Educational Achievement (educational + achievement)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Patterns and Pathways of Educational Achievement Across Adolescence: A Holistic-Developmental Perspective

Robert W. Roeser
The authors' approach to using pattern-centered analyses and longitudinal data addresses how configurations of personal and contextual factors forecast the educational achievement and attainments of different youth across adolescence. [source]

Civic Knowledge of High School Students in Israel: Personal and Contextual Determinants

Professor Orit Ichilov
Past research on civic education suggests that students' performance is largely influenced by individual socioeconomic background and motivational factors. There has been little attention to the effects of school and classroom ideological and social attributes, such as the socioeconomic make-up of the school or classroom, or how interested in politics are a student's classmates. The results of the present study support the contention that contextual effects play a vital role in determining students' civic knowledge scores. Analysis of Israeli 11th graders' performance on the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) civic knowledge test shows that while individual backgrounds and motivations play a significant role, school and classroom contexts greatly contribute to civic knowledge acquisition. [source]

Cannabis and crime: findings from a longitudinal study

ADDICTION, Issue 1 2010
Willy Pedersen
ABSTRACT Aim To examine the association between cannabis use during adolescence and young adulthood, and subsequent criminal charges. Methods Data were obtained from the Young in Norway Longitudinal Study. A population-based sample (n = 1353) was followed from 13 to 27 years of age. Data were gathered on cannabis use, alcohol consumption and alcohol problems, and use of other illegal substances such as amphetamines, cocaine and opiates. In addition, extensive information on socio-demographic, family and personal factors was collected. This data set was linked to individual-level information from official Norwegian crime statistics. Findings We found robust associations between cannabis use and later registered criminal charges, both in adolescence and in young adulthood. These associations were adjusted for a range of confounding factors, such as family socio-economic background, parental support and monitoring, educational achievement and career, previous criminal charges, conduct problems and history of cohabitation and marriage. In separate models, we controlled for alcohol measures and for use of other illegal substances. After adjustment, we still found strong associations between cannabis use and later criminal charges. However, when eliminating all types of drug-specific charges from our models, we no longer observed any significant association with cannabis use. Conclusions The study suggests that cannabis use in adolescence and early adulthood may be associated with subsequent involvement in criminal activity. However, the bulk of this involvement seems to be related to various types of drug-specific crime. Thus, the association seems to rest on the fact that use, possession and distribution of drugs such as cannabis is illegal. The study strengthens concerns about the laws relating to the use, possession and distribution of cannabis. [source]

Education and the Politics of Difference: Iris Young and the politics of education

Avigail Eisenberg
Abstract Three key contributions of Iris Young to democratic political theory, and three challenges that have arisen in response to Young's theory, are examined here in relation to education. First, Young has argued that oppression and domination, not distributive inequality, ought to guide discussions about justice. Second, eliminating oppression requires establishing a politics that welcomes difference by dismantling and reforming structures, processes, concepts and categories that sustain difference-blind, impartial, neutral, universal politics and policies. The infatuation with merit and standardized tests, both of which are central to measuring educational achievement, are chief amongst the targets in need of reform. Third, a politics of difference requires restructuring the division of labour and decision-making so as to include disadvantaged social groups but allow them to contribute without foregoing their particularities. The challenges that have arisen in response to Young's theory are first, that difference is merely another way of getting at inequality of resources or opportunities, and if it is not, then, second, a politics of difference values difference for the sake of difference rather than for the sake of alleviating social disadvantage. Third, in theory and in practice a politics that focuses on difference putatively jeopardizes a politics whose aim is to improve the redistribution of resources. [source]

Childhood social disadvantage and smoking in adulthood: results of a 25-year longitudinal study

ADDICTION, Issue 3 2007
David M. Fergusson
ABSTRACT Aim To examine the associations between exposure to socio-economic disadvantage in childhood and smoking in adulthood. Design A 25-year longitudinal study of the health, development and adjustment of a birth cohort of 1265 New Zealand children. Measurements Assessments of childhood socio-economic disadvantage, smoking in adulthood and potential mediating pathways, including: parental education, family socio-economic status, family living standards and family income; smoking frequency and nicotine dependence at age 25 years; child IQ, educational achievement by age 18 years, conduct problems ages 14,16 years, parental smoking 0,16 years and peer smoking at 16 years. Findings Smoking at age 25 was correlated significantly (P < 0.0001) with increasing childhood socio-economic disadvantage. Further, indicators of childhood socio-economic disadvantage were correlated significantly (P < 0.0001) with the intervening variables of childhood intelligence, school achievement, conduct problems and exposure to parental and peer smoking; which in turn were correlated significantly (P < 0.0001) with measures of smoking at age 25. Structural equation modelling suggested that the linkages between the latent factor of childhood disadvantage and later smoking were explained largely by a series of pathways involving cognitive/educational factors, adolescent behavioural adjustment and exposure to parental and peer smoking. Conclusions The current study suggested that smoking in adulthood is influenced by childhood socio-economic disadvantage via the mediating pathways of cognitive/educational factors, adolescent behaviour and parental and peer smoking. [source]

The Relative Influence of Epileptic EEG Discharges, Short Nonconvulsive Seizures, and Type of Epilepsy on Cognitive Function

EPILEPSIA, Issue 1 2004
Albert Aldenkamp
Summary: Purpose: This study addressed whether cognitive impairment in children with epilepsy is caused by disease-related stable factors, such as the type of epilepsy, or by acute effects of paroxysmal epileptic activity such as epileptic EEG discharges. We studied a nonselected group with short nonconvulsive seizures, as these seizures may elude detection and may therefore persist over a longer period. In this group, the diagnostic issue is to differentiate between the combined effects of several epilepsy-related factors on cognition. Methods: All children were assessed with 32-channel EEG, synchronized with a computerized cognitive test system and a video-monitoring system. Recording time was 2 h. The primary inclusion criteria were unclear seizures and fluctuations in cognitive performance and/or frequent epileptic EEG discharges in a recent EEG. Results: One hundred fifty-two patients met the inclusion criteria; 31 patients appeared not to have a diagnosis of epilepsy and were used as a nonepilepsy control group. Our results show that type of epilepsy has an impact on stable cognitive functions, such as educational achievement. Paroxysmal epileptic activity (acute effects of seizures and epileptic EEG discharges) affects primarily transient mechanistic cognitive processes (alertness, mental speed). Conclusions: These results suggest that the effects of paroxysmal epileptic activity on transient cognitive mechanisms may accumulate over time and consequently affect the more stable aspects of cognitive function such as educational achievement. The clinical relevance is that early detection of the cognitive impact of seizure-related activity and subsequent treatment may prevent its detrimental impact on cognitive and educational development. [source]

Are cognitive differences between immigrant and majority groups diminishing?

Jan te Nijenhuis
A review is given of scores on various cognitive measures, comparing groups of ethnic Dutch and non-Western immigrants using a large number of datasets. The research shows that there are large group differences in school results, work proficiency, and g for Turks, Moroccans, Surinamese, Netherlands Antilleans, and Indonesians from the Moluccans compared with ethnic Dutch. However, South-East Asians score higher, and persons with one immigrant and one ethnic Dutch parent score only slightly below the mean of the Dutch. When comparing first-generation disadvantaged immigrant groups with later generations the data show substantial improvements for g, a remarkable stability of educational differences for younger children, and a clear improvement in educational achievement at the end of primary school. Indirect data on intergenerational improvements in work proficiency appear suggestive of a trend of closing gaps. Some of the data reflect higher cognitive capacities over time, and this enhances integration of immigrants into Dutch society. Causes of group differences and improvements in mean level of g are discussed. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Using the Barnes Language Assessment with older ethnic minority groups

Victoria Ramsey
Abstract Objective There are many issues concerning the assessment of older people from ethnic minority groups, the most significant being the language barrier experienced by those whose English is an additional language (EAL). This study aimed to test the hypothesis that EAL participants would score less well than those with English as a first language (EFL) on the sub-tests of the Barnes Language Assessment (BLA), elucidate the reasons for any such differences and discuss the implications. Methods The Barnes Language Assessment (BLA) is an accurate tool providing information about expected patterns of language in different dementia syndromes. This study compares the performance of EAL participants with EFL participants. The BLA was administered to 144 participants, divided into sub-groups with respect to age, gender and educational background, none of whom had a working diagnosis of dementia. Results Results suggest that EAL speakers performed less well compared to EFL speakers when other variables were matched. Significantly better BLA scores, at the one percent level, were found in both EAL and EFL groups with higher educational achievement for eight of the 15 sub-tests. Conclusion Differences were found in performance on the BLA between EAL and EFL participants. The degree of difference between EAL and EFL speakers decreased as educational achievement rose. The consequences of these findings for service delivery and the problems of recruitment of older EAL participants are discussed. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Parental Influences on the Educational Outcomes of Immigrant Youth,

Grace Kao
Recent research suggests that children with immigrant parents tend to outperform their counterparts with native-born parents. This article examines whether the relative advantage of children of immigrants can be traced to differences in the character of parent-child relationships. Using the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS), I examine whether parent-child interaction varies among racial and generational groups. Descriptive tabulations suggest that immigrant parents are less likely to share decisionmaking power and to talk about school in general than are native-born parents. However, immigrant parents are more likely to talk about college, and their children report that they are closer to their parents than youth of native-born parents. While differences in parent-child interaction account for some of the differences in educational achievement between racial and generational groups, significant variation by race and generational status remains. Finally, I found significant variation between parenting behavior and its impact on GPA by race and ethnicity. [source]

A Domain-level Approach to Describing Growth in Achievement

E. Matthew Schulz
Descriptions of growth in educational achievement often rely on the notion that higher-level students can do whatever lower-level students can do, plus at least one more thing. This article presents a method of supporting such descriptions using the data of a subject-area achievement test. Multiple content domains with an expected order of difficulty were defined within the Grade 8 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in mathematics. Teachers were able to reliably classify items into the domains by content. Using expected percentage correct scores on the domains, it was possible to describe each achievement level boundary (Basic, Proficient, and Advanced) on the NAEP scale by patterns of skill that include both mastery and non-mastery, and to show that higher achievement levels are associated with mastery of more skills. We conclude that general achievement tests like NAEP can be used to provide criterion-referenced descriptions of growth in achievement as a sequential mastery of skills. [source]

Teenage Pregnancy and Female Educational Underachievement: A Prospective Study of a New Zealand Birth Cohort

David M. Fergusson
This paper examines the relationship between teenage pregnancy and educational underachievement in a cohort of 520 young women studied from birth to 21 years. Results showed that young women who became pregnant by the age of 18 years were at increased risk of poor achievement in the national School Certificate examinations, of leaving school without qualifications, and of failing to complete their sixth-form year at high school. In addition, pregnant teenagers had lower rates of participation in tertiary education and training than their nonpregnant peers. Subsequent analyses showed that the links between teenage pregnancy and tertiary educational participation were largely noncausal and reflected the earlier academic ability, behavior, and family circumstances of young women who became pregnant. In contrast, antecedent child and family factors only partially explained associations between teenage pregnancy and high school participation and achievement. After adjustment for these factors, significant associations remained between teenage pregnancy and educational achievement at high school. An examination of the diverse life histories of young women who became pregnant revealed that for the majority of young women, pregnancy occurred after they had left school before finishing. These findings suggest that rates of teenage pregnancy might be elevated among young women who leave school early, rather than rates of early school leaving being elevated among young women who become pregnant during their teenage years. [source]

A Retrospective Examination of the Relationship Between Implementation Quality of the Coordinated School Health Program Model and School-Level Academic Indicators Over Time,

Scott Rosas PhD
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND:, Although models such as the coordinated school health program (CSHP) are widely available to address student health needs, school professionals have been unconvinced that scarce resources should be allocated to improving student health. Concern that attention may be diverted from meeting academic accountability goals is often seen as a reason not to attend to student health. Despite continuing calls for the study of multicomponent health programs in relation to educational achievement, the understanding of the extent to which adherence to the characteristics of CSHP contributes to or compromises academic outcomes over time remains incomplete. METHODS:, A retrospective study was conducted of CSHP implementation across 158 public schools in Delaware, serving grades K-12. Using a doubly multivariate design, this study examined 3 levels of CSHP implementation across 5 school-level academic indicators for 3 years. Indicators included school performance, school progress, and aggregated student performance in 3 content areas,reading, mathematics, and writing. Data for the years prior to, during, and following implementation of CSHP were analyzed. RESULTS:, Multivariate main effects of year by implementation level were detected. CSHP schools with high levels of implementation had better school-level performance and progress ratings. CSHP implementation did not have an effect on reading, math, and writing indicators, though all groups showed significant improvements over time in these areas. CONCLUSIONS:, Results of this study suggest that quality implementation of CSHP does not adversely impact school-level academic indicators over time. Moreover, findings suggest a better fit with school-wide accountability indicators than with specific content-based achievement indicators. [source]

The complexity of school and neighbourhood effects and movements of pupils on school differences in models of educational achievement

George Leckie
Summary., Traditional studies of school differences in educational achievement use multilevel modelling techniques to take into account the nesting of pupils within schools. However, educational data are known to have more complex non-hierarchical structures. The potential importance of such structures is apparent when considering the effect of pupil mobility during secondary schooling on educational achievement. Movements of pupils between schools suggest that we should model pupils as belonging to the series of schools that are attended and not just their final school. Since these school moves are strongly linked to residential moves, it is important to explore additionally whether achievement is also affected by the history of neighbourhoods that are lived in. Using the national pupil database, this paper combines multiple membership and cross-classified multilevel models to explore simultaneously the relationships between secondary school, primary school, neighbourhood and educational achievement. The results show a negative relationship between pupil mobility and achievement, the strength of which depends greatly on the nature and timing of these moves. Accounting for pupil mobility also reveals that schools and neighbourhoods are more important than shown by previous analysis. A strong primary school effect appears to last long after a child has left that phase of schooling. The additional effect of neighbourhoods, in contrast, is small. Crucially, the rank order of school effects across all types of pupil is sensitive to whether we account for the complexity of the multilevel data structure. [source]

The effect of school resources on pupil attainment: a multilevel simultaneous equation modelling approach

Fiona Steele
Summary., Improving educational achievement in UK schools is a priority, and of particular concern is the low achievement of specific groups, such as those from lower socio-economic backgrounds. An obvious question is whether we should be improving the outcomes of these pupils by spending more on their education. The literature on the effect of educational spending on the achievement of pupils has some methodological difficulties, in particular the endogeneity of school resource levels, and the intraschool correlations in pupils' responses. We adopt a multi-level simultaneous equation modelling approach to assess the effect of school resources on pupil attainment at age 14 years. The paper is the first to apply a simultaneous equation model to estimate the effect of school resources on pupils' achievement, using the newly available national pupil database and pupil level annual school census. [source]

Patterns and Pathways of Educational Achievement Across Adolescence: A Holistic-Developmental Perspective

Robert W. Roeser
The authors' approach to using pattern-centered analyses and longitudinal data addresses how configurations of personal and contextual factors forecast the educational achievement and attainments of different youth across adolescence. [source]

A test for geographers: the geography of educational achievement in Toronto and Hamilton, 1997

The recent introduction of standardised achievement tests in several provinces has created an opportunity for Canadian geographers to contribute to public and theoretical debates. Geographers are well-equipped to comprehend and analyse the effects that neighbourhoods have upon pupil achievement. Independent of family background and school funding, such effects may be stronger in education than in other fields, such as voting behaviour and health research, but they have been ignored in recent public debates. They should be considered if informed judgements are to be made about whether specific teachers, schools, and boards are doing an adequate job. Analysis of the Ontario Grade 3 test results for 1997 in public schools in the City of Toronto and in Hamilton-Wentworth indicate that social class had a greater effect on pupil achievement than language background. Differences in the determinants of achievement between these two urban centres may be attributable to local variations in occupational structure and residential patterns. L'introduction récente en éducation des tests de compêtences standardisés, dans plusieurs provinces, offre aux géographes canadiens l'occasion de contribuer aux débats publics et théoriques. Les géographes sont bien placés pour comprendre et analyser les effets de quartier sur le rendement scolaire des élèves. Indépendamment du milieu socioculturel et du financement scolaire, ces effets ont peut être plus d'impact en éducation que dans les domaines tels que le comportement électoral et la recherche dans le milieu de la santé, cependant, ils demeurent à l'écart des débats publics. Ces éléments doivent être considérés si l'on prétend juger en connaissance de cause l'efficacité et le rendement des écoles, le corps enseignant et les conseils scolaires. L'analyse des résultats d'examens de l'Ontario en 1997, pour les élèves des écoles publiques de la troisième année des villes de Toronto et Hamilton-Wentworth, démontre que la réussite scolaire est plus liée au niveau socio-économique qu'à l'origine linguistique. La divergence des facteurs de réussites des deux centres urbains est peut-être attribuable aux variations des structures d'occupation locales et résidentielles. [source]

Chronic pain in South Australia , population levels that interfere extremely with activities of daily living

David C. Currow
Abstract Objective: The prevalence of chronic pain in Australia has only been previously estimated for the state of New South Wales. The aim of this study was to focus estimates on pain severe enough to interfere markedly with daily function irrespective of contact with health services in another region, South Australia. Methods: A whole of population random face-to-face survey method (n=2,973) was used, directly standardised against the whole population for age, gender, country of birth and rurality. Respondents were asked about chronic pain and the degree to which it interfered with daily activities. Results: The prevalence of chronic pain was 17.9%, and pain that interfered extremely with activity 5.0%. Chronic pain was associated with older age, living alone, lower income, not being in full-time work and lower educational levels in bivariate analyses, however in multifactor analyses the only significant associations were not currently working (p<0.001) and lower levels of educational achievement (p=0.042). Pain that interfered extremely with activity in multifactor analysis was associated with work status where the odds ratio for work-related injury compared to those in full time work was 19.3 (95% CI 7.30-51.3; p<0.001). Conclusions: This study highlights the high levels of pain with extreme effects on day-to-day life (one in 20 people), the complex inter-relationships of the factors (educational achievement, work status) associated with chronic pain and the impacts that these factors have on the people experiencing such disabling pain in the long-term. [source]

Social capital and health in rural and urban communities in South Australia

Anna M. Ziersch
Abstract Objective: This paper seeks to compare the relationships between social capital and health for rural and urban residents of South Australia. Methods: Using data from a South Australian telephone survey of 2,013 respondents (1,402 urban and 611 rural), separate path analyses for the rural and urban samples were used to compare the relationships between six social capital measures, six demographic variables, and mental and physical health (measured by the SF-12). Results: Higher levels of networks, civic participation and cohesion were reported in rural areas. Education and income were consistently linked with social capital variables for both rural and urban participants, with those on higher incomes and with higher educational achievement having higher levels of social capital. However, there were also differences between the rural and urban groups in some of the other predictors of social capital variables. Mental health was better among rural participants, but there was no significant difference for physical health. Social capital was associated with good mental health for both urban and rural participants, but with physical health only for urban participants. Higher levels of social capital were significantly associated with better mental health for both urban and rural participants, but with better physical health only for urban participants. Conclusions and implications: The study found that social capital and its relationship to health differed for participants in rural and urban areas, and that there were also differences between the areas in associations with socioeconomic variables. Policies aiming to strengthen social capital in order to promote health need to be designed for specific settings and particular communities within these. [source]

People, places and policies , trying to account for health inequalities in impoverished neighbourhoods

Peter Feldman
Abstract Objective: We consider associations between individual, household and area-level characteristics and self-reported health. Method: Data is taken from baseline surveys undertaken in 13 socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods in Victoria (n=3,944). The neighbourhoods are sites undergoing Neighbourhood Renewal (NR), a State government initiative redressing place-based disadvantage. Analysis:This focused on the relationship between area and compositional factors and self-reported health. Area was coded into three categories; LGA, NR residents living in public housing (NRPU) and NR residents who lived in private housing (NRPR). Compositional factors included age, gender, marital status, identifying as a person with a disability, level of education, unemployment and receipt of pensions/benefits. Results: There was a gradient in socio-economic disadvantage on all measures. People living in NR public housing were more disadvantaged than people living in NR private housing who, in turn, were more disadvantaged than people in the same LGA. NR public housing residents reported the worst health status and LGA residents reported the best. Conclusions: Associations between compositional characteristics of disability, educational achievement and unemployment income and poorer self-reported health were shown. They suggested that area characteristics, with housing policies, may be contributing to differences in self-reported health at the neighbourhood level. Implications: The clustering of socio-economic disadvantage and health outcomes requires the integration of health and social support interventions that address the circumstances of people and places. [source]

Educational Attainments of Immigrant Offspring: Success or Segmented Assimilation?,

Monica Boyd
In this article, I study the educational attainments of the adult offspring of immigrants, analyzing data from the 1996 panel of the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID). Fielded annually since 1993 by Statistics Canada, respondents are asked for the first time in 1996 to report the birthplaces of their parents, making it possible to define and study not only the foreign-born population (the first generation), but also the second generation (Canadian born to foreign-born parents) and the third-plus generation (Canadian born to Canadian-born parents). The survey also asked respondents to indicate if they are members of a visible minority group, thus permitting a limited assessment of whether or not color conditions educational achievements of immigrant offspring. I find that "1.5" and second generation adults, age 20,64 have more years of schooling and higher percentages completing high school compared with the third-plus generation. Contrary to the segmented "underclass" assimilation model found in the United States, adult visible minority immigrant offspring in Canada exceed the educational attainments of other not-visible-minority groups. Although the analysis is hampered by small sample numbers, the results point to country differences in historical and contemporary race relations, and call for additional national and cross-national research. [source]