Education Policy (education + policy)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Education Policy

  • higher education policy

  • Selected Abstracts


    EDUCATIONAL THEORY, Issue 4 2000
    Paige Porter
    First page of article [source]

    The CEFR and Education Policies in Europe

    First page of article [source]

    The Birth of Head Start: Preschool Education Policies in the Kennedy and Johnson Administrations , Maris Vinovskis

    Elizabeth Graue
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Tax and Education Policy in a Heterogeneous-Agent Economy: What Levels of Redistribution Maximize Growth and Efficiency?

    ECONOMETRICA, Issue 2 2002
    Roland Bénabou
    This paper studies the effects of progressive income taxes and education finance in a dynamic heterogeneous-agent economy. Such redistributive policies entail distortions to labor supply and savings, but also serve as partial substitutes for missing credit and insurance markets. The resulting tradeoffs for growth and efficiency are explored, both theoretically and quantitatively, in a model that yields complete analytical solutions. Progressive education finance always leads to higher income growth than taxes and transfers, but at the cost of lower insurance. Overall efficiency is assessed using a new measure that properly reflects aggregate resources and idiosyncratic risks but, unlike a standard social welfare function, does not reward equality per se. Simulations using empirical parameter estimates show that the efficiency costs and benefits of redistribution are generally of the same order of magnitude, resulting in plausible values for the optimal rates. Aggregate income and aggregate welfare provide only crude lower and upper bounds around the true efficiency tradeoff. [source]

    Floating Foundations of Higher Education Policy

    Jeroen Huisman
    First page of article [source]

    Equity, Employment and Education Policy


    Intergenerational Transfer of Human Capital and Optimal Education Policy

    We study the design of education policies (subsidies and public education) when parents' investment in education is motivated by warm-glow altruism and determines the probability that a child has a high ability. The optimal subsidy is not necessarily positive. It is determined by two conflicting terms: a Pigouvian term (warm-glow altruists do not properly account for the impact of education on future generations) and a "paternalistic" effect (the warm-glow term may not be fully included in social welfare). Finally, total crowding out of private expenditure (for one of the types) by public education may be desirable. [source]

    Contested Ideals: Understanding Moral Disagreements over Education Policy

    Michele S. Moses
    First page of article [source]

    The Impact of Legal Mobilization and Judicial Decisions: The Case of Official Minority-Language Education Policy in Canada for Francophones Outside Quebec

    LAW & SOCIETY REVIEW, Issue 3 2004
    Troy Q. Riddell
    The article investigates the impact of legal mobilization and judicial decisions on official minority-language education (OMLE) policy in the Canadian provinces outside Quebec, using the "factor-oriented" and "dispute-centered" theories of judicial impact developed by U.S. scholars. The Canadian Supreme Court's decision in Mahé v. Alberta (1990), which broadly interpreted Section 23 of the Charter of Rights to include management and control of OMLE programs and schools, along with federal funding to the provinces to implement OMLE policy, are important to explaining OMLE policy change as predicted by the factor-oriented approach. The dispute-centered approach, on the other hand, helps us understand how the Charter of Rights and judicial decisions shaped the goals and discourse of Francophone groups in the policy process and, more instrumentally, provided opportunity structures that Francophone groups exploited effectively. The article concludes that both approaches to explaining judicial impact could be accommodated within an institutional model of judicial impact that construes institutions as state actors, as sets of rules, and as frameworks of meaning and interpretation. Such an approach would allow for the development of a more comparative model of judicial impact. [source]

    Bilingual Education Policy and Practice in the Andes:Ideological Paradox and Intercultural Possibility

    Professor Nancy H. HornbergerArticle first published online: 8 JAN 200
    Recent developments in language policy and education reform in Peru, Ecuador, and Bolivia, paralleling similar developments in the United States and elsewhere, have opened up new possibilities for indigenous languages and their speakers through bilingual intercultural education. Examining the use and meanings of the term interculturality in policy documents and short practitioner narratives, this article explores the ideological paradox inherent in transforming a standardizing education into a diversifying one and in constructing a national identity that is also multilingual and multicultural. It concludes with implications for educational practice in linguistically and culturally diverse classrooms. [source]

    School Attendance and Skill Premiums in France and the US: A General Equilibrium Approach,

    FISCAL STUDIES, Issue 4 2007
    David De La Croix
    We evaluate the effect of education policies, welfare programmes, technology and demographics on the differential evolution of the skill premium and on the rise in education investment in France and the US. We use a computable general equilibrium model with overlapping generations of individuals and endogenous education decisions. Human capital has two substitutable components - experience and education - both of which evolve endogenously over time. We use an original method to calibrate our model properly on the post-war period and run counterfactual experiments to assess the relative contributions of the different exogenous variables. The expansionary French education policy boosted the supply of skills and kept the skill premium low. In contrast, increasing education costs in the US contributed to increased wage differentials by reducing the rise in educational attainment. Skill-biased technical change is key to understanding rising school attendance and skill premiums in the US. It has a less important role and appears to be delayed in France. [source]

    Intergenerational Transfer of Human Capital and Optimal Education Policy

    We study the design of education policies (subsidies and public education) when parents' investment in education is motivated by warm-glow altruism and determines the probability that a child has a high ability. The optimal subsidy is not necessarily positive. It is determined by two conflicting terms: a Pigouvian term (warm-glow altruists do not properly account for the impact of education on future generations) and a "paternalistic" effect (the warm-glow term may not be fully included in social welfare). Finally, total crowding out of private expenditure (for one of the types) by public education may be desirable. [source]

    Relationships between the constructs of a theory of curriculum implementation

    John Rogan
    Planned educational change occurs regularly throughout the world. With the enormous political change the 1994 elections brought to South Africa, a complete change in education policies was called for. The new Curriculum 2005 (C2005; Department of Education, RSA, 1997) embraced new teaching and learning approaches such as outcomes-based education and learner-centered teaching practices. To explore the progress of the implementation of C2005, a theoretical framework specifically designed to elucidate curriculum implementation in developing countries was applied to 10 case studies. The framework consists of interrelating constructs with subconstructs which impact on curriculum implementation. It enables one to look at the levels of implementation achieved both in terms of the capacity of the school and the extent to which outside support and pressure is provided. The case studies were carried out in a representative sample of schools in Mpumalanga, one of the nine South African provinces. The aim of this article is to investigate the possible interrelationships of the constructs and the subconstructs. Some predictable relationships emerged from the data while other expected relationships failed to materialize. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 42: 313,336, 2005 [source]

    Evaluation of School-Based HIV Prevention Education Programs in New Jersey

    CHES Director, David K. Lohrmann PhD
    ABSTRACT: This paper presents results from a process evaluation conducted by the New Jersey Department of Education (NJDOE). Representative samples of middle and high school superintendents, principals, lead health teachers, and HIV teachers provided information assessing whether local district policy content was consistent with the state's policy code, the dynamics of local policy development, and school district staff perceptions and practices regarding HIV education policies. NJDOE also was interested in determining: ifinservice training was accessible to teachers assigned to provide HIV education; the scope and impact of HIV inservice programs; and the training needs of staff assigned to teach the HIV curriculum. Finally, NJDOE was interested in determining: local curricula scope, sequence, and approach; the extent to which local curricula were skills-based; and local expectations for instructional outcomes. As a result of the evaluation, program staff identified areas needing remediation and planned for program improvement in new areas. [source]

    Healthy Country, Healthy People: Policy Implications of Links between Indigenous Human Health and Environmental Condition in Tropical Australia

    Stephen T. Garnett
    Investment in programs that help Indigenous people undertake work maintaining the environmental health of their country has benefits for the environment as well as the physical, mental and cultural health of the Indigenous people involved. For health these findings have direct implications for some national health policies, service provision to homelands, health promotion and Indigenous health research. There are also direct implications for environmental investment in northern Australia and the design and regulation of markets in resource entitlements. Indirectly the findings should be important for economic, employment and education policies as well as those promoting social harmony. Given the range of benefits there is a strong argument for cross-agency investment in working on country by Indigenous people. [source]

    The Creation of a Vocational Sector in Swiss Higher Education: balancing trends of system differentiation and integration

    Juan-Francisco Perellon
    The article discusses the establishment of a vocational sector in Swiss higher education as a complement to the existing two-tier system of cantonal Universities and federal Institutes of technology. The origins of this new player, its missions and organisational features are discussed. This overall discussion is placed into the context of changing landscape of Swiss higher education policy characterised by increasing pressures for geographical reorganisation of the higher education sector under the auspices of a more direct role of the federal government. The article makes two points. First, it argues that the creation of a vocational sector in Swiss higher education combines two contradictory trends. On the one hand, this new sector tends to provide differentiation at the system level, through the creation of a new, more marked-oriented sector of higher education. On the other hand, system differentiation at the system level is threatened by increased demands for greater inter-institutional cooperation and system integration, emanating principally from the federal level. Second, the article also argues that the distinction between ,academic/scientific' vs. ,vocational/professional' education generally referred to when studying the emergence of non-university sectors in higher education, is not pertinent for the analysis of the Swiss case. Two reasons are brought forward to sustain this argument. First, this distinction reinforces an artificial binary divide, no longer relevant to assess the evolution of higher education institutions placed in a context of academic and vocational drifts. Second, the ,academic' vs. ,professional' opposition does not take into consideration the political organisation of the country and how this impacts on policy making in higher education; a crucial element in the Swiss context. [source]

    Advocacy networks, choice and private schooling of the poor in India

    GLOBAL NETWORKS, Issue 3 2010
    Abstract This article is about the flows of rhetorics and discourses, particularly those that advocate choice and private schooling, and the role that transnational advocacy networks play in managing and driving these flows. We explore a set of network relations between advocacy groups in the UK and the USA and local ,choice' advocates in India, and some of the emerging impacts of local and transnational advocacy on the politics of education and education policy in India. The network advocates school choice and private schooling as solutions to the problem of achieving universal, high-quality primary education. Individual policy entrepreneurs are active in making these connections and circulating ideas. A complex of funding, exchange, cross-referencing, dissemination and mutual sponsorship links the Indian choice and privatization advocacy network, and connects it to other countries in a global network for neoliberalism. [source]

    Finnish Higher Education Expansion and Regional Policy

    Toni Saarivirta
    This paper concentrates on the expansion of Finnish higher education between the 1960s and 1970s, exposes its background in the light of the policy decisions that were made, compares the unique features of this expansion with those of certain other countries, discusses the impact of the controlled ,top down' governance of higher education policy, and describes the Finnish higher education system today. The paper argues that the driving forces behind universal mass higher education were, on the one hand, changes in the structure of society, and on the other hand, individual demand for education but also increased need for skills in production processes. This was the case in Finland as well but the Finnish higher education expansion was also characterised by regionalism. The actual location of universities in the era of expansion was a function of local political actors who were able to have an influence on ruling political parties. [source]

    The Change from Private to Public Governance of British Higher Education: Its Consequences for Higher Education Policy Making 1980,2006

    Michael Shattock
    This article argues that in moving from being self governed to being state governed the policy drivers for higher education are no longer those of the system itself but are derived from a set of policies designed for the reform and modernisation of the public sector of the economy. The formation of higher education policy therefore needs to be reinterpreted as an adjunct of public policy, rather than as something intrinsic to higher education. The impact of ,new public management' approaches and of political interventions are explored in illustrating the consequences of the centralisation of the management of the public services and of higher education becoming an issue in national politics. [source]

    Towards a ,Post-Public Era'?

    Australian Higher Education Policy, Shifting Frames in German
    Higher education in Germany and Australia is being subject to pressures of market forces, internationalisation and financial constraints. This had led to both systems experiencing significant crisis and change over the past 20 years. In this paper, frame analysis is used to compare the changing policies in each nation and examine the extent to which the landscapes of each system have been transformed. It is found that higher education policy in both nations underwent significant change in the late 1980s and again in the early 2000s, impacting on system structures and institutional forms. There is now evidence of further change occurring in both nations that may mark a transition to a ,post-public era' in higher education. This analysis reveals a degree of convergence in the neo-liberal policy trajectories of both nations but differences in the rate and nature of the transitions taking place. [source]

    False Uniqueness: the Self-Perception of New Entrants to Higher Education in the UK and Its Implications for Access , a Pilot Study1

    Andy Thorpe
    A central tenet of contemporary education policy relates to the desire to extend higher education (HE) provision to less advantaged groups (,widening participation'). Our paper contends that a key behavioural obstacle to widening participation lies in the erroneous belief that persists among potential entrants from disadvantaged backgrounds as to their capabilities of succeeding within the HE environment , a perception that serves to deflate application/recruitment rates from such groupings. We test this ,false uniqueness' thesis using a sample of 127 new UK undergraduates, finding that students drawn from lower social class backgrounds consistently underestimated their abilities vis-à-vis the overall cohort. [source]

    The Re-Framing of Australian Higher Education

    David Pick
    The aim of this paper is to analyse the changes in Australian higher education policy over the past two decades. Using frame analysis, two shifts in higher education policy are identified. The first is in the late 1980s where the view of higher education as having a broad social, economic and cultural role was changed to one that emphasised expansion, marketisation and competition. The second is currently taking place in which universities are becoming seen as business competitors in a global higher education market, and as such, privatisation and deregulation are centrally important. This paper demonstrates the usefulness of frame analysis as a way of examining the systemic effects of policy decisions in a way that draws together and uncovers how the various and complex forces of government policies and broader social and economic events combine to create the difficult terrain through which universities must now plot a course. [source]

    Times, Measures and the Man: the Future of British Higher Education Treated Historically and Comparatively

    Guy Neave
    This article is a tribute to the life work of Maurice Kogan. Very little of higher education's landscape in the United Kingdom has remained unchanged over the past four decades and this article sets out to analyze the way the perception of the role of universities in society has changed in the intervening period. This it does through three perspectives: continuity and change, continuity in change and continuity in the midst of change. Each yields very different visions of the university. Against this ,inside' view, the second part of the article examines current British higher education policy from an ,outsider' standpoint and very particularly the current strategies towards the European Higher Education and Research Areas. It concludes by arguing that Britain's higher education policy vis a vis Europe re-states a dilemma which these Islands have had to tackle for the best part of the past 250 Years. This dilemma is whether to lay priority on higher education as a global instrument or to endorse a more limited, less ambitious agenda of ,European' integration. [source]

    Policy Drivers in UK Higher Education in Historical Perspective: ,Inside Out', ,Outside In' and the Contribution of Research

    Michael Shattock
    Where have been the main policy drivers for the development of British higher education over the last 50 years? This article argues that while higher education policy was once driven from the inside outwards, from the late 1970s it has been driven exclusively from the outside inwards. Policy decisions under either regime were rarely driven by research findings especially from within the higher education community. The current imbalance between ,inside-out' and ,outside-in' policy formation is paradoxically most apparent when the higher education system has a more widely diversified funding base than at any time since the 1930s. The key policy challenge is now not what new policies are needed but what new framework should be developed for policy making. [source]

    The Labour Party and Higher Education: The Nature of the Relationship

    Jean Bocock
    Higher education policy has rarely been a major concern of the Labour Party in the second half of the twentieth century. This article explores the reasons for this and analyses the ideological coalition of the Labour Party in the context of the Welfare State and the commitments to moderate social democratic reformism. Three strands in particular are explored: the dominance of vocational, technological and professional priorities in HE expansion; the influence of utilitarian thinking, broadly construed; and the various social purpose, equality perspectives of those on the Left of the Party. Alongside these strands, has been Labour's reluctance to adopt interventionist policies especially in relation to the so-called elite Universities, and the persistent advocacy of ,modernisation'. Finally, the article considers, within a context of the debate in general political analysis, the potential of the Labour Party within this period to achieve significant reform in the field of higher education, drawing inter alia on the work of Ralph Miliband. [source]

    Allowing the Market to Rule: The Case of the United States

    David D. Dill
    There are increasing calls in the UK and other countries for deregulating universities so that they can better compete in the global market for higher education. Frequent allusions are made to the superiority of the US market-oriented system. But is market competition for first degrees in the US efficient for the larger society? Do the constantly increasing social expenditures for higher education in the US benefit the public interest or do they advantage certain students and faculty members? Two recent economic studies provide greater insight into the impacts of market competition on US higher education. The results of these studies are discussed and their possible implications for higher education policy making in other countries are explored. [source]

    The Impact of Formal Assessment Procedures on Teaching and Learning in Art and Design in Secondary Schools

    Rachel Mason
    Assessment is widely considered to be the most significant issue affecting art and design practice at secondary level. The article begins with an historical overview of developments in and critiques of assessment procedures in England, Wales and Northern Ireland since the inception of GCSE examination. This is followed by a report of an attempt to carry out a systematic review of research on the impact of assessment on the art and design curriculum in secondary schools. Author conclusions and findings from eight studies subjected to in-depth analysis are discussed together with the implications of the review exercise for art education policy, practice and research. [source]

    New Patterns of Youth Transition in Education

    Johanna Wyn
    Current research provides evidence that new relationships are being forged between youth people and education. Increased participation in post-compulsory education, combinations of work and study and uncertain career outcomes havebecome common experiences. There is an emerging disparity between the stated goals of education and the changing priorities and choices of young people. In particular, the linear notion of transitions, expressed in the metaphorsof pathways used in policy documents, is increasingly at odds with the patterns of life experienced by young people in many nations. Three themes stand out in the research on young people in the 1990s. First, an awareness of foreclosed options in educational outcomes is a consistent thread across a range of studies. Secondly, there is a discernible shift by the end of the 1990s toward more complex life-patterns and a blending or balancing of a range of personal priorities and interests. Thirdly, the need to give ,active voice' to young people about the dramatic social and economic changes they have been subjected to, is unmistakable in the light of the increasing disparity between the rhetoric of youth and education policy and their own experience of its out-comes. [source]

    A bounds analysis of school completion rates in Australia

    Tue Gørgens
    Official estimates of school completion rates in Australia increased in the 1980s, peaked in 1992, and fell immediately thereafter before stabilizing. The official estimates were a specific focus of Australian education policy. The decline caused concern at the time. We use data from the Australian Youth Survey (AYS) to gain insight into the behavior of the official estimates. The AYS suffers from nonrepresentativeness, attrition and nonresponse, which means that parameters of interest are not identified. Our bounds analysis is suggestive that school completion was overstated in the official estimates at their peak. Our analysis points to repetition as a key factor in inflating the official estimates. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The validation of a rating scale to assess dietitians' use of behaviour change skills

    G. Bonner
    Background:, Evidence suggests that education alone is unlikely to elicit dietary-behavioural change (Contento, 1995). Consequently, many dietitians are moving from a traditional advice-giving role to one which utilises ,behaviour change skills' (BCS) in dietary counselling. BCS is an umbrella term used to cover a wide range of skills and techniques drawn from the fields of counselling, motivational interviewing (MI) and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). In order to assess the efficacy of this approach, a means of quantifying BCS-use is required. This two-stage study aimed to validate a newly-devised scale to assess dietitians' BCS-use in one-to-one dietary counselling. Methods:, Items for the scale were generated by drawing on the literature, syllabi for training in BCS and its parent disciplines (counselling, MI and CBT), and specialist dietitians. The resulting scale and manual were revised following assessment of content validity by expert panel and piloting. In stage one, 21 dietetic consultations were audiotaped and rated for BCS-use by three BCS-trained dietitians. Inter-rater agreement was calculated using the kappa statistic and intra-class correlation (ICC), to give a ,chance corrected' measure of agreement. Validity was tested using a psychologist's subjective assessment of BCS-use as a proxy ,gold-standard' compared with the dietitians' ratings, again using kappa and ICC. In stage two the scale was further revised before an additional 20 audiotaped consultations were analysed using the same procedure. Ethical approval for the study was given by the appropriate NHS and university research ethics committees. Results:, At stage one, although kappas were fairly poor for agreement on individual criteria, the ICC for overall scores indicated a ,fair' level of agreement, according to Shrout's (1998) classifications: ICC = 0.584 (CI 0.339,0.784). Results for validity were poor with the psychologist frequently rating higher than the dietitians. At stage two, following scale revision, results for inter-rater agreement improved with more criteria showing ,moderate' or ,substantial' agreement. Ten out of the 21 criteria achieved levels of agreement classified as ,fair' or higher for all three rater pairs. The ICC for overall scores improved to indicate ,moderate' agreement: ICC = 0.640 (CI 0.404,0.821). Validity results remained poor. Discussion:, The moderate level of overall inter-rater agreement observed in the revised scale is considered acceptable (Jones, 2006) and indicates this tool is useful. This measure is more relevant to the purpose of the tool than agreement on individual criteria given it is intended to classify consultations overall as low/medium/high use of BCS rather than to examine individual skills. However, in terms of validity, the discrepancy between dietitian and psychologist ratings requires further investigation. It is hypothesized that the dietitians had higher expectations of what a dietitian could achieve in terms of proficiency in BCS and, as such, rated more stringently than the psychologist. Achieving a clear picture of validity usually necessitates a series of assessments (Murphy & Davidshofer, 2005); the BCS rating scale is no exception with further testing required. Conclusions:, The revised scale shows acceptable inter-rater reliability and robust content validity in our study sample. However, quantitative examination of validity gave poor results and further assessment is required to provide a tool with which we can confidently assess dietitians' use of BCS. References, Contento, I., Balch, G.I., Bronner, Y.L. et al. (1995) The effectiveness of nutrition education and implications for nutrition education policy, programs, and research: a review of the research. J. Nutr. Educ.27, 355,364. Jones, J.M. (2006) Nutritional Screening and Assessment Tools. New York: Nova Science Publishers. Murphy, K.R. & Davidshofer, C.O. (2005) Psychological Testing , Principles and Applications, 6th edn. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc. Shrout, P. (1998) Measurement reliability and agreement in psychiatry. Stat. Methods Med. Res. 7, 301,317. [source]