Equation Modeling Analyses (equation + modeling_analysis)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Equation Modeling Analyses

  • structural equation modeling analysis

  • Selected Abstracts

    Using the job demands-resources model to predict burnout and performance

    Arnold B. Bakker
    The job demands-resources (JD-R) model was used to examine the relationship between job characteristics, burnout, and (other-ratings of) performance (N = 146). We hypothesized that job demands (e.g., work pressure and emotional demands) would be the most important antecedents of the exhaustion component of burnout, which, in turn, would predict in-role performance (hypothesis 1). In contrast, job resources (e.g., autonomy and social support) were hypothesized to be the most important predictors of extra-role performance, through their relationship with the disengagement component of burnout (hypothesis 2). In addition, we predicted that job resources would buffer the relationship between job demands and exhaustion (hypothesis 3), and that exhaustion would be positively related to disengagement (hypothesis 4). The results of structural equation modeling analyses provided strong support for hypotheses 1, 2, and 4, but rejected hypothesis 3. These findings support the JD-R model's claim that job demands and job resources initiate two psychological processes, which eventually affect organizational outcomes. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    How changes in job demands and resources predict burnout, work engagement, and sickness absenteeism

    Wilmar B. Schaufeli
    The present longitudinal survey among 201 telecom managers supports the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model that postulates a health impairment process and a motivational process. As hypothesized, results of structural equation modeling analyses revealed that: (1) increases in job demands (i.e., overload, emotional demands, and work-home interference) and decreases in job resources (i.e., social support, autonomy, opportunities to learn, and feedback) predict burnout, (2) increases in job resources predict work engagement, and (3) burnout (positively) and engagement (negatively) predict registered sickness duration ("involuntary" absence) and frequency ("involuntary" absence), respectively. Finally, consistent with predictions results suggest a positive gain spiral: initial work engagement predicts an increase in job resources, which, in its turn, further increases work engagement. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Relationships between psychological climate perceptions and work outcomes: a meta-analytic review

    Christopher P. Parker
    In this study, meta-analytic procedures were used to examine the relationships between individual-level (psychological) climate perceptions and work outcomes such as employee attitudes, psychological well-being, motivation, and performance. Our review of the literature generated 121 independent samples in which climate perceptions were measured and analyzed at the individual level. These studies document considerable confusion regarding the constructs of psychological climate, organizational climate, and organizational culture and reveal a need for researchers to use terminology that is consistent with their level of measurement, theory, and analysis. Our meta-analytic findings indicate that psychological climate, operationalized as individuals' perceptions of their work environment, does have significant relationships with individuals' work attitudes, motivation, and performance. Structural equation modeling analyses of the meta-analytic correlation matrix indicated that the relationships of psychological climate with employee motivation and performance are fully mediated by employees' work attitudes. We also found that the James and James (1989) PCg model could be extended to predict the impact of work environment perceptions on employee attitudes, motivation, and performance. Despite the number of published individual-level climate studies that we found, there is a need for more research using standardized measures so as to enable analyses of the organizational and contextual factors that might moderate the effects of psychological climate perceptions. Finally, we argue for a molar theory of psychological climate that is rooted in the psychological processes by which individuals make meaning or their work experiences. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Linking Changes in Parenting to Parent,Child Relationship Quality and Youth Self-Control: The Strong African American Families Program

    Gene H. Brody
    A randomized prevention trial was conducted contrasting families who took part in the Strong African American Families Program (SAAF), a preventive intervention for rural African American mothers and their 11-year-olds, with control families. SAAF is based on a conceptual model positing that changes in intervention-targeted parenting behaviors would enhance responsive-supportive parent,child relationships and youths' self-control, which protect rural African American youths from substance use and early sexual activity. Parenting variables included involvement-vigilance, racial socialization, communication about sex, and clear expectations for alcohol use. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that intervention-induced changes in parenting were linked with changes in responsive,supportive parent,child relationships and youth self-control. [source]

    Linking impulsivity to dysfunctional thought control and insomnia: a structural equation model

    JOURNAL OF SLEEP RESEARCH, Issue 1-Part-I 2010
    Summary According to cognitive models of insomnia, excessive mental activity at bedtime may be viewed as an important impediment to the process of falling asleep. A further assumption of these models is that ,cognitive arousal' may be perpetuated and exacerbated by counterproductive strategies of thought management. As yet, little is known about factors that may predispose people to rely on these strategies when confronted with thoughts that keep them awake at night. This study examined the relations between impulsivity, use of different thought-control strategies and insomnia severity. A sample of 391 university students completed the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale, the Thought Control Questionnaire Insomnia-Revised and the Insomnia Severity Index. Correlation analyses revealed that two facets of impulsivity (urgency and lack of perseverance), two strategies of thought control (aggressive suppression and worry) and insomnia severity were positively associated. Follow-up structural equation modeling analyses showed that the two mentioned thought-control strategies mediated the effects of the two facets of impulsivity on sleep problems. These findings extend existing cognitive accounts of insomnia by suggesting how predisposing and perpetuating factors may be related: specific personality traits may incline individuals to respond with dysfunctional thought-control strategies to unwanted mental activity at night. [source]

    Longitudinal linkages between perceived social support and posttraumatic stress symptoms: Sequential roles of social causation and social selection

    Krzysztof Kaniasty
    The authors examined social causation and social selection explanations for the association between perceptions of social support and psychological distress. Data came from a sample of 557 victims of natural disaster in Mexico. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that social causation (more social support leading to less posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) explained the support-to-distress relationship in the earlier postdisaster phase, 6 to 12 months after the impact. Both causal mechanisms emerged as significant paths in the midpoint of the study (12 and 18 months). Only social selection (more PTSD leading to less social support) accounted for the support-to-distress relationship at 18 to 24 months after the event. Interpersonal and social dynamics of disasters may explain why these two contrasting causal mechanisms emerged over time. [source]

    Resiliency among individuals with childhood sexual abuse and HIV: Perspectives on addressing sexual trauma

    Nalini Tarakeshwar
    This study examined how resiliency (represented by optimism, social support, religiosity, and finding growth and meaning), within the context of perceived impact of sexual trauma and HIV-related stress, was linked to perspectives on addressing trauma among individuals (N = 266) with HIV and childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that lower resiliency and greater HIV-related stress were related to negative feelings about addressing trauma, whereas greater resiliency and higher perceived impact of sexual trauma were associated with positive feelings about addressing trauma. Findings suggest that multiple factors influence perspectives on addressing trauma among individuals with HIV and CSA, and that resiliency might influence these attitudes. [source]

    Empathic accuracy and accommodative behavior among newly married couples

    Shelley Dean Kilpatrick
    An established method for assessing empathic accuracy was used to examine the consequences of accurate understanding during the early years of marriage. Structural equation modeling analyses simultaneously examined within,individual and across,partner associations among variables (actor effects and partner effects). During the first year of marriage, actor effects and partner effects were observed for two presumed consequences of empathic accuracy,accommodative behavior and couple well,being. Actor effects, partner effects, or both were observed for three possible determinants of empathic accuracy,commitment level, partner perspective,taking, and psychological femininity. Levels of empathic accuracy reliably declined following the first year of marriage, as did the strength of the above,noted associations with empathic accuracy. [source]

    Beyond Preadoptive Risk: The Impact of Adoptive Family Environment on Adopted Youth's Psychosocial Adjustment

    Juye Ji
    Adopted children often are exposed to preadoptive stressors,such as prenatal substance exposure, child maltreatment, and out-of-home placements,that increase their risks for psychosocial maladjustment. Psychosocial adjustment of adopted children emerges as the product of pre- and postadoptive factors. This study builds on previous research, which fails to simultaneously assess the influences of pre- and postadoptive factors, by examining the impact of adoptive family sense of coherence on adoptee's psychosocial adjustment beyond the effects of preadoptive risks. Using a sample of adoptive families (n = 385) taking part in the California Long Range Adoption Study, structural equation modeling analyses were performed. Results indicate a significant impact of family sense of coherence on adoptees' psychosocial adjustment and a considerably less significant role of preadoptive risks. The findings suggest the importance of assessing adoptive family's ability to respond to stress and of helping families to build and maintain their capacity to cope with stress despite the sometimes fractious pressures of adoption. [source]

    Hypersensitivity to Social Rejection and Perceived Stress as Mediators between Attachment Anxiety and Future Burnout: A Prospective Analysis

    APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
    Sigalit Ronen
    Drawing on Sociometer Theory, the current study examined whether the tendency to focus on and worry about social rejection at the workplace can predict stress and burnout. Data were collected at two time points from 231 hotel employees. Prospective-longitudinal design, structural equation modeling analyses revealed that participants' hypersensitivity to social rejection at the workplace predicted an increase in stress and in burnout across the 1 month of participation. Furthermore, the findings revealed that hypersensitivity to social rejection fully mediated the link between attachment anxiety and future stress and that hypersensitivity to social rejection and stress fully mediated the link between attachment anxiety and future burnout. Approximately 64 per cent of the variance in future burnout was explained by these variables. The results demonstrate the significant role social evaluative stressors play in the development of stress responses at the workplace. S'appuyant sur la sociometer theory, la présente étude examine si la tendance à se préoccuper et s'inquiéter du rejet social sur le lieu de travail peut prédire le stress et l'épuisement. Les données ont été collectées par deux fois auprès de 231 employés d'hôtellerie. Le traitement des études longitudinales par des analyses de modélisation par équations structurelles révèle que l'hypersensibilité des sujets au rejet sur le lieu de travail contribue à une augmentation du stress et de l'épuisement au cours du mois de participation. Les conclusions soulignent que l'hypersensibilité au rejet social est totalement influencée par le lien entre anxiété, attachement et stress futur et que l'hypersensibilité au rejet social et au stress est totalement influencée par le lien entre anxiété, attachement et épuisement à venir. Approximativement 64% de la variance de l'épuisement à venir est expliqué par ces variables. Les résultats montrent le rôle significatif joué par des sources de stress liées au jugement social d'autrui dans le développement des réponses de stress sur le lieu de travail. [source]

    HRM Practices and Organizational Commitment: Test of a Mediation Model

    John P. Meyer
    This study was conducted to examine the mechanisms involved in observed relations between human resource management (HRM) practices and employee commitment. Employees (N = 281) from several organizations completed a survey that included measures of (a) the quality of HRM practices pertaining to performance appraisal, benefits, training, and career development used in their organizations, (b) procedural justice and organizational support, and (c) affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that relations between employees' evaluations of HRM practices and their affective and normative commitment were largely mediated by perceptions of organizational support and procedural justice. These findings support previous claims that, although HRM practices can be valuable tools in the establishment and maintenance of employee commitment, their effects are neither direct nor unconditional. Résumé Cette étude avait pour but d'examiner certains mécan-ismes intervenant dans le lien entre les pratiques de ges-tion des ressources humaines et l'engagement des employés. Des employés (N=281) de plusieurs organisations ont rempli un questionnaire incluant des mesures de: (a) qualité des pratiques de gestion des ressources humaines en matière d'évaluation du rendement, de compensation, deformation et de développement profes-sionnel, (b) justice en matiere de procedure et soutien organisationnel, et (c) engagement organisationnel affectif, continuation, et normatif. Des analyses basées sur la modélisation d'équations structurelles ont révélé que les liens entre l'évaluation par les employés des pratiques de gestion des ressources humaines et leur engagement affectif et normatif étaient en grande partie médiatisés par leur perception du soutien organisationnel et de justice en matière de procedure. Ces résultats corroborent le fait que malgré l'importance des pratiques de gestion des ressources humaines dans l'étab-lissement et le maintien de l'engagement des employés, leurs effets ne sont ni directs ni inconditionnels. [source]

    Race and Gender Influences on Adjustment in Early Adolescence: Investigation of an Integrative Model

    CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 5 2002
    David L. DuBois
    This research investigated an integrative model of race, and gender,related influences on adjustment during early adolescence using a sample of 350 Black and White youth. In the proposed model, prejudice/discrimination events, as well as race and gender daily hassles, contribute to a general stress context. The stress context, in turn, influences levels of emotional and behavioral problems in adjustment, with these associations mediated (in part) by intervening effects on self,esteem. Racial and gender identity similarly have positive effects on adjustment via their intermediary linkages with self,esteem. Structural equation modeling analyses provided support for all of these aspects of the model. Findings also revealed theoretically predicted differences in model parameters across race by gender subgroups. These include a direct effect of prejudice/discrimination events on emotional problems specific to Black youth and an effect of gender identity on self,esteem specific to girls. Black girls appeared to be most vulnerable to exhibiting significant adjustment difficulties as a result of the processes under investigation. [source]

    Women's Perspective on Men's Control and Aggression in Intimate Relationships

    Zeev Winstok PhD
    The relationship of men's self-control capability; their need to control their wives; and their use of verbal aggression, threats, and physical forms of aggression against their partners, as reported by women, were examined. Data were obtained from a stratified probability sample of 2,544 women drawn from the general population in Israel. Initially, structural equation modeling analysis showed that (a) men's need to control their partners and their ability to control themselves were negatively related, and were 2 aspects of personal control; (b) men's verbal aggression, threats of physical aggression and actual physical aggression toward their partners were closely related, and were 3 aspects of aggressive behavior; (c) personal control and aggressive behavior were closely related. Next, a revised model that fitted the data better, demonstrated that verbal aggression was more closely related to personal control than to aggressive behavior. Finally, a model representing co-occurrence of control and violent expressions was tested. This model yielded the best fit to the data. We concluded that control and aggression are two conceptualizations of the same phenomenon, rather than 2 distinct, yet interrelated, concepts. [source]