrido Mori
Abstract,,, Tooth avulsion is common in children, and emergency management in these cases is critical. This management can be made, not only by a dentist but by people who are present where the accident occurs. Consequently, knowledge of tooth avulsion is fundamental for school professionals working with children. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the knowledge of tooth avulsion of school professionals from Adamantina, São Paulo, Brazil. For that purpose a questionnaire, including questions regarding emergency procedures for tooth avulsion, was answered by 117 teachers. The results demonstrated that 75.2% of school professionals knew the importance of emergency management and 60.6% would look for a dentist for treatment of the cases; 18.8% would reimplant the tooth and 7.6% would keep it in milk. This study showed the lack of knowledge of teachers on tooth avulsion; educational campaigns are necessary to improve the emergency management of tooth avulsion. [source]

Physical education undergraduates and dental trauma knowledge

Sônia Regina Panzarini
Abstract,,, The aim of the present study was to assess the level of knowledge of undergraduates from the College of Physical Education (Toledo, Araçatuba) concerning dental avulsion injuries. Data showed that 95% of the respondents did not know what dental avulsion is, 73.5% said they know how to define dental replantation, however, only 26% were able to do it correctly. When asked about first emergency measures after an avulsion, 50% of the respondents said they know what they should do, and the most cited measure was to seek a dentist. When asked about optimal storage media, 45.5% would keep it in a favorable one, and 28% did not know where to keep the tooth until treatment. Only 25.6% indicated a suitable extra-oral time for replantation; 90.3% of the respondents had received no advice about the emergency management of dental avulsion; 90% said they consider this an important and necessary subject. The results indicated that educational campaigns are necessary to improve the emergency management of dental injuries by those future P.E. professors for a better prognosis of dental replantation. [source]


ABSTRACT This paper examines pain and pain relief in the Caribbean, where pain is widely perceived as an unavoidable part of life, and where unnecessary suffering results from untreated and under treated pain. Barriers to pain relief in the Caribbean include patient and family attitudes, inadequate knowledge among health professionals and unduly restrictive regulations on the medical use of opioids. Similar barriers exist all over the world. This paper urges medical, nursing and public health professionals, and educators to examine attitudes towards pain and pain relief and to work towards making effective pain relief and palliation more accessible. It recommends that i) health professionals and officials be better educated about pain, palliation and opioids, ii) regulatory restrictions be updated in light of clinical and scientific evidence, iii) opioid procurement policies be adjusted to facilitate increased medical use, iv) medical charts and records be modified to routinely elicit and document patients levels of pain, and v) educational campaigns be developed to inform the public that moderate and severe pain can be safely relieved at the end of life and other stages of life. The professional, respectful, and beneficent response to patients in pain is to provide rapid and aggressive pain relief or to urgently consult a pain or palliative specialist. When a health system hinders such efforts the ethical response is to identify, facilitate and advocate for overcoming barriers to improvement. [source]

The rationale for early intervention in schizophrenia and related disorders

Merete Nordentoft
Abstract Aim: To examine the rationale and evidence supporting an early intervention approach in schizophrenia. Methods: A selective literature review was conducted. Results: During the onset of schizophrenia, there is often a significant delay between the emergence of psychotic symptoms and the initiation of treatment. The average duration of untreated psychosis is around 1,2 years. During this period, brain function may continue to deteriorate and social networks can be irreversibly damaged. Studies have consistently linked longer duration of untreated psychosis with poorer outcomes and this relationship holds even after controlling for the potential confounding variable of premorbid functioning. In Norway, the early Treatment and Intervention in PSychosis study demonstrated that duration of untreated psychosis is amenable to intervention with the combination of educational campaigns and specialized early detection units substantially decreasing the period from onset of symptoms to treatment initiation. Furthermore, recent evidence from the randomized controlled OPUS and the Lambeth Early Onset trial studies have linked phase-specific early interventions to improved outcomes spanning symptoms, adherence to treatment, comorbid drug abuse, relapse and readmission. Some benefits persist after cessation of the intervention. Conclusions: Early intervention in schizophrenia is justified to reduce the negative personal and social impact of prolonged periods of untreated symptoms. Furthermore, phase-specific interventions are associated with improved outcomes, at least in the short term. Further research is needed to establish the optimum duration of such programmes. [source]

Consumers' attitudes, knowledge, self-reported and actual hand washing behaviour: a challenge for designers of intervention materials

D.A. Clayton
Cross contamination by microbial pathogens in the kitchen environment may play an important role in many cases of food borne illnesses. Hand washing has been shown to be one of the most important factors in controlling the spread of microorganisms and in preventing the spread of disease. However, educational campaigns such as distribution of information leaflets, workshops, performance feedback and lectures have been, at best, associated with a transient improvement in compliance rates. In addition, the majority of research investigating UK consumers' food safety behaviour has examined self-reported as opposed to actual hand washing behaviour. This research utilises psychological theory in an attempt to understand how one might design a more effective hand washing campaign. Social cognition models were utilised to explore the relationship between consumers' knowledge, attitudes, self-reported and actual hand washing behaviour. The research was conducted in two stages. Firstly, salient beliefs of 100 consumers towards food safety were obtained using open-ended questions. Secondly, the food handling practices of 40 consumers were observed and their food safety attitudes and knowledge determined using structured questionnaires. All the participants were knowledgeable about hand washing techniques, intended to wash their hands and generally had positive attitudes towards the importance of washing their hands. However, none of the participants adequately washed their hands on all appropriate occasions. The attitude statement results suggest measures of perceived behavioural control, perceived barriers and perceived risk may provide developers of food safety intervention materials with more useful information compared with measures of consumers' knowledge or intention. Issues of habit and optimistic bias also need to be given consideration when designing intervention materials to change hand washing behaviour of consumers. [source]

Prevalence and genotype distribution of cervical human papillomavirus infection in Macao

Yuk-Ching Yip
Abstract Population-specific epidemiological data on human papillomavirus (HPV) infection are essential for formulating strategies to prevent cervical cancer. The age-specific prevalence of HPV infection was determined among 1,600 women enrolled for cervical screening in Macao. A U-shaped age-specific prevalence curve with a first peak (prevalence rate, 10%) at 20,25 years and a second peak (13%) at 51,55 years was observed. Co-infections with multiple types were detected in 32.5% of HPV-positive subjects and without significant variation among different age groups (P,=,0.318). The majority (84.6%) of the positive samples harbored high- or probable high-risk HPV types, and these types also exhibited a similar U-shaped age-specific prevalence curve. In contrast, low and unknown-risk HPV types remained at a low prevalence (1.5,2.5%) throughout the age groups between 20 and 50 years, and with a small peak (4.5%) at 51,55 years. HPV 52 was the most common type found in 26.8% of positive samples, followed by HPV 16 (15.5%), HPV 68 (11.4%), HPV 18 and HPV 58 (8.9% each), HPV 54 (8.1%), HPV 53 (7.3%), HPV 39 (6.5%), HPV 33 and HPV 66 (5.7% each). In conclusion, because of the early peak of infection, vaccination and educational campaigns in Macao should start early and target at teenagers. The presence of a second peak containing mainly high-risk HPV types in older women indicates the need to evaluate the cover of the cervical screening programme for older women. Further study to determine the contribution of HPV 52 in high-grade cervical neoplasia and invasive cancers in Macao is warranted. J. Med. Virol. 82:1724,1729, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Smoking, sun exposure, number of nevi and previous neoplasias are risk factors for melanoma in older patients (60 years and over)

E Nagore
Abstract Background, Malignant melanoma risk factors have been studied in different geographical area populations. However, no study has focused on risk factors which are more frequently associated to the over 60's age group. Methods, A case-control study was performed that included 160 patients age , 60 years diagnosed of cutaneous melanoma and 318 controls matched for age and sex. Both groups were assessed, by personal interview and physical examination, for different phenotype characteristics (hair and eye color, phototype), the presence of other cutaneous lesions (solar lentigines, actinic keratoses and nevi), degree and type of solar exposure and personal and family past history of cutaneous or non-cutaneous cancer. Differences were evaluated by contingency tables and univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results, Of 17 factors, those risk factors with a strong effect on the development of melanoma in the elderly were: fair eyes, severe sunburns, years of occupational sun exposure, smoking, > 50 melanocytic nevi and personal history of NMSC and other non-cutaneous neoplasias. Conclusions, Tobacco smoking is an independent risk factor for cutaneous melanoma in the elderly. Intense (both acute and chronic) sun exposure and constitutional features, such as tumor susceptibility (NMSC, non-cutaneous neoplasias, and multiple nevi) are also associated with melanoma risk. All these factors should help to better design educational campaigns in older people. [source]

Best practices for improving college men's health

Will H. Courtenay
A sobering description of the state of college men's health is followed by discussion of the Six-Point HEALTH Plan and strategies for educational campaigns, marketing, and outreach efforts. [source]

Optimal and sub-optimal control in Dengue epidemics

Marco Antonio Leonel Caetano
Abstract This work concerns the application of the optimal control theory to Dengue epidemics. The dynamics of this insect-borne disease is modelled as a set of non-linear ordinary differential equations including the effect of educational campaigns organized to motivate the population to break the reproduction cycle of the mosquitoes by avoiding the accumulation of still water in open-air recipients. The cost functional is such that it reflects a compromise between actual financial spending (in insecticides and educational campaigns) and the population health (which can be objectively measured in terms of, for instance, treatment costs and loss of productivity). The optimal control problem is solved numerically using a multiple shooting method. However, the optimal control policy is difficult to implement by the health authorities because it is not practical to adjust the investment rate continuously in time. Therefore, a suboptimal control policy is computed assuming, as the admissible set, only those controls which are piecewise constant. The performance achieved by the optimal control and the sub-optimal control policies are compared with the cases of control using only insecticides when Breteau Index is greater or equal to 5 and the case of no-control. The results show that the sub-optimal policy yields a substantial reduction in the cost, in terms of the proposed functional, and is only slightly inferior to the optimal control policy. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

An Overview of the Ultraviolet Index and the Skin Cancer Cases in Brazil,

M. P. Corrêa
ABSTRACT This study relates regional and seasonal UV index (UVI) variations, number of skin cancer cases and population skin-color distribution in Brazil. UVI calculations were performed using the UV Global Atmospheric Model (UVGAME), whose characteristics and validations are provided in this article. Health and racial data sets are based on the health and census data collected by Brazilian governmental agencies in the past. The discussion covers cultural customs and details of health and educational campaigns in Brazil. Despite lower UV levels in the South and Southeast regions, the results show a larger number of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) cases in these regions, where the white population is predominant. In general, in the southern regions about 50 new NMSC cases per 100000 inhabitants have been diagnosed each year. These rates decrease almost 40% in the Central,North regions and more than 80% in Northeast region, where miscegenation is common. In addition, the UVI evaluation is extended to other South American sites with singular characteristics, e.g. populous cities located in high altitudes or those affected by the Antarctic ozone hole in the extreme south of the continent. [source]

The Instability of Organ Donation Decisions by Next-of-Kin and Factors That Predict It

J. R. Rodrigue
We examined the instability of organ donation decisions made by next-of-kin and factors that predict whether nondonors wish they had consented to donation. Next-of-kin of donor-eligible individuals from one organ procurement organization participated in a semistructured telephone interview. Participants were asked if they would make the same decision if they had to make it again today. Of the 147 next-of-kin donors, 138 (94%) would make the same decision again, 6 (4%) would not consent to donation and 3 (2%) were unsure. Of the 138 next-of-kin nondonors, 89 (64%) would make the same decision again, 37 (27%) would consent to donation and 12 (9%) were unsure. Regret among nondonors was more likely when the next-of-kin had more favorable transplant attitudes (OR = 1.76, CI = 1.15, 2.69), had the first donation discussion with a non-OPO professional (OR = 0.21, CI = 0.13, 0.65), were not told of their loved one's death before this discussion (OR = 0.23, CI = 0.10, 0.50), did not feel they were given enough time to make the decision (OR = 0.25, CI = 0.11, 0.55), had not discussed donation with family members (OR = 0.30, CI = 0.13, 0.72) and had not heard a public service announcement about organ donation (OR = 0.29, CI = 0.13, 0.67). Organ procurement organizations (OPOs) should consider targeting these variables in educational campaigns and donation request approaches. [source]

Regulation of environmental tobacco smoke by Australian drug treatment agencies

Raoul A. Walsh
Objective: To determine how smoking is regulated in alcohol and other drug treatment agencies. Method: Australian drug treatment agencies were mailed questionnaires for completion by the manager and one other staff member (553 packages posted). Results: Questionnaires were returned by 260 (59.8%) eligible agencies. Most respondents (82.5% managers, 76.7% other staff) indicated their agency had a written policy regulating smoking. The vast majority (88.2% managers, 82.3% other staff) reported smoking was banned inside their agency, with the highest proportion of bans being in the area health category (95.8% managers, 93.7% other staff) and the lowest in the residential rehabilitation category (75.6% managers, 62.8% other staff). Of the respondents reporting a ban, 19.1% of managers and 27.5% of other staff reported their agency's ban was not ,always' enforced. Paired analyses suggested that other staff were more likely to indicate that the agency had no written policy or be unsure and managers were more likely to report that smoking bans were ,always' stringently enforced. Overall, a substantial minority of respondents (managers 28.6%, other staff 40.2%) indicated that smoking occurred inside their agency at least occasionally. Conclusions and Implications: A substantial proportion of Australian drug and alcohol agencies continue to permit smoking inside their premises. Policy initiatives and educational campaigns are required to promote the expansion of smoke-free conditions in this sector. Serious consideration should be given to making the adoption and enforcement of internal smoke-free policies a condition of any continued government funding. [source]

Feeding practices of infants through the first year of life in Italy

M Giovannini
Aim: To investigate infant feeding practices through the first year of life in Italy, and to identify factors associated with the duration of breastfeeding and early introduction of solid foods. Methods: Structured phone interviews on feeding practices were conducted with 2450 Italian-speaking mothers randomly selected among women who delivered a healthy-term singleton infant in November 1999 in Italy. Interviews were performed 30 d after delivery and when the infants were aged 3, 6, 9 and 12 mo. Type of breastfeeding was classified according to the WHO criteria. Results: Breastfeeding started in 91.1% of infants. At the age of 6 and 12mo, respectively, 46.8% and 11.8% of the infants was still breastfed, 68.4% and 27.7% received formula, and 18.3% and 65.2% were given cow's milk. Solids were introduced at the mean age of 4.3 mo (range 1.6,6.5 mo). Introduction of solids occurred before age 3 and 4 mo in 5.6% and 34.2% of infants, respectively. The first solids introduced were fruit (73.1%) and cereals (63.9%). The main factors (negatively) associated with the duration of breastfeeding were pacifier use (p > 0.0001), early introduction of formula (p > 0.0001), lower mother's age (p > 0.01) and early introduction of solids (p= 0.05). Factors (negatively) associated with the introduction of solids foods before the age of 3 mo were mother not having breastfed (p > 0.01), early introduction of formula (p > 0.01), lower infant bodyweight at the age of 1 mo (p= 0.05) and mother smoking (p= 0.05). Conclusion: The duration of breastfeeding in Italy is still inadequate, as well as compliance with international recommendations for timing of introduction of complementary foods. National guidelines, public messages and educational campaigns should be promoted in Italy. [source]