Education System (education + system)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Education System

  • higher education system

  • Selected Abstracts

    Medicaid's Role in Financing Health Care for Children With Behavioral Health Care Needs in the Special Education System: Implications of the Deficit Reduction Act

    David S. Mandell ScD
    ABSTRACT Background:, Recent changes to Medicaid policy may have unintended consequences in the education system. This study estimated the potential financial impact of the Deficit Reduction Act (DRA) on school districts by calculating Medicaid-reimbursed behavioral health care expenditures for school-aged children in general and children in special education in particular. Methods:, Medicaid claims and special education records of youth ages 6 to 18 years in Philadelphia, PA, were merged for calendar year 2002. Behavioral health care volume, type, and expenditures were compared between Medicaid-enrolled children receiving and not receiving special education. Results:, Significant overlap existed among the 126,533 children who were either Medicaid enrolled (114,257) or received special education (27,620). Medicaid-reimbursed behavioral health care was used by 21% of children receiving special education (37% of those Medicaid enrolled) and 15% of other Medicaid-enrolled children. Total expenditures were $197.8 million, 40% of which was spent on the 5728 children in special education and 60% of which was spent on 15,092 other children. Conclusions:, Medicaid-reimbursed behavioral health services disproportionately support special education students, with expenditures equivalent to 4% of Philadelphia's $2 billion education budget. The results suggest that special education programs depend on Medicaid-reimbursed services, the financing of which the DRA may jeopardize. [source]

    Explanatory models in the interpretations of clinical features of dental patients within a university dental education setting

    Gerardo Maupome
    Clinicians may acquire biased perceptions during their dental education that can affect decisions about treatment/management of dental decay. This study established explanatory models used by students to interpret clinical features of patients. It employed a stereotypical dental patient under standardised consultation conditions to identify the interpretation of oral health/disease features in the eyes of student clinicians. The study aimed to establish the perceptions of the patient as a client of the university dental clinic, as seen through the ideological lens of a formal Dental Education system. The discourse during simulated clinical consultations was qualitatively analysed to interpret values and concepts relevant to the assessment of restorative treatment needs and oral health status. Three constructs during the consultation were identified: the Dual Therapeutic Realms, the Choices Underlying Treatment Options, and the High-Risk Triad. Comparing these discourse components, the Patient Factors of the Bader and Shugars model for treatment decisions supported the existence of a core set of themes. It was concluded that certain consultation circumstances influenced the adequacy of diagnostic strategies, mainly by introducing loosely defined but highly specific socio-cultural biases ingrained in the Dental Education concepts and diagnostic/treatment needs systems. [source]

    The International Adult Literacy Survey in Britain: Impact on policy and practice

    DYSLEXIA, Issue 2 2003
    Angela J. Fawcett
    Abstract There is increasing concern for the skills of the workforce in the UK and elsewhere, but despite this concern until recently there has been little information available which objectively measures basic skills in adults. In this paper, evidence derived from the prose scale of the International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS, 1996) is outlined, with emphasis on the performance of adults at the lowest levels, 1 and 2 in the United Kingdom. A new analysis based on the 183 adults who self-reported learning disabilities demonstrates that over 50% of this group perform at level 1 on the prose scale. Over 60% report that these disabilities persist into adult life, although this number falls to 50% in the youngest age group, reflecting changes in recognition of learning disabilities within the education system. The paper concludes with a case study of the redefinition of basic skill levels in Britain based on the IALS levels. The impact of the IALS findings on policy and practice, and in particular through the recommendations of the Moser report, are discussed. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Poverty Traps and Human Capital Accumulation

    ECONOMICA, Issue 270 2001
    Carlotta Berti Ceroni
    In this paper I show that persistent inequality in the distribution of human capital and a negative relation between initial inequality and steady-state aggregate output may follow from the fact that the poor require relatively higher returns to increase expenditure on education. Moreover, I show that poverty traps emerging in models where individual transitions do not depend on aggregate dynamics, though not robust to the introduction of idiosyncratic uncertainty, may still be relevant observationally, if idiosyncratic shocks occur with low probability. In this context, I also analyse the implications of introducing a public education system. [source]


    EDUCATIONAL THEORY, Issue 3 2006
    Mark Considine
    In this essay, Mark Considine argues that the prospect of such changes requires us to reflect carefully upon the theoretical and normative underpinnings of universities and to delineate the structures and processes through which they might seek to negotiate their identities. Considine re-theorizes the university as a higher education system composed by distinctions and networks acting through an important class of boundary objects. He moves beyond an environmental analysis, asserting that systems are best theorized as cultural practices based upon actors making and protecting important kinds of distinctions. Thus, the university system must be investigated as a knowledge-based binary for dividing knowledge from other things. This approach, in turn, produces an identity-centering (cultural) model of the system that assumes universities must perform two different acts of distinction to exist: first, they must distinguish themselves from other systems (such as the economy, organized religion, and the labor market), and, second, they must operate successfully in a chosen resource environment. Ultimately, Considine argues that while environmental problems (such as cuts in government grants) may generate periodic crises, threats within identities produce emergencies generating a radical kind of problematic for actor networks. [source]

    Europe and the Crisis in Scientific Vocations

    During the 1990s, the number of students enrolling in science subjects at universities was declining each year in Germany, France, Italy, amongst other countries. These decreases are too readily attributed to a general disaffection caused by the image that younger generations have of scientific studies: they are seen as being the most ,difficult'. This explanation is true but not sufficient. Over and above the similarities that can be seen between European countries , which stem from the fact that they are simultaneously experiencing strong growth in and democratisation of their student populations ,, profound differences continue to exist, resulting in apparently similar effects, but with very different causes. Not only do higher education structures taken as a whole remain very different despite the Bologna process, but more fundamentally, the very meaning of the higher education system within each national society, its relationship with employment, and its position in individuals' personal career paths all vary. A comparison between Germany, Italy and France shows three ideal types of relationship between training and employment and three ways of explaining symptoms that appear similar. [source]

    The Transformation of Higher Education in Israel since the 1990s: The Role of Ideas and Policy Paradigms

    GOVERNANCE, Issue 4 2008
    GILA MENAHEMArticle first published online: 22 SEP 200
    This article examines the transformation of Israel's higher education system since the 1990s. During that period, the system underwent expansion, diversification, privatization, and internationalization in a series of pathbreaking reforms. The main argument is that while external factors,such as demographic trends,exerted pressure for change, the trajectory and policy options preferred were shaped by ideational factors. Policy entrepreneurs played a crucial role in advancing pathbreaking institutional change when they reframed policies through linking cognitive ideas of "what has to be done" with the normative ideas that granted legitimacy to the proposals for reform. [source]

    English Further Education through American Eyes

    Kevin J. Dougherty
    This article examines various commonalities and divergences between the English further education system and its nearest US equivalent, the community college system. In terms of commonalities, the article discusses the reliance on sub-university institutions to provide access to higher education, persistent dilemmas attendant to that reliance and conflicts over efforts to make non-university post-secondary institutions become more specialised in their missions. With regard to divergences, this article examines differences between the two types of institution in the strength of transfer arrangements, the ability to award the baccalaureate degree, the competitive environment and the balance between national and sub-national governance. [source]

    Occupational Knowledge and Practice amongst UK University Research Administrators

    John Hockey
    With the exception of lecturing staff, research on occupational groups and cultures within the UK higher education system is relatively sparse. This paper focuses upon one specialist group, to-date under-researched but which plays a central role in contemporary higher education administration: graduate research administrators. This occupational group is of particular interest as its members administer and manage an increasing complex and key area of university life, which in many cases appears to span the putative occupational divide between ,academic' and ,administrative' work. Based upon qualitative interviews with 27 research administrators, and using some of Bourdieu's conceptual devices, the paper analyses particular kinds of informal occupational knowledge and practice, necessary in order effectively to ,do' the complex task of research administration in the pressurized environment of contemporary British higher education. [source]

    Policy Drivers in UK Higher Education in Historical Perspective: ,Inside Out', ,Outside In' and the Contribution of Research

    Michael Shattock
    Where have been the main policy drivers for the development of British higher education over the last 50 years? This article argues that while higher education policy was once driven from the inside outwards, from the late 1970s it has been driven exclusively from the outside inwards. Policy decisions under either regime were rarely driven by research findings especially from within the higher education community. The current imbalance between ,inside-out' and ,outside-in' policy formation is paradoxically most apparent when the higher education system has a more widely diversified funding base than at any time since the 1930s. The key policy challenge is now not what new policies are needed but what new framework should be developed for policy making. [source]

    Chinese Learning (kangaku) in Meiji Japan (1868,1912)

    HISTORY, Issue 277 2000
    Margaret Mehl
    Japan's development since the middle of the nineteenth century is usually summarized under the headings ,modernization' and ,westernization'. Such a perspective neglects the importance of indigenous traditions in the shaping of modern Japan, including Chinese learning (kangaku), which had been thoroughly assimilated and had formed the basis of the dominant ideology in the Tokugawa period (1600-1868). The leaders of the Meiji restoration of 1868 all had a kangaku education and their ideas were strongly influenced by it. Kangaku continued to play a dominant role in Japanese culture until well into the Meiji period and did not fall into decline until the mid-1890s. The main reason for this was not contempt for contemporary China in the wake of the Sino-Japanese war (1894-5), as has been argued, but the new national education system which stressed western knowledge. It was not a sign of waning interest in China, but of new forms this interest took. China became the object of new academic disciplines, including t,y,shi (East Asian history), which applied western methods and a new interpretative framework to the study of China. [source]

    A Conceptualisation of Emotion within Art and Design Education: A Creative, Learning and Product-Orientated Triadic Schema

    David Spendlove
    There is a resurgence of interest in the powerful concept of emotion in current educational policy and practice. This article calls for the recognition and conceptualisation of a triadic schema for theorising the location of emotion within a creative educational experience. The schema represents emotion within three domains within current practice: Person, Process and Product. The principal focus of the article is pupils aged 5-16 and consideration is given to the application of the conceptualised schema within art and design education as represented by the national curriculum statement of importance. The central hypothesis of the work is that greater recognition of an emotional dimension within a triadic schema - developing emotional capacity in students to engage in a creative process (person); stimulating emotional engagement through appropriate learning contexts (process) and facilitating the emotional interfacing with outcomes (product) - will help conceptualise the powerful interrelationship between emotion, creativity and learning. Based upon an extensive synthesised literature review a schema, developed through abductive reasoning and grounded theory, ultimately conceptualises the overarching theme of emotion within a creative, learning and product-orientated experience within the primary and secondary stages of England's education system. [source]

    The roles of science and technology in energy and environment research and development

    Ibrahim Dincer
    Abstract Countries are becoming increasingly aware of the importance of science and technology in relation to national development and the necessity of formulating a concise science and technology policy. The need to strengthen and orient the scientific and technological infrastructure in line with national development goals, through more effective use of an available qualified work force and the higher education system, is becoming widely recognized. Consequently, appropriate methods of assessing the impact of science and technology on national development are needed so that efforts are concentrated on areas potentially having substantial impacts. Numerous planning studies have been undertaken to this end, particularly by international organizations such as UNESCO, UNIDO, OECD and IEA. This study examines the inter-relationships of the disciplines of science and technology with energy and environment research and development (R&D) activities, particularly for developing countries. The connections between these topics are discussed along with some basic methods that can be used to exploit the relations. Some illustrative examples are presented. It is anticipated that the present study will serve as a preliminary step for more comprehensive work by providing an example of the utilization of formal methods in formulating science and technology policy for energy and environment R&D. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Building on formal education: employers' approaches to the training and development of new recruits in the People's Republic of China

    Katharine Venter
    Conceptions of modern management and of skill in China have developed out of quantitative, production oriented traditions that have tended to downplay the human side of management, training and development. Based on recent survey and case study research this paper argues that some organisations are moving away from such narrow definitions. These tend to be resource rich, larger enterprises, often in modern growth sectors and organisations exposed to foreign practice (either by virtue of foreign ownership or investment, or as a result of exposure to the pressures of global competition through operation in international markets). Skills shortages are faced by organisations throughout China. However, employers do not generally feel that the education system is serving to address these skills needs. The varying conceptions of modern management shape the manner in which organisations recruit from, and build, on formal education provision. Many resource rich employers are using formal education as a selection mechanism, selecting the educational elite and continuing to develop them. Those organisations that have limited access to highly qualified recruits are also least likely to be in a position to provide extensive or high quality training. Consequently the divide between resource rich and resource poor organisations, in terms of both organisational resources and employees' opportunities for skill acquisition, learning and development, seems likely to widen. [source]

    Learning and skills formation in the new economy: evidence from Greece

    Stella Zambarloukos
    In today's knowledge,driven economy, education and training are considered major factors affecting a society's level of economic attainment and growth. Lack of information,related knowledge and skills, in particular, are among the prime factors likely to delay a country's progress towards the information society. Experience, however, has shown that an educated labour force does not automatically translate into dynamic economic development and technological innovation. The human resource potential is not a simple outcome of the education system but it is a much more complex process that involves tacit knowledge, learning by doing and on,the,job training. This means that skills and knowledge acquired depend not only on the educational system but on firm organisation and culture as well as ties between organisations. The present study examines the relationship between skill supply, firm organisation and learning by means of interviews in 23 firms in Greece. It shows that a major problem faced by SMEs in peripheral European countries is the lack of in,house capabilities and knowledge which limits the amount and type of learning that takes place. Finally, the article argues that policy,makers should institute educational policies and training programmes that will compensate for the inability of Greek firms to provide a learning environment. [source]

    The Second Generation in Europe

    Maurice Crul
    The study of integration processes has now reached a crucial stage in most Western European countries with the emergence of the second generation. The oldest children born to postwar immigrants on European soil have recently entered the job market, and we can now investigate their performance in both education and employment. This opens a unique opportunity to compare the situations of second generation migrants across countries. Ostensibly the children all have the same starting position, being born in the country of settlement. The intriguing question is how differences between immigrant groups, and also differences in national contexts, work to the benefit or detriment of the second generation. We discuss the first issue briefly, confining ourselves here to Turkish and Moroccan immigrants. In addressing the issue of national contexts, we focus primarily on policies and practices rather than on broad-reaching national integration models. We examine in detail the integration process itself in the context of vital institutional arrangements such as the education system and the mechanisms for transition to the labor market. How do such arrangements differ between countries, and how do they affect the outcomes for the second generation? [source]

    The past, present and future of nurse education in Poland: stages, conditions and activities

    B. Sztembis rn
    Aim:, This paper describes the multidirectional activities recently completed to adapt nurse education in Poland to European standards. Background:, The Polish system transformation and the changes that have taken place in health care since the 1980s required intensive effort and change in the nursing care and education systems of nurses and midwives. Outcomes:, Changes accomplished include: (1) preparation and implementation of a nurse education model complying with European standards; (2) discontinuance of the previous system of nurse education taught at the secondary school level; and (3) adjusting the organization and post-basic curricula of nurses and midwives to the actual needs of the society as well as for the nurses themselves. The goal of a uniform nurse education system in Poland that met European requirements motivated the Polish change agents. This change ensures the integration of Polish nurses with the nurses from Europe and other countries in their common endeavours to improve nursing care and health outcomes. Conclusions:, The adopted changes in the system of nurse education resulted in uniformity of education and acceptance of bachelor's level education, which complies with European standards as well as adjusting the post-basic education to actual needs. Describing the substance and process of our work may be helpful to nurses in other countries who are working on their own models of nursing and healthcare restructuring. [source]

    Adding an Alcohol-Related Risk Score to an Existing Categorical Risk Classification for Older Adults: Sensitivity to Group Differences

    Sandra R. Wilson PhD
    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate a new alcohol-related risk score for research use. DESIGN: Using data from a previously reported trial of a screening and education system for older adults (Computerized Alcohol-Related Problems Survey), secondary analyses were conducted comparing the ability of two different measures of risk to detect postintervention group differences: the original categorical outcome measure and a new, finely grained quantitative risk score based on the same research-based risk factors. SETTING: Three primary care group practices in southern California. PARTICIPANTS: Six hundred sixty-five patients aged 65 and older. MEASUREMENTS: A previously calculated, three-level categorical classification of alcohol-related risk and a newly developed quantitative risk score. RESULTS: Mean postintervention risk scores differed between the three experimental conditions: usual care, patient report, and combined report (P<.001). The difference between the combined report and usual care was significant (P<.001) and directly proportional to baseline risk. The three-level risk classification did not reveal approximately 57.3% of the intervention effect detected by the risk score. The risk score also was sufficiently sensitive to detect the intervention effect within the subset of hypertensive patients (n=112; P=.001). CONCLUSION: As an outcome measure in intervention trials, the finely grained risk score is more sensitive than the trinary risk classification. The additional clinical value of the risk score relative to the categorical measure needs to be determined. [source]

    An enhanced Bayesian model to detect students' learning styles in Web-based courses

    P. García
    Abstract Students acquire and process information in different ways depending on their learning styles. To be effective, Web-based courses should guarantee that all the students learn despite their different learning styles. To achieve this goal, we have to detect how students learn: reflecting or acting; steadily or in fits and starts; intuitively or sensitively. In a previous work, we have presented an approach that uses Bayesian networks to detect a student's learning style in Web-based courses. In this work, we present an enhanced Bayesian model designed after the analysis of the results obtained when evaluating the approach in the context of an Artificial Intelligence course. We evaluated the precision of our Bayesian approach to infer students' learning styles from the observation of their actions with a Web-based education system during three semesters. We show how the results from one semester enabled us to adjust our initial model and helped teachers improve the content of the course for the following semester, enhancing in this way students' learning process. We obtained higher precision values when inferring the learning styles with the enhanced model. [source]

    Empowerment in parents of school-aged children with and without developmental disabilities

    J. S. Nachshen
    Abstract Background Despite the widespread use of the term ,empowerment' in clinical literature to describe both a desirable process and the outcome of service delivery, the term remains more of a theoretical than practical construct. This study examined the factors that contribute to empowerment in parents of school-aged children with and without developmental disabilities (DD) using the Double ABCX model of family adaptation contrasted with the linear ACBX model. Methods Parents of children with (n = 100, 97% mothers) and without (n = 100, 98% mothers) DD completed questionnaires relating to child behaviour problems, parent stress and well-being, and formal and informal support. Structural equation modelling was used Results Parents of children with DD reported more child behaviour problems, more stress, less well-being and more social support than parents of children without DD. Structural equation modelling supported the ACBX model for both groups. A linear relationship was found in which parent well-being and resources mediated the relationship between the stressor (child behaviour problems) and the outcome (empowerment). Conclusions The results of the current study support Hastings and Taunt's assertion in 2002, in that empowerment was adequately explained using a traditional model of family functioning. The significant prediction offered by the parent's resources points to the need to deliver services in a manner that is more family-centred. In the education system, this means providing parents with clear messages regarding the schools goals, clarifying the parent's rights and responsibilities, including the parent in planning and decision making, respecting their knowledge as caregivers and supporting their hopes for their child. [source]

    Internationalisation, Diversity and the Humanities Curriculum: Cosmopolitanism and Multiculturalism Revisited

    This article stages a dialogue between cosmopolitanism and multiculturalism in order to think through what is at stake in demands that universities should produce graduates who are sensitive to social diversity and attuned to the contemporary realities of globalisation. The argument is that, although ,graduate attributes' are no doubt an effective management tool in a massified higher education system, they can also be used to focus attention on what dispositions it is reasonable and desirable to expect graduates to develop. The arguments about cosmopolitanism of Jeremy Waldron and Martha Nussbaum are considered. [source]

    Developing Critical Rationality as a Pedagogical Aim

    Christopher Winch
    The development of a conception of critical pedagogy is itself an aspect of the development of critical rationality within late modern societies, closely connected with the role of education in developing critical rationality. The role of critique pervades all aspects of life: for people as citizens, workers and self-determining private individuals. Late modern societies depend on a critically minded population for their viability, for the democratic management of a competing balance of interests and for a capacity for rapid renewal. These requirements put a demand on the education system for the development of critical rationality. However, its development contains within itself the seeds, not just of renewal, but of transformation or even anarchy. This is discussed in relation to three major aspects of education,liberal, civic and vocational,and it is argued that there is a tension within each that arises from the requirement of critique for their successful functioning as educational practices in liberal societies and from the implausibility of developing forms of critique that are inherently self-limiting. Societies that espouse the development of critical rationality as a key educational aim exist in a state of tension and of uncertainty as to the extent to which it can be developed. Attempts to limit critique to consideration only of what is worthwhile are bound to be futile. On the other hand, education must be concerned with preparation for the worthwhile. Critique thus performs the important function of ensuring that our conception of the worthwhile does not remain fixed, but is itself an agent of social change. This paper explores this issue and argues that the problem of reconciling preparation for social participation with preparation for critical engagement exists in all three spheres. The problems may not be resolvable ones but should encourage continual awareness of the scope and limits of educational critique in liberal societies. [source]

    The developmental progression of comprehension-related skills in children learning EAL

    Jane M. Hutchinson
    Many children who speak English as an additional language (EAL) underachieve in areas of English literacy, especially in the primary years. These difficulties are often attributed to low levels of English language fluency as they enter the education system. In an effort to provide a greater understanding of this underachievement, the cognitive-linguistic factors underlying literacy development in monolingual children and children learning EAL were examined in a three-year longitudinal project. The project, conducted in schools in the north of England, followed the developmental progression of forty-three children learning EAL and forty-three monolingual children from school years Two to Four. Children were assessed on measures of reading accuracy, reading and listening comprehension, receptive and expressive vocabulary, and reception of grammar. Analysis revealed similarities between the two groups of children on reading accuracy, but children learning EAL had lower levels of vocabulary and comprehension at each point in time. Data are discussed in terms of the development of underlying language skills and the impact of these skills on both reading and listening comprehension. The implications of the findings for classroom practice are considered. [source]

    Medicaid's Role in Financing Health Care for Children With Behavioral Health Care Needs in the Special Education System: Implications of the Deficit Reduction Act

    David S. Mandell ScD
    ABSTRACT Background:, Recent changes to Medicaid policy may have unintended consequences in the education system. This study estimated the potential financial impact of the Deficit Reduction Act (DRA) on school districts by calculating Medicaid-reimbursed behavioral health care expenditures for school-aged children in general and children in special education in particular. Methods:, Medicaid claims and special education records of youth ages 6 to 18 years in Philadelphia, PA, were merged for calendar year 2002. Behavioral health care volume, type, and expenditures were compared between Medicaid-enrolled children receiving and not receiving special education. Results:, Significant overlap existed among the 126,533 children who were either Medicaid enrolled (114,257) or received special education (27,620). Medicaid-reimbursed behavioral health care was used by 21% of children receiving special education (37% of those Medicaid enrolled) and 15% of other Medicaid-enrolled children. Total expenditures were $197.8 million, 40% of which was spent on the 5728 children in special education and 60% of which was spent on 15,092 other children. Conclusions:, Medicaid-reimbursed behavioral health services disproportionately support special education students, with expenditures equivalent to 4% of Philadelphia's $2 billion education budget. The results suggest that special education programs depend on Medicaid-reimbursed services, the financing of which the DRA may jeopardize. [source]

    Causes and Consequences of Unexpected Educational Transitions in Switzerland

    Markus P. Neuenschwander
    The present study examines transition patterns of Swiss secondary and tertiary school students. Switzerland's highly canalized education system allows us to test how tracking affects person,environment fit of students for students who choose a normative versus unexpected downward transition pattern. In addition, we investigate how self-efficacy expectations and personal values affect an unexpected transition choice. Results indicate that students with strong expectancies and personal values can oppose institutional norms and chart their own academic course; however, these students are less likely to perceive a good fit between their own interests and competencies and institutional demands after the transition. Our findings underscore the importance of developmentally appropriate educational environments and systems permeable enough to adapt to developing students' changing interests. [source]

    The compatibility of future doctors' career intentions with changing health care demands

    MEDICAL EDUCATION, Issue 6 2006
    Marjolein A G Van Offenbeek
    Background, In the Netherlands the medical education system is in the process of being transformed to establish a more demand-oriented health care system. This transformation may entail the occupational restructuring of the medical profession. Meanwhile, on the supply side, the career intentions of future doctors are also changing. Objectives, We aimed to categorise medical students' prevailing career intentions and to examine to what extent newly proposed medical occupations that may be part of the transformation process correspond with these career intentions. Methods, We carried out expert interviews and a feedback round to gain input for a survey among students. From the demand perspective, 11 experts proposed non-traditional medical occupations and evaluated these on the basis of job characteristics relevant to a doctor's career choice. Subsequently, students from 5 universities filled out a questionnaire to rate these job characteristics by their importance and the proposed occupations' attractiveness. Results, Four different clusters of career intentions were categorised as patient-oriented expert, career-oriented specialist, lifestyle-oriented generalist, and balance-seeking realist. These clusters differ in terms of the ways in which students feel attracted to the proposed occupations. The career-oriented specialists feel least attracted and the lifestyle-oriented generalists most attracted to the occupations. Discussion, The experts' call for shorter postgraduate programmes to educate patient-oriented doctors partly matches students' career intentions. Most students share the intention of obtaining a direct care position that provides ample task variation, which may explain the appeal of the occupations ,emergency doctor' and ,basic specialist'. The limited interest in specific patient groups suggests a need for more exposure to the occupations linked to these groups. [source]

    More medical students, more stress in the medical education system

    MEDICAL EDUCATION, Issue 5 2004
    John Bligh
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    METROECONOMICA, Issue 3 2009
    Takashi Oshio
    ABSTRACT We examine how ability-screening affects demand for education and the shape of an optimal education system. Explicitly incorporating gradual screening by education into the model, we illustrate how individuals of different abilities decide to stay in education or drop out. Gradual screening induces low-ability individuals to receive over-education, reducing the net benefit obtained from education by society as a whole, as well as such individuals. A mixed education system, in which public education is provided before private education, is superior to a wholly private system, in terms of both efficiency and equity, because it reduces the over-education of low-ability individuals. [source]

    Handwriting speed: duration of testing period and relation to socio-economic disadvantage and handedness

    Paul O'Mahony
    Abstract In the course of norm-referencing the Handwriting Speed Test (HST) for 8- to 18-year-olds in the Irish education system, the authors examined the issue of the duration of the handwriting test period, the relation of handwriting speed to socio-economic disadvantage and the comparative handwriting speed of left- and right-handed students. The literature reports some concerns about the generalizability of results from a short-duration handwriting speed test, some evidence that children from poorer backgrounds are less proficient at handwriting, and conflicting results on the relation of handedness to speed of handwriting. The results of this study suggest that the addition of a further 9-minute test to the 3-minute test of the HST would improve its ability to predict handwriting speed problems in everyday extended writing tasks, such as examinations, and would also identify some children who are wrongly classified as slow writers on the 3-minute test. The results also indicate a markedly lower-than-average handwriting speed for children attending designated disadvantaged schools. The results suggest that neither left- nor right-handed children have a consistent advantage in handwriting speed. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Constructing a patient education system: A performance technology project

    Edith E. Bell
    The purpose of the patient education system described here was to distribute patient education material to and within medical practices managed by a small medical practice management company. The belief was that patient education opportunities improved health care outcomes and increased patient participation in health care decisions and compliance with health care plans. This tool reinforced medical practices' commitment to having patients participate actively in their treatment, differentiated them from other practices, and contributed to the generation of new patients. [source]