Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Terms modified by Educational

  • educational achievement
  • educational activity
  • educational approach
  • educational aspect
  • educational assessment
  • educational attainment
  • educational background
  • educational benefit
  • educational campaign
  • educational change
  • educational choice
  • educational collaboration
  • educational community
  • educational concept
  • educational content
  • educational context
  • educational course
  • educational curriculum
  • educational development
  • educational difference
  • educational discourse
  • educational effectiveness
  • educational effort
  • educational environment
  • educational event
  • educational expectation
  • educational experience
  • educational framework
  • educational goal
  • educational groups
  • educational hospital
  • educational ideal
  • educational impact
  • educational implication
  • educational inequality
  • educational infrastructure
  • educational initiative
  • educational input
  • educational institution
  • educational interest
  • educational intervention
  • educational investment
  • educational issues
  • educational level
  • educational literature
  • educational material
  • educational measure
  • educational measurement
  • educational meeting
  • educational method
  • educational methods
  • educational models
  • educational need
  • educational objective
  • educational opportunity
  • educational outcome
  • educational outreach
  • educational performance
  • educational philosophy
  • educational plan
  • educational policy
  • educational potential
  • educational practice
  • educational preparation
  • educational problem
  • educational process
  • educational professional
  • educational program
  • educational programme
  • educational progress
  • educational project
  • educational psychologist
  • educational psychology
  • educational purpose
  • educational qualification
  • educational requirement
  • educational research
  • educational researcher
  • educational resource
  • educational role
  • educational services
  • educational session
  • educational setting
  • educational software
  • educational standards
  • educational status
  • educational strategy
  • educational studies
  • educational supervisor
  • educational support
  • educational system
  • educational technology
  • educational theory
  • educational tool
  • educational value

  • Selected Abstracts


    EDUCATIONAL THEORY, Issue 5 2009
    Deborah Kerdeman
    In Moderating the Debate: Rationality and the Promise of American Education, Michael Feuer counsels reformers to "satisfice": moderate their expectations and accept that flawed reforms can be good enough. Implicit in Feuer's view of satisficing is the assumption that moderating expectations entails eschewing ideals and replacing optimal goals with modest, real-world solutions. In this essay, Deborah Kerdeman agrees with Feuer that moderation is vital for reform, but maintains that embracing moderation does not contradict pursuing goals. To show how goals and moderation work in concert to promote reform, Kerdeman examines and reframes Feuer's assumptions about ideals. She also distinguishes moderation from satisficing and argues that satisficing, not ideals, can be deleterious to reform. Kerdeman concludes that sensible policy and research, while important, will not necessarily help reformers embrace moderation; cultivating moderation instead requires ongoing self-examination. [source]


    EDUCATIONAL THEORY, Issue 3 2005
    Pamela A. Moss
    The recent federal interest in advancing "scientifically based research," along with the National Research Council's 2002 report Scientific Research in Education (SRE), have provided space and impetus for a more general dialogue across discourse boundaries within the field of educational research. The goal of this article is to develop and illustrate principles for an educative dialogue across research discourses. I have turned to Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics and the critical dialogue that surrounds it to seek guidance about how we might better understand one another's perspectives and learn more about ourselves through the encounter. To illustrate these principles, I consider the dialogue between SRE authors and critics that was published in Educational Researcher shortly after the release of the report. I focus in particular on one of the many issues about which misunderstandings seem to arise , the nature, status, and role of generalizations , and point to some instructive challenges that each of the articles seems to raise for the others. Finally, I propose what I argue is a more prudent aspiration for general principles in educational research: developing the principles through which open critique and debate across differences might occur and through which sound decisions about particular programs for research might be made. [source]

    The Ideological Implications of Using "Educational" Film to Teach Controversial Events

    CURRICULUM INQUIRY, Issue 3 2009
    ABSTRACT Use of media in today's classrooms, from feature and documentary film to news clips streamed via the Web, has grown exponentially. Film can be a powerful medium for teaching and learning, but is often viewed as a neutral source of information. This collective case study focuses on two teachers who use documentary film to teach about controversial events, with the goal of better understanding teacher selection and use of film as part of pedagogy and the experiences of students who are engaged in deliberative activities with film. In this case, teachers utilized film to help students examine two controversial events in U.S. history, the use of atomic weapons against Japan at the end of World War II and the role of the United States in Vietnam. These cases illustrate a tension that many teachers, who want to engage students in deliberative activities but who also want students to adopt particular moral or political stances, face in today's classrooms. The teachers in these cases utilize film as a neutral source for students to use as evidence for taking a position, despite the value-laden perspectives included in the films, perspectives that aligned with the teachers' own political beliefs. Other findings include student inability to recognize the perspectives in documentary films, the epistemic stances of teachers and students that documentaries are accurate and neutral, and the characteristics of students who are better equipped to recognize ideological perspectives. Implications for teachers, teacher educators, and especially democratic and social studies education researchers are explored. [source]

    Revisiting the Storied Landscape of Language Policy Impact Over Time: A Case of Successful Educational Reform

    CURRICULUM INQUIRY, Issue 3 2005
    ABSTRACT The many failures of large-scale top-down educational reforms are well documented in the reform literature. These failures are most evident when they are reviewed from the advantageous perspective of hindsight. What are less well documented are the extraordinarily interesting, centrally driven educational changes that have had important and lasting impacts over time, not only because they are rare, but also because they have often occurred outside the mainstream (North American) focus of the reform literature. This article provides a retrospective review of one such educational reform as unique as the tropical island country in which it occurred. Revisiting this storied landscape (Clandinin & Connelly, 1995) provides insight into the process and potential of a systemwide educational reform. [source]

    Does an Argument-Based Approach to Validity Make a Difference?

    Carol A. Chapelle
    Drawing on experience between 2000 and 2007 in developing a validity argument for the high-stakes Test of English as a Foreign LanguageÔ (TOEFL®), this paper evaluates the differences between the argument-based approach to validity as presented byKane (2006)and that described in the 1999 AERA/APA/NCME Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing. Based on an analysis of four points of comparison,framing the intended score interpretation, outlining the essential research, structuring research results into a validity argument, and challenging the validity argument,we conclude that an argument-based approach to validity introduces some new and useful concepts and practices. [source]

    Isotope Methods for Management of Shared Aquifers in Northern Africa

    GROUND WATER, Issue 5 2005
    Bill Wallin
    Access to fresh water is one of the major issues of northern and sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of the fresh water used for drinking and irrigation is obtained from large ground water basins where there is minor contemporary recharge and the aquifers cross national borders. These aquifers include the Nubian Aquifer System shared by Chad, Egypt, Libya, and Sudan; the Iullemeden Aquifer System, extending over Niger, Nigeria, Mali, Benin, and Algeria; and the Northwest Sahara Aquifer System shared by Algeria, Libya, and Tunisia. These resources are subject to increased exploitation and may be severely stressed if not managed properly as witnessed already by declining water levels. In order to make appropriate decisions for the sustainable management of these shared water resources, planners and managers in different countries need an improved knowledge base of hydrological information. Three technical cooperation projects related to aquifer systems will be implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency, in collaboration with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and United Nations Development Programme/Global Environmental Facility. These projects focus on isotope hydrology studies to better quantify ground water recharge and dynamics. The multiple isotope approach combining commonly used isotopes 18O and 2H together with more recently developed techniques (chlorofluorocarbons, 36Cl, noble gases) will be applied to improve the conceptual model to study stratification and ground water flows. Moreover, the isotopes will be an important indicator of changes in the aquifer due to water abstraction, and therefore they will assist in the effort to establish a sustainable ground water management. [source]

    A Meta-Analytic Investigation of Job Applicant Faking on Personality Measures

    Scott A. Birkeland
    This study investigates the extent to which job applicants fake their responses on personality tests. Thirty-three studies that compared job applicant and non-applicant personality scale scores were meta-analyzed. Across all job types, applicants scored significantly higher than non-applicants on extraversion (d=.11), emotional stability (d=.44), conscientiousness (d=.45), and openness (d=.13). For certain jobs (e.g., sales), however, the rank ordering of mean differences changed substantially suggesting that job applicants distort responses on personality dimensions that are viewed as particularly job relevant. Smaller mean differences were found in this study than those reported by Viswesvaran and Ones (Educational and Psychological Measurement, 59(2), 197,210), who compared scores for induced "fake-good" vs. honest response conditions. Also, direct Big Five measures produced substantially larger differences than did indirect Big Five measures. [source]

    Poisoning in Zimbabwe: a survey of eight major referral hospitals

    D. Tagwireyi
    Abstract A retrospective study of the pattern of poisoning cases admitted to eight major urban referral hospitals in Zimbabwe over a 2-year period (1998,1999 inclusive) was conducted to describe the pattern of poisoning at these centres. There were a total of 2764 hospital admissions due to poisoning, involving a total of 2846 toxic agents. Accidental poisoning (AP) and deliberate self-poisoning (DSP) accounted for 48.9% (1352 cases) and 41.3% (1142 cases), respectively. With AP, the highest number of cases (45.9%) occurred in children below the age of 5 years, with half of these due to chemicals, mainly paraffin. In the DSP group, however, more than 60% of all cases occurred in the 16,25-year age group. In addition, twice as many females as males were admitted for DSP compared with an overall male/female ratio of 1 : 1.2. Pesticides (31.4%) and pharmaceuticals (30.4%) were the most common groups of toxic agents responsible for the hospital admissions. Unknown toxins, natural toxins and pesticides showed the highest mortality rates (15.4%, 8.3% and 6.7%, respectively). Compared with the last major survey of poisoning in Zimbabwe, the pattern of poisoning at referral hospitals has changed over the last decade, with an increase in pesticide and pharmaceutical cases and a marked fall in cases of traditional medicine poisoning. Educational and legislative interventions may be required to address these changes. There is the need also to investigate further the high mortality rates associated with traditional medicine poisoning. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Urban residents' subtle prejudice towards rural-to-urban migrants in China: The role of socioeconomic status and adaptation styles

    Huadong Yang
    Abstract The household registration system (Hukou) implemented by the Chinese government divides the Chinese society into two groups: urban residents and rural residents. Since the 1980s, millions of rural residents have migrated to cities without official permission. In this paper, we investigate urban residents' subtle prejudice towards rural-to-urban migrants. Specifically, the impacts of urban residents' socioeconomic status (SES) and their perception of migrants' adaptation styles are examined. A sample including 457 Chinese urban residents is taken from four cities in China. Educational and occupational levels are used to indicate urban residents' SES. Four adaptation styles (integration, assimilation, separation and marginalization) are manipulated by using vignettes. The results show that SES has a negative impact on urban residents' subtle prejudice. This link is further moderated by urban residents' perceptions of migrants' adaptations: the negative effect of SES on subtle prejudice holds only under a perception of integration or assimilation and disappears under a perception of separation or marginalization. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Current Concerns in Validity Theory

    Michael T. Kane
    We are at the end of the first century of work on models of educational and psychological measurement and into a new millennium. This certainly seems like an appropriate time for looking backward and looking forward in assessment. Furthermore, a new edition of the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing (AERA, APA, & NCME, 1999) has been published, and the previous editions of the Standards have served as benchmarks in the development of measurement theory. This backward glance will be just that, a glance. After a brief historical review focusing mainly on construct validity, the current state of validity theory will be summarized, with an emphasis on the role of arguments in validation. Then how an argument-based approach might be applied will be examined in regards to two issues in validity theory: the distinction between performance-based and theory-based interpretations, and the role of consequences in validation. [source]

    Educational and health service needs of Australian general practitioners in managing hepatitis C

    Leena Gupta
    Abstract Background:, There has been interest in recent years in the role of primary care practitioners in managing hepatitis C, but there has been minimal research to identify educational and health service needs. A national survey of Australian general practitioners (GPs) was therefore conducted to assess their needs and identify areas for service development. Methods:, A self-administered questionnaire was developed that included questions to assess caseload, confidence in patient management, educational needs and approaches to management and prevention. Questionnaires were sent to a random sample of Australian GPs. Returned questionnaires were coded, frequencies tabulated and significant associations identified. Results:, A 70% response rate was achieved from 658 eligible GPs. A total of 76% of respondents had managed one patient in the previous year with hepatitis C. While 69% reported feeling more confident about their management of hepatitis C than 5 years previously, 55% identified a high level of need for hospital-based clinics. Financial benefits for case conferences and chronic case management were not considered useful by most GPs. Topics identified for further skills development included therapeutics and diagnostic testing. Only 39% were highly likely to discuss psychosocial issues as part of initial patient management and 37% reported finding it difficult to play a central role in the medical and psychosocial care of patients with hepatitis C. Conclusion:, These results have significant implications for policy and service development, as well as identifying areas where GPs need support. The findings invite further discussion between health authorities about the source and magnitude of funding for hospital-based services and further consideration of how to provide services to address patients' psychosocial needs. [source]


    Jennifer L. Hodgson
    Knowledge of how one should manage suicidal, homicidal, child maltreatment, and domestic violence situations is paramount in the training of marriage and family therapists (MFTs). Simulated patient modules were created to help clinical faculty address these crisis situations in a protected learning environment. The modules were implemented by the MFT faculty in collaboration with the Office of Clinical Skills Assessment and Education at East Carolina University's Brody School of Medicine. Qualitative data over the course of 2 years revealed six thematic domains regarding therapists' performance, therapists' emotions, the simulation experiences, and lessons learned. Educational, clinical, and research recommendations include tools to implement simulation exercises into marriage and family therapy programs as well as suggestions to assess for teaching effectiveness. [source]

    Review article: medication non-adherence in ulcerative colitis , strategies to improve adherence with mesalazine and other maintenance therapies

    Summary Background, Significant number of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) fail to comply with treatment. Aims, To review issues surrounding medication non-adherence in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including the clinical and health service implications in the UK, and discuss strategies for optimizing medication adherence. Methods, Articles cited were identified via a PubMed search, utilizing the words IBD, adherence, compliance, medication and UC. Results, Medication non-adherence is multifactorial involving factors other than dosing frequency. Male gender (OR: 2.06), new patient status (OR: 2.14), work and travel pressures (OR: 4.9) and shorter disease duration (OR: 2.1), among others are proven predictors of non-adherence in UC. These indicators can identify ,at-risk' patients and allow an individually tailored treatment approach to be introduced that optimizes medication adherence. A collaborative relationship between physician and patient is important; several strategies for improving adherence have been proven effective including open dialogue that takes into consideration the patient's health beliefs and concerns, providing educational (e.g. verbal/written information, self-management programmes) and behavioural interventions (e.g. calendar blister packs, cues/reminders). Conclusions, Educational and behavioural interventions tailored to individual patients can optimize medication adherence. Additional studies combining educational and behavioural interventions may provide further strategies for improving medication adherence rates in UC. [source]

    Current Views of European Anthropologists on Race: Influence of Educational and Ideological Background

    Katarzyna A. Kaszycka
    ABSTRACT, Significant differences in views on race (once a core anthropological concept) occur between scientists from different countries. In light of the ongoing race debate, we present the concept's current status in Europe. On three occasions in 2002,03, we surveyed European anthropologists' opinions toward the biological race concept. The participants were asked whether they agreed that there are biological races within the species Homo sapiens. A dependence was sought between the type of response and several factors. Three of these factors,country of academic education, discipline, and age,were found to be significant in differentiating the replies. Respondents educated in Western Europe, physical anthropologists, and middle-aged persons reject race more frequently than respondents educated in Eastern Europe, people in other branches of science, and those from both younger and older generations. The survey shows that the views of anthropologists on race are sociopolitically (ideologically) influenced and highly dependent on education. [Keywords: human races, race concept, physical anthropology, Europe] [source]

    Relationships beliefs and relationship quality across cultures: Country as a moderator of dysfunctional beliefs and relationship quality in three former Communist societies

    Robin Goodwin
    Research on the correlation between relationship beliefs and quality has rarely considered the impact of culture. In this study, 206 manual workers, students, and entrepreneurs from Georgia, Hungary, and Russia completed a modified Relationship Beliefs Inventory (Eidelson & Epstein, 1982, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 50, 715) and the Abbreviated Dyadic Adjustment Scale (Sharpley & Rogers, 1984, Educational and Psychological Measurement, 44, 1045). Results indicated a significant pan-cultural correlation between dysfunctional beliefs and relationship quality but a moderating effect for country, with dysfunctional beliefs in Hungary explaining more than four times of the variance in relationship quality than in the other countries. Findings are interpreted in light of major value and ecological differences between the three countries. [source]

    Use of Commercial Sex Workers Among Hispanic Migrants In North Carolina: Implications for the Spread of HIV

    Emilio A. Parrado
    CONTEXT: Rates of HIV and AIDS have risen among U.S. Hispanics and in migrant-sending regions of Mexico and Central America, pointing to a link between migration and HIV. However, little is known about male migrants' sexual risk behaviors, such as the use of commercial sex workers. METHODS: The prevalence and frequency of commercial sex worker use was examined among 442 randomly selected Hispanic migrants in Durham, North Carolina. Logistic and Poisson regression techniques were used to model predictors of commercial sex worker use, and descriptive data on condom use with commercial sex workers were examined. RESULTS: Twenty-eight percent of respondents reported using the services of a commercial sex worker during the previous year; rates reached 46% among single men and 40% among married men living apart from their wives. Men with spouses in Durham were less likely than other men to use commercial sex workers (odds ratio, 0.1). Among men who used commercial sex workers, the frequency of visits declined with greater education (incidence rate ratio, 0.9) and increased with hourly wage (1.1). Frequency and use declined with years of residence, although the results were of borderline significance. Reported rates of condom use with commercial sex workers were high, but were likely to fall if familiarity with a commercial sex worker increased. CONCLUSIONS: Commercial sex workers represent an important potential source of HIV infection. Educational and behavioral interventions that take into account social context and target the most vulnerable migrants are needed to help migrants and their partners avoid HIV infection. [source]

    Psychology in the Schools, School Psychology Review, School Psychology Quarterly and Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation editors collaborate to chart school psychology's past, present, and "futures"

    Rik Carl D'Amato Editor, School Psychology Quarterly
    First page of article [source]

    Neighbourhood and Family Effects in Educational Progress

    Ben Jensen
    Increasing inequality in Australian cities has created the need for a deeper understanding of the interaction between spatial segmentation and economic outcomes. This paper offers a preliminary economic analysis of Australian neighbourhood externalities in the context of increasing segmentation. Theoretically, neighbourhoods can affect youths' economic out-comes through their effects on school quality, information flows, job networks, and demonstration effects. We utilise a new survey of 171 year 12 students in ten Melbourne high schools to examine the impact of individual, family, and neighbourhood characteristics on the decision to attend post-secondary education. It is shown that there exist neighbourhood externalities that affect human capital investment decisions. Finally, we offer some tentative implications for public policy. [source]

    Developmentalities and Calculative Practices: The Millennium Development Goals

    ANTIPODE, Issue 4 2010
    Suzan Ilcan
    Abstract:, This paper focuses on wide-ranging governmental discourses that enable new ways of shaping social and economic affairs in the field of development. Directing particular attention to the Millennium Development Goals, we refer to these discourses as developmentalities. As a form of governmentality produced through these Goals, developmentalities draw on the turn of the century to recast certain development problems and offer reformulated solutions to these problems. We argue that they rely on three forms of neoliberal rationalities of government,information profiling, responsibilization, and knowledge networks, and their calculative practices, to shape global spaces and new capacities for individuals and social groups. Our analysis is based on extensive policy documents, reports, and development initiatives affiliated with the United Nations and other organizations, as well as insights derived from in-depth interviews and conversations with United Nations policy and research personnel from the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). [source]

    Use of Educational and Psychological Tests Internationally

    APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 2 2004
    Thomas Oakland
    Les aspects internationaux du développement et de l'usage des tests sont traités ici, en particulier pour situer les articles de cette édition spéciale. On présente succinctement l'utilisation internationale des tests ainsi que l'histoire, l'impact des conditions externes et internes, les normes et les lignes directrices du développement et de l'usage des tests. On parle aussi des organisations régionales et internationales actives dans le domaine du développement et de l'usage des tests, sans oublier les initiatives de structures comme la Commission Internationale des Tests. International aspects of test development and use are described, in part, to provide a context for other articles in this special issue. The history of test development and use, external and internal conditions that impact test development and use, test use internationally, together with standards and guidelines for test development and use are summarised. Regional and international organisations providing leadership in test development and use as well as leadership efforts by the International Test Commission and others are discussed. [source]

    Educational and Research Advances Stemming from the Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference in Knowledge Translation

    Eddy S. Lang MD
    ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2010; 17:865,869 © 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Abstract The 2007 Academic Emergency Medicine (AEM) consensus conference "Knowledge Translation in Emergency Medicine" yielded a number of initiatives in both education and research that directly reflected the conference's published objectives and recommendations. One research initiative, CONCERT, is a national consortium of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) investigators who set forth an effort designed to optimize COPD care through the identification of gaps between research and practice in diagnosis and management of the chronic and acute care aspects of this disease. In addition to CONCERT, educational programs designed to identify barriers to evidence implementation and to develop solutions to achieve uptake through multidisciplinary collaboration have emerged that reflect the impact of the consensus conference. This article describes these initiatives and highlights the potential for future innovative opportunities. [source]

    A comparison of international occupational therapy competencies: Implications for Australian standards in the new millennium

    Sylvia Rodger
    Background/aim:, A timely evaluation of the Australian Competency Standards for Entry-Level Occupational Therapists© (1994) was conducted. This thorough investigation comprised a literature review exploring the concept of competence and the applications of competency standards; systematic benchmarking of the Australian Occupational Therapy Competency Standards (OT AUSTRALIA, 1994) against other national and international competency standards and other affiliated documents, from occupational therapy and other cognate disciplines; and extensive nationwide consultation with the professional community. This paper explores and examines the similarities and disparities between occupational therapy competency standards documents available in English from Australia and other countries. Methods:, An online search for national occupational therapy competency standards located 10 documents, including the Australian competencies. Results:, Four ,frameworks' were created to categorise the documents according to their conceptual underpinnings: Technical-Prescriptive, Enabling, Educational and Meta-Cognitive. Other characteristics that appeared to impact the design, content and implementation of competency standards, including definitions of key concepts, authorship, national and cultural priorities, scope of services, intended use and review mechanisms, were revealed. Conclusion:, The proposed ,frameworks' and identification of influential characteristics provided a ,lens' through which to understand and evaluate competency standards. While consistent application of and attention to some of these characteristics appear to consolidate and affirm the authority of competency standards, it is suggested that the national context should be a critical determinant of the design and content of the final document. The Australian Occupational Therapy Competency Standards (OT AUSTRALIA, 1994) are critiqued accordingly, and preliminary recommendations for revision are proposed. [source]

    Educational and Research Implications of Portable Human Patient Simulation in Acute Care Medicine

    Leo Kobayashi MD
    Abstract Advanced medical simulation has become widespread. One development, the adaptation of simulation techniques and manikin technologies for portable operation, is starting to impact the training of personnel in acute care fields such as emergency medicine (EM) and trauma surgery. Unencumbered by cables and wires, portable simulation programs mitigate several limitations of traditional (nonportable) simulation and introduce new approaches to acute care education and research. Portable simulation is already conducted across multiple specialties and disciplines. In situ medical simulations are those carried out within actual clinical environments, while off-site portable simulations take place outside of clinical practice settings. Mobile simulation systems feature functionality while moving between locations; progressive simulations are longer-duration events using mobile simulations that follow a simulated patient through sequential care environments. All of these variants have direct applications for acute care medicine. Unique training and investigative opportunities are created by portable simulation through four characteristics: 1) enhancement of experiential learning by reframing training inside clinical care environments, 2) improving simulation accessibility through delivery of training to learner locations, 3) capitalizing on existing care environments to maximize simulation realism, and 4) provision of improved training capabilities for providers in specialized fields. Research agendas in acute care medicine are expanded via portable simulation's introduction of novel topics, new perspectives, and innovative methodologies. Presenting opportunities and challenges, portable simulation represents an evolutionary progression in medical simulation. The use of portable manikins and associated techniques may increasingly complement established instructional measures and research programs at acute care institutions and simulation centers. [source]

    Clinical Pharmacology: Principles and practice of drug therapy in medical education

    Brian Whiting
    Educational reform has taken place in many Medical Schools. A traditional passive approach has been replaced by a more active, student-centred approach, founded on Problem-Based Learning. This has not been without risk because many well-structured courses have been abandoned, and this is of particular significance to the principles and practice of drug therapy. Here we outline an approach which could be incorporated into a medical curriculum and suggest some guidelines and a list of questions that should be asked in clinical situations involving drug therapy. [source]

    Jack Tizard Memorial Lecture: Educational Reform and the Mental Health of Vulnerable Children and Young People

    David Galloway
    Although research has demonstrated the differential influence of schools on children's psychosocial adjustment, the influence of radical legislative changes since 1979 is less clear. Evidence of a sharp rise in exclusions and in referral for special educational needs is contrasted with evidence that behaviour in most schools is good, and with data showing a steep reduction in the number of pupils leaving school with no qualifications. It is argued that these reforms have improved overall standards and may thereby have contributed positively to the mental health of many vulnerable children. However, the way they have been implemented has undermined teachers in some schools and, as a result, pupils there experience education as an additional source of stress rather than of stability and support. [source]

    CFD Sinflow Library: A framework to develop engineering educational codes in CFD and thermal sciences

    Romeu André Pieritz
    Abstract This work introduces the educational code development library "CFD Sinflow Library" specialized in 2D numerical methods in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and termal science. This library is for research, educational, and engineering purposes like an open and platform independent architecture. The library was developed with C++ standard programming language using an object-oriented approach allowing educators and graduation/undergraduation students to access the numerical methods in a simplified way. The numerical capabilities and results quality are evaluated, where comparisons are made with benchmark and analytical solutions. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Comput Appl Eng Educ 12: 31,43, 2004; Published online in Wiley InterScience (; DOI 10.1002/cae.10056 [source]

    The LEAD Portal: a TeraGrid gateway and application service architecture

    Marcus Christie
    Abstract The Linked Environments for Atmospheric Discovery (LEAD) Portal is a science application portal designed to enable effective use of Grid resources in exploring mesoscale meteorological phenomena. The aim of the LEAD Portal is to provide a more productive interface for doing experimental work by the meteorological research community, as well as bringing weather research to a wider class of users, meaning pre-college students in grades 6,12 and undergraduate college students. In this paper, we give an overview of the LEAD project and the role that LEAD portal is playing in reaching its goals. We then describe the various technologies we are using to bring powerful and complex scientific tools to educational and research users. These technologies,a fine-grained capability based authorization framework, an application service factory toolkit, and a Web services-based workflow execution engine and supporting tools,enable our team to deploy these once inaccessible, stovepipe scientific codes onto a Grid where they can be collectively utilized. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    The foster care system attempts to prepare children and youth who have suffered child maltreatment for successful adult lives. This study documents the economic advantages of a privately funded foster care program that provided longer term, more intensive, and more expensive services compared to public programs. The study found significant differences in major adult educational, health, and social outcomes between children placed in the private program and those placed in public programs operated by Oregon and Washington. For the outcomes for which we could find financial data, the estimated present value of the enhanced foster care services exceeded their extra costs. Generalizing to the roughly 100,000 adolescents age 12-17 entering foster care each year, if all of them were to receive the private model of services, the savings for a single cohort of these children could be about $6.3 billion in 2007 dollars. (JEL D61, H75) [source]

    Ideological Representations of Taiwan's History: An Analysis of Elementary Social Studies Textbooks, 1978,1995

    CURRICULUM INQUIRY, Issue 3 2007
    ABSTRACT Textbooks play a central role in Taiwanese education. In the wake of the political reform and social protest movements of the 1970s and 1980s that led to Taiwanese educational reform, critics assert that traditional textbooks reinforce the dominant national Chinese cultural identity without considering the specific perspectives and voices of different gender, cultural, and ethnic groups. The study's purpose is to examine how political and ideological issues were represented in nationally standardized grade-four social studies textbooks from 1978 to 1995; how the textbook portrayed the history of cultural and ethnic groups as well as both genders in Taiwan; and whether the ideology changed because of political and socioeconomic pressures. In order to explore this question, two series of textbooks were examined. The first series was published between 1978 and 1989, the second between 1989 and 1995. Two social studies textbooks from each series were examined. The study's theoretic framework centers on the relationship between legitimated knowledge and the textbooks, employing the methodology of textbook analysis. Three themes were examined: (1) Taiwan's historical development, (2) national identity and nationalism, and (3) ethnic and gender studies. Two analyses were applied in each theme: (1) story-line analysis and (2) language analysis. [source]

    Revisiting the Storied Landscape of Language Policy Impact Over Time: A Case of Successful Educational Reform

    CURRICULUM INQUIRY, Issue 3 2005
    ABSTRACT The many failures of large-scale top-down educational reforms are well documented in the reform literature. These failures are most evident when they are reviewed from the advantageous perspective of hindsight. What are less well documented are the extraordinarily interesting, centrally driven educational changes that have had important and lasting impacts over time, not only because they are rare, but also because they have often occurred outside the mainstream (North American) focus of the reform literature. This article provides a retrospective review of one such educational reform as unique as the tropical island country in which it occurred. Revisiting this storied landscape (Clandinin & Connelly, 1995) provides insight into the process and potential of a systemwide educational reform. [source]