Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Chemistry

Kinds of Ee

  • high ee

  • Terms modified by Ee

  • ee value

  • Selected Abstracts

    Venous thromboembolism associated with cyproterone acetate in combination with ethinyloestradiol (Dianette®): observational studies using the UK General Practice Research Database,

    H. E. Seaman
    Abstract Purpose To derive risk estimates for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in women prescribed cyproterone acetate combined with ethinyloestradiol (CPA/EE), a drug licensed in the UK for the treatment of women with acne or hirsutism. CPA/EE provides a treatment option for women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). CPA/EE has been associated with an increased risk of VTE. Methods Using the General Practice Research Database, we conducted cohort and case-control analyses in all women aged 15,39 and then nested in a population of women of the same age with acne, hirsutism or PCOS. Results The incidence rate ratio (IRR) for VTE in women exposed to CPA/EE versus conventional combined oral contraceptives (COCs) was significantly raised (all women: 1.92; 95%,CI: 1.22,2.88; nested: 2.51; 95%,CI: 1.07,5.75). Using exposure to conventional COCs as the reference, the adjusted odds ratio (ORadj) for VTE associated with CPA/EE was 1.45 (95%,CI: 0.80,2.64) in all women and 1.71 (95%,CI: 0.31,9.49) in women with acne, hirsutism or PCOS. Conclusions The risk of VTE associated with CPA/EE use does not differ significantly from that associated with the use of conventional COCs. These data are reassuring and together with knowledge of the risks associated with other treatments for acne, in particular, should influence prescribing practice. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Industry responses to EU WEEE and ROHS Directives: perspectives from China

    Jieqiong Yu
    Abstract The electrical and electronics (EE) industry has come under increasing pressure to adopt extended producer responsibility (EPR) policies through the introduction of the European Union's Directives on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) and the Restriction of Use of Certain Hazardous Substances (ROHS). Based on the findings of 50 questionnaires and in-depth interviews with China's EE manufacturers, this paper investigates the perception of and readiness of companies for implementation of WEEE and ROHS in China. It identifies key difficulties encountered by manufacturers in fulfilling the requirements and evaluates the effectiveness of these two directives in promoting environmental reform. The findings indicate that the extent of companies' responses largely depends on their market structure and client requirements. Supply chain management, raw material testing and cost implications appear to be key challenges in addressing issues surrounding the directives. There is little evidence to suggest that these directives have effectively driven China's EE manufacturers towards systematic eco-design. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]

    Subnormal energy expenditure: a putative causal factor in the weight gain induced by treatment of hyperthyroidism

    R. Jacobsen
    Aims:, To examine the causes of weight gain occurring as an adverse effect of treatment of hyperthyroidism. Methods:, We measured 24-h energy expenditure (EE), body composition and spontaneous physical activity (SPA) in eight patients before and 1 year after treatment of hyperthyroidism was initiated, and eight controls. Results:, One year after initiation of treatment thyrotropin was normalized, thyroid hormones had fallen to the lower end of the reference range and fat mass had increased by 3.5 kg (p < 0.001). Twenty-four hour EE adjusted for fat-free mass (FFM) was 15% higher in hyperthyroid patients before treatment than in controls (p = 0.003), and treatment decreased 24-h EE by 1.9 MJ/day (p = 0.001). After treatment, 24-h EE, adjusted for FFM, was similar to the controls. Multiple regression analyses showed that the suppressed EE could partly be attributed to an iatrogenic suppression of thyroid hormones, resulting in lower sleeping EE. Twenty-four hour SPA was normal in the hyperthyroid state, but decreased after treatment by 21% (p = 0.045), to a level not significantly different, but still below that of the controls. Conclusions:, The study suggests that weight gain during treatment of hyperthyroidism might be due to subnormal levels of EE and SPA caused by a suppression of the thyroid hormone to a level in the lower end of the normal range. [source]

    Eosinophilic esophagitis: an update

    D. D. Ferguson
    SUMMARY., Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is a disease that is being recognized with increasing frequency. In children it is responsible for feeding disorders, vomiting, reflux symptoms and abdominal pain and in adults it causes dysphagia and esophageal food impactions. The diagnosis requires the histologic finding of > 20 eosinophils per high powered field in esophageal squamous mucosa. The most common treatment regimens in children and adults involve the ingestion of topical corticosteroids. Symptomatic relapse after one treatment course is common, and many patients require repeated courses of treatment. The long-term prognosis of EE is largely unknown. [source]

    Long circulating nanoparticles of etoposide using PLGA-MPEG and PLGA-pluronic block copolymers: characterization, drug-release, blood-clearance, and biodistribution studies

    Khushwant S. Yadav
    Abstract The anti-leukemic drug, etoposide (ETO), has variable oral bioavailability ranging from 24,74% with a short terminal half-life of 1.5,h i.v. necessitating continuous infusion for 24,34,h for the treatment of leukemia. In the present study, etoposide-loaded PLGA-based surface-modified nanoparticles (NPs) with long circulation were designed as an alternative to continuous i.v. administration. PLGA-mPEG and PLGA-PLURONIC copolymers were synthesised and used to prepared ETO-loaded NPs by high-pressure homogenization. The mean particle size of ETO-loaded PLGA-MPEG nanoparticles was 94.02±3.4,nm, with an Entrapment Efficiency (EE) of 71.2% and zeta potential value of ,6.9±1.3,mV. ETO-loaded PLGA-pluronic nanoparticles had a mean particle size of 148.0±2.1,nm, an EE of 73.12±2.7%, and zeta potential value of ,21.5±1.6,mV. In vitro release of the pure drug was complete within 4,h, but was sustained up to 7 days from PLGA-mPEG nanoparticles and for 5 days from PLGA-pluronic nanoparticles. Release was first order and followed non-Fickian diffusion kinetics in both instances. ETO and ETO-loaded PLGA nanoparticles labeled with 99mTc were used in blood clearance studies in rats where the two coated NPs, 99mTc- ETO-PLGA-PLU NP and 99mTc- ETO-PLGA-mPEG NP, were found to be available in higher concentrations in the circulation as compared to the pure drug. Biodistribution studies in mice showed that ETO-loaded PLGA-MPEG NP and PLGA-PLURONIC NP had reduced uptake by the RES due to their steric barrier properties and were present in the circulation for a longer time. Moreover, the NPs had greater uptake in bone and brain where concentration of the free drug, ETO, was negligible. Drug delivered from these NPs could result in a single i.v. injection that would release the drug for a number of days, which would be potentially beneficial and in better control of leukemia therapy. Drug Dev Res 71: 228,239, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Assessment of Residual Viability by Enoximone Echocardiography in Patients with Previous Myocardial Infarction Correlation with Positron Emission Tomographic Studies and Functional Follow-Up

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 5 2010
    Fei Lu M.D.
    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate enoximone echocardiography (EE) for the identification of residual myocardial viability in postinfarction patients. Findings obtained during EE were compared with those acquired by myocardial uptake of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and functional follow-up results. Methods: Twenty-five patients underwent EE and PET 18F-FDG studies. An asynergic segment was considered as having contractile enhancement when the wall motion score decreased by ,1 grade during EE and was defined as viable if 18F-FDG uptake score was ,2 grade on PET. Results: Of 293 dysfunctional segments at baseline, 139 (47%) were viable by PET criteria; 117 (40%) had contractile enhancement induced by enoximone (P = 0.07). Agreement between EE and PET was found in 75% of involved segments (K = 0.46, P < 0.001). The majority of discrepancies (65%, P < 0.01) were mainly due to discordant segments in which PET revealed evidence of 18F-FDG uptake but EE showed no change in wall motion. In 179 revascularized segments, negative predictive value for functional recovery of both tests reached the same value (89% for both), whereas positive predictive value was 82% for EE and 68% for PET, respectively (P < 0.05). Sensitivity was 85% for EE and 88% for PET (P = ns); specificity was 87% and 70%, respectively (P < 0.01). Conclusions: EE yields a fair concordance with PET study. Compared with PET, despite a similar negative accuracy, EE shows a greater specificity for prediction of function recovery after revascularization. (Echocardiography 2010;27:544-551) [source]


    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 5 2004
    C. Cevik
    Thromboembolism is the major chronic risk for patients with mechanical prosthetic heart valves. Although optimal oral anticoagulantion is the key determinant for embolic events (EE) in these patients; other factors also contribute to this complication. We studied the prevalence and determinants of embolic events in patients with mitral prosthetic heart valves undergoing transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). 210 patients (86 male and 124 female, mean age 45.1 +/, 9.6 years) underwent a TEE study for evaluation of prosthetic valve functions. Clinical and TEE findings of the patients were as follows: Atrial fibrillation in 132 (%62) patients, prosthetic valve thrombus in 55 (%26) suboptimal INR (INR < 1.8) in 61 (%29) pts, left atrial spontenous echocardiographic contrast (SEC) in 31 (%14) patients, paraprosthetic moderete-severe mitral regurgitation (MR) in 28 (%13), left atrial (LA) and/or left atrial appendix (LAA) thrombus in 41 (%19), LA and/or LAA outflow velocities <0.25 m/sn in 21 patiens (%10), left atrial diameter >6 cm in 47 (%22). 72 patients had a history of EE in the previous 6 months (%34). In no patients were there any EE in the presence of paraprosthetic moderate to severe MR. Both with univariate and multivariate analysis presence of prosthetic valve and LA and/or LAA thrombus, absence of paraprosthetic moderete-severe MR, suboptimal INR, atrial fibrillation were found to be independent predictors for embolic events. Conclusions: Although the presence of prosthetic valve and LA and/or LAA thrombus, suboptimal INR, and AF predict EE, clinical and echocardiographic data support the protective effect of paraprosthetic moderate to severe MR against EE in pts with mitral prosthetic valves. [source]

    Ethinyl Estradiol, Not Progestogens, Reduces Lamotrigine Serum Concentrations

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 9 2005
    Arne Reimers
    Summary:,Purpose: To study the interaction between lamotrigine (LTG) and hormonal contraception. Methods: LTG serum concentrations of female patients using either no hormonal contraception (n = 18), an ethinyl estradiol (EE)-containing (n = 11), or a progestogen (PG)-only,containing compound (n = 16) were analyzed. Patients were recruited prospectively, and blood samples were drawn during drug fasting and at steady-state conditions. Comedication with enzyme inducers, valproate, topiramate, or sertraline was not allowed. Some patients changed groups and thus served as their own controls. Samples were analyzed by a gas chromatography/ mass spectroscopy method. The Mann,Whitney U test was used for statistical comparison of the groups. Results: The LTG serum concentration-to-dose ratio (CDR), expressed as (mg/L)/(mg/d) was significantly lower in women using EE than in the control group (mean ± SD, 0.010 ± 0.004 vs. 0.017 ± 0.006; p = 0.003). The CDR in women using PG was 0.02 ± 0.007, which was not statistically different from controls. No difference was found in CDR between women using either oral, topical, or parenteral PG. Five women switched from the control to the EE group and experienced a considerable reduction in CDR. An increase of the CDR toward control level was seen in the two women who changed from EE to PG. Conclusions: It is the EE component of oral contraceptives that interacts with LTG. The PG-only compounds did not alter LTG serum concentrations in this study. These findings should be considered when counselling women with epilepsy in the childbearing ages. [source]

    Appraisal of caregiving burden, expressed emotion and psychological distress in families of people with eating disorders: A systematic review

    Maria Jose Zabala
    Abstract The purpose of this review is to appraise the literature regarding psychological distress, burden and expressed emotion (EE) in caregivers of people with eating disorders (EDs). Electronic databases were searched up until October 2008. Selected studies contained carers of people with ED and employed one measure of burden, EE or psychological distress. Twenty studies were identified measuring psychological distress burden and EE. Most of the studies examined these features in families of anorexic patients. The majority of the studies found high levels of psychological distress, burden and EE in this population. Only few studies included a control group. Carers of people with ED presented high levels of psychological distress and burden. ED carers tend to have levels of EE resembling that found in families of depressed patients, rather than schizophrenic patients. There is some evidence (particularly for EE) that these factors can impact the outcome of ED. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

    Collaborative care between professionals and non-professionals in the management of eating disorders: a description of workshops focussed on interpersonal maintaining factors

    J. Treasure
    Abstract The aim of this paper is to describe the content and processes involved in a series of workshops for carers of people with an eating disorder. These workshops were designed to equip carers with the skills and knowledge needed to be a ,coach' and help the person with an eating disorder break free from the traps that block recovery. The first hurdle is to overcome the unhelpful patterns of interpersonal processes between the person with an eating disorder and their carers. In both naturalistic studies and randomised controlled trials (RCT), family factors have been implicated either as moderators or mediators of outcome. High levels of expressed emotion (EE), misattributions about the illness or unhelpful methods of engaging with the eating disorder symptoms contribute to this effect. These workshops aim to reduce EE such as over protection. Carers are introduced to the transtheoretical model of change and the principles of motivational interviewing so that they can help rather than hinder change. They learn how to use reflective listening to reduce confrontation and how to sidestep resistance. Carers learn what is needed to help their daughter change by reflecting on the processes involved in changing their own behaviours in relationship with the person with eating disorders. Once they recognise that they may need to change then they can use their skills, information and insight to help change eating disorder symptoms. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

    Growth hormone and changes in energy balance in growth hormone deficient adults

    D. Deepak
    ABSTRACT Background, Adults with growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) have an adverse body composition with an increased prevalence of obesity. It is not known whether growth hormone replacement (GHR) results in alterations in energy intake (EI) and/or energy expenditure (EE). The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of GHR on EI and EE. Materials and methods, Nineteen hypopituitary adults (14 males, 5 females, mean age 46·2 years) with severe GHD (peak GH response to glucagon , 9 mU L,1) were studied. All patients self-injected recombinant human GH starting with 0·3 mg s.c. daily. The following were measured before and following 6 months of stable maintenance of GHR: food intake during a test meal, appetite ratings, resting EE (indirect calorimetry) and voluntary physical activity (accelerometry). Results, GHR nearly doubled voluntary physical activity (mean activity units 3319 vs. 1881, P = 0·007) and improved quality of life score (mean score 9·1 vs. 16·5, P < 0·0001). Subjects reported higher fasting hunger ratings (mean 64·8 vs. 49·6, P = 0·02) but ad libitum energy intake remained unchanged. Eating behavioural traits were favourably altered with lower disinhibition (mean 6·0 vs. 7·2, P = 0·02) and lower susceptibility to hunger ratings (4·6 vs. 6·8, P = 0·001) after GHR. Additionally, GHR did not result in significant changes in resting EE, body weight and body mass index. Conclusions, GHR in AGHD significantly improves voluntary physical activity and quality of life. Following GHR, subjects experience greater ,state' (physiological) hunger, reductions in eating disinhibition and hunger susceptibility, but no effects on calorie intake or macronutrient choice were detected. [source]

    Cultural Variability in the Manifestation of Expressed Emotion

    FAMILY PROCESS, Issue 2 2009
    We examined the distribution of expressed emotion (EE) and its indices in a sample of 224 family caregivers of individuals with schizophrenia pooled from 5 studies, 3 reflecting a contemporary sample of Mexican Americans (MA 2000, N=126), 1 of an earlier study of Mexican Americans (MA 1980, N=44), and the other of an earlier study of Anglo Americans (AA, N=54). Chi-square and path analyses revealed no significant differences between the 2 MA samples in rates of high EE, critical comments, hostility, and emotional over-involvement (EOI). Only caregiver warmth differed for the 2 MA samples; MA 1980 had higher warmth than MA 2000. Significant differences were consistently found between the combined MA samples and the AA sample; AAs had higher rates of high EE, more critical comments, less warmth, less EOI, and a high EE profile comprised more of criticism/hostility. We also examined the relationship of proxy measures of acculturation among the MA 2000 sample. The findings support and extend Jenkins' earlier observations regarding the cultural variability of EE for Mexican Americans. Implications are discussed regarding the cross-cultural measurement of EE and the focus of family interventions. RESUMEN Examinamos la distribución de emoción expresada y sus índices en una muestra de 224 cuidadores parientes de personas con esquizofrenia tomadas de 5 estudios, tres que reflejaban una muestra contemporánea de personas méxico-estadounidenses (ME 2000, N=126), una de un estudio anterior de méxico-estadounidenses (ME 1980, N=44, Karno et al., 1987) y la otra de un estudio anterior de angloamericanos (AA, N=54, Vaughn et al., 1984). La distribución ji-cuadrado y los análisis de pautas no revelaron diferencias significativas entre las dos muestras de méxico-estadounidenses en cuanto a los índices de alta emoción expresada, comentarios críticos, hostilidad y sobreimplicación emocional. Solo la calidez de los cuidadores fue distinta en las dos muestras de méxico-estadounidenses; el grupo ME 1980 demostró mayor calidez que el grupo ME 2000. Se encontraron sistemáticamente diferencias considerables entre las dos muestras de méxico-estadounidenses y la muestra de angloamericanos; los angloamericanos demostraron índices más altos de alta emoción expresada, más comentarios críticos, menos calidez, menos sobreimplicación emocional y un perfil de alta emoción expresada compuesto mayormente por crítica y hostilidad. También examinamos la relación de los cálculos aproximados de aculturación entre la muestra ME 2000. Los resultados respaldan y amplían las observaciones anteriores de Jenkins (1991) con respecto a la variabilidad cultural de emoción expresada en los méxico-estadounidenses. Se comentan las implicaciones con respecto a la evaluación intercultural de emoción expresada y al enfoque de las intervenciones familiares. Palabras clave: Emoción expresada, cultura, méxico-estadounidenses, sobreimplicación emocional, esquizofrenia, cuidadores parientes [source]

    Expressed Emotion Attitudes and Individual Psychopathology Among the Relatives of Bipolar Patients

    FAMILY PROCESS, Issue 4 2002
    Tina R. Goldstein M.A.
    This study investigated the relationships between expressed emotion (EE) and individual psychopathology among 82 biological and non-biological relatives of 66 patients with bipolar I disorder. Relatives' psychopathology was assessed via the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R, Patient Version (SCID-P) and the General Behavior Inventory (GBI), a self-report measure of lifetime subsyndromal mood disturbances. We hypothesized that relatives who held high-EE critical, hostile, and/or overinvolved attitudes toward their bipolar family member, as measured via the Camberwell Family Interview, would be more likely to have DSM-III-R Axis I diagnoses on the SCID, as well as more mood and temperamental disturbances on the GBI, than those who held low-EE attitudes. The findings did not support a significant relationship between overall EE status and psychopathology in family members. However, relatives without significant Axis I pathology scored significantly higher than those with Axis I pathology on one measure of EE, emotional overinuolvement. The findings are discussed with reference to explanations for the genesis of high-EE attitudes. [source]

    Altered motor activity, exploration and anxiety in heterozygous neuregulin 1 mutant mice: implications for understanding schizophrenia

    T. Karl
    Human genetic studies have shown that neuregulin 1 (NRG1) is a potential susceptibility gene for schizophrenia. Nrg1 influences various neurodevelopmental processes, which are potentially related to schizophrenia. The neurodevelopmental theory of schizophrenia suggests that interactions between genetic and environmental factors are responsible for biochemical alterations leading to schizophrenia. To investigate these interactions and to match experimental design with the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, we applied a comprehensive behavioural phenotyping strategy for motor activity, exploration and anxiety in a heterozygous Nrg1 transmembrane domain mutant mouse model (Nrg1 HET) using different housing conditions and age groups. We observed a locomotion- and exploration-related hyperactive phenotype in Nrg1 HETs. Increased age had a locomotion- and exploration-inhibiting effect, which was significantly attenuated in mutant mice. Environmental enrichment (EE) had a stimulating influence on locomotion and exploration. The impact of EE was more pronounced in Nrg1 hypomorphs. Our study also showed a moderate task-specific anxiolytic-like phenotype for Nrg1 HETs, which was influenced by external factors. The behavioural phenotype detected in heterozygous Nrg1 mutant mice is not specific to schizophrenia per se, but the increased sensitivity of mutant mice to exogenous factors is consistent with the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and the neurodevelopmental theory. Our findings reinforce the importance of carefully controlling experimental designs for external factors and of comprehensive, integrative phenotyping strategies. Thus, Nrg1 HETs may, in combination with other genetic and drug models, help to clarify pathophysiological mechanisms behind schizophrenia. [source]

    Locational Equilibria in Weberian Agglomeration

    Dean M. Hanink
    A simple Weberian agglomeration is developed and then extended as an innovative fixed-charged, colocation model over a large set of locational possibilities. The model is applied to cases in which external economies (EE) arise due to colocation alone and also cases in which EE arise due to city size. Solutions to the model are interpreted in the context of contemporary equilibrium analysis, which allows Weberian agglomeration to be interpreted in a more general way than in previous analyses. Within that context, the Nash points and Pareto efficient points in the location patterns derived in the model are shown to rarely coincide. The applications consider agglomeration from two perspectives: one is the colocation behavior of producers as the agents of agglomeration and the other is the interaction between government and those agents in the interest of agglomeration policy. Extending the analysis to games, potential Pareto efficiency and Hicks optimality are considered with respect to side payments between producers and with respect to appropriate government incentives toward agglomeration. [source]

    Matrine improves 17,-ethinyl estradiol-induced acute cholestasis in rats

    HEPATOLOGY RESEARCH, Issue 11 2009
    Ying Zhao
    Aim:, To explore the effects of matrine (MT) on acute intrahepatic cholestasis induced by 17,-ethinyl estradiol (EE) in rats. Methods:, Acute intrahepatic cholestasis in rats were induced by EE, and the effects of MT on acute intrahepatic cholestasis were explored and compared with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) by serum biochemical determination and bile excretion experiments. Results:, The serum biochemical and bile biochemical results indicated that MT and UDCA had notable hepatoprotective effects by counteracting cholestasis induced by EE. The bile flow and the bile excretion of glycocholic acid (GC, a substrate of bile salt export pump [Bsep]), ketoprofen glucuronide (KPG) and rhodamine 123 (Rh123, a substrate of multidrug resistance protein 1 [MDR1]) decreased by EE, were significantly improved after administration of MT. Conclusion:, MT exhibited potential protection against EE-induced acute intrahepatic cholestasis. [source]

    Histological grading of invasive breast carcinoma , a simplification of existing methods in a large conservation series with long-term follow-up

    HISTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 6 2009
    Jeremy St J Thomas
    Aims:, To assess the validity of grading in the Edinburgh Breast Conservation Series; a consecutive cohort of 1812 early breast cancer patients treated by breast conservation and radiotherapy between 1981 and 1998 in a single specialist centre with ,9 years' follow-up and full staging data. Methods and results:, A single pathologist (J.St.J.T) graded 1650 cases using the Elston and Ellis method (EE) with particular reference to the component data: acinar differentiation, nuclear pleomorphism and mitotic counts. The original method was then compared with binary scoring of the same components and the relationship to prognosis reassessed. EE grades and individual grade components were prognostic (P < 0.0001) with 10-year cause-specific survival of 95.6%, 86.4% and 74.7% for EE grades 1, 2 and 3, respectively. A binary scoring of grade components produces four groups, splitting EE grade 2 tumours into two groups with different outcomes , 10-year survival rates for the four revised grades were 96.0%, 89.0%, 79.7% and 75.4%, respectively. Conclusions:, Existing grading methodology is fully applicable in the narrower context of a conservation series but can be simplified. Subdivision of EE grade 2 into a true intermediate prognosis group and a second group with a worse prognosis also adds benefit. [source]

    Assessing expressed emotion: comparing Camberwell Family Interview and Five-minute Speech Sample ratings for mothers of children with behaviour problems

    R. Calam
    Abstract Little is known of the concordance between ratings of expressed emotion (EE) derived from the Camberwell Family Interview (CFI) and Five-minute Speech Sample (FMSS) for parents of children with behaviour problems. Concordance between CFI and FMSS ratings of EE was assessed prior to intervention and compared to parent-rated behaviour after intervention, at follow-up, 12 months later. Female primary caretakers of 75 children (3,10 years) showing behavioural difficulties were interviewed using FMSS and CFI. Interviews were coded independently by criterion-standard raters. Using CFI, 57 families were classified high EE, and 18 low EE. Using FMSS, 65 families were classified high EE and 10 low EE. 55/75 pairs of ratings (73%) were the same (high, n = 51: low, n = 4) and 20 mothers (27%) were allocated different EE status (Kappa = 0.14, n.s.). The FMSS ratings at initial interview appeared more closely related to behaviour rating at follow-up than CFI. Further investigation is required to establish comparability of CFI and FMSS results for carers of children. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Brief measure of expressed emotion: internal consistency and stability over time

    Seija Sandberg Consultant, Senior Lecturer
    Abstract The study examined three methodological aspects of expressed emotion (EE) as assessed in the course of PACE (Psychosocial Assessment of Childhood Experiences) interviews with a parent. In a sample of 87 children, aged 6,13 years, enrolled in a prospective study examining the role of stress on the course of asthma, EE was assessed at three time points, 9 months apart. A high degree of agreement was found among the three concurrent measures of negative and positive EE (kappas from 0.74 to 0.97, and from 0.45 to 0.88, respectively; p , 0.0001 in all instances). The temporal stability of all measures was lower, although statistically significant in all but 2 instances (kappas from 0.19 to 0.59, and from 0.11 to 0.39, respectively). The temporal stability across measures, as well as across interviewers and over time, was broadly similar (kappas from 0.21 to 0.56 for negative EE, and from 0.09 to 0.38 for positive EE, with all but three of the 36 statistically significant). The findings provide support for the underlying assumptions of the PACE-EE and show the utility of measures based on just very brief periods of non-directive interviewing, making them practical in a wide range of studies with EE just one of a larger set of measures. Copyright © 2003 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

    Digestibility and nitrogen retention of diets containing different levels of fibre in local (Mong Cai), F1 (Mong Cai × Yorkshire) and exotic (Landrace × Yorkshire) growing pigs in Vietnam

    N. T. Len
    Summary Total tract digestibility and nitrogen retention of three diets containing different levels of fibre [200, 260 and 320 g/kg neutral detergent fibre (NDF) in dry matter] were determined in three breeds of growing pig at an initial age of approximately 3.5 months. The breeds were local (Mong Cai, MC), F1 crossbred (MC × Yorkshire) and exotic (Landrace × Yorkshire, LY), allocated at random within breed (block) to double 3 × 3 Latin squares. The main fibrous ingredients of the experimental diets were rice bran, cassava residue meal and non-dehulled groundnut cake meal. Digestibility of organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), NDF, crude fibre, gross energy (GE) and ether extract (EE) decreased as the level of dietary NDF increased (p < 0.001). The r2 values for the relationship between NDF level and digestibility of OM, CP, GE and EE were 83%, 83%, 80% and 82% respectively. On average, an increase in NDF content of 1% unit resulted in a decrease in OM, CP, GE and EE digestibility of 0.67%, 0.75%, 0.50% and 0.42% units respectively. Digestibility of energy and nutrients was the highest for MC and the lowest for LY (p < 0.01), with intermediate values for F1. There was a negative effect of NDF level on nitrogen (N) retained as a proportion of intake (p < 0.05). Nitrogen retention and utilization were significantly higher (p < 0.001) for LY than for MC and F1 pigs. [source]

    Comparison of feed preference and digestion of three different commercial diets for cats and ferrets

    S. Gy.
    Summary Diet preference and digestibility experiments were conducted using a total of 10 cats and 10 ferrets. The composition of the three different kinds of dry cat feed was as follows (each data are given in dry matter, DM): (i) normal diet (N): 95.3% DM, 33.7% crude protein (CP), 20.4% ether extract (EE), 37.6% nitrogen-free extract (NFE); (ii) ,light diet' (L): 94.2% DM, 31.6% CP, 10.7% EE, 52.2% NFE; (iii) ,veterinary diet' (D): 94.57% DM, 38.7% CP, 9.6% EE, 47.2% NFE. During the period of the preference test, the average daily dry matter intake (calculated with the mean of the three diets: 94.7% DM) was 98.0, 15.0 and 16.7 g DM in cats and 25.0, 7.3 and 8.1 g DM in ferrets. The preference rates of the three different diets, expressed in percentage of their total consumption, were as follows: 60.4% N (54.4 g DM), 12.4% L (12.1 g DM) and 27.2% D (26.6 g DM) in cats, and 46.2% N (11.6 g DM), 29.9% L (7.5 g DM) and 23.9% D (6.0 g DM) in ferrets. This indicates that cats and ferrets have a clear preference for diets of higher fat content. In all three diets, the digestibility of CP was significantly (p < 0.05) lower (70.1 ± 5.4 vs. 75.9 ± 5.8) while that of EE was significantly (p < 0.05) higher (95.6 ± 1.5 vs. 89.4 ± 5.3) in ferrets than in cats. The average digestible/metabolizable energy (DE/ME) ratio of feeds turned to be 95.6% for cats and 90.6% for the ferrets. From the data one can conclude that the ferret cannot be used as a model animal for cats either for preference or digestibility studies. [source]

    Encapsulation efficiency and release behaviors of bovine serum albumin loaded in alginate microspheres prepared by spraying

    Jie Zhang
    Abstract Spraying and spraying with an electrostatic field (SEF) were employed to prepare alginate microspheres for delivering proteins, especially for intestinal digestive enzymes and cytokines. The encapsulation efficiency (EE) of a model protein [bovine serum albumin (BSA)] at a pH value lower than the isoelectric point was 20% higher than that at a natural pH. Moreover, for the microspheres prepared by SEF, EE improved significantly with increasing electric voltage. The interactions between BSA and the alginate microspheres were identified with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The release profiles in vitro showed a controlled and pH-responsive release manner for the encapsulated BSA. A first-order release equation was postulated and modified to describe the release kinetics with an obviously initial burst release related to the eroded porous matrix. The equation fit the release data well when the pH value and composition of the release media were changed. The analysis of the release kinetics indicated that the drug release rate was in an inverse ratio to the diameter of the microspheres. Increasing the gas flow rate or electric voltage decreased both the mean diameter and size distribution of the microspheres significantly and enhanced the release rate of loaded drugs from alginate microspheres. Sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that BSA kept its structural integrity during the encapsulation and release process. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]

    Experimental problems in the application of UV/visible based methods as the quantification tool for the entrapped/released insulin from PLGA carriers

    V.L. Lassalle
    Abstract BACKGROUND: Controlled release of medicaments from biodegradable polymers remains the most convenient way for their sustained release. Although a number of articles have been published, experimental work involving the preparation of polymer-based carriers and release procedures are not described with sufficient level of detail to allow other researchers to reproduce the experiments and to compare published results with their own. In this contribution the experimental background of the entrapment and release of insulin from PLGA carriers is described and the problems found at each step related to UV/Visible method used to quantify them are addressed in detail. RESULTS: The quantification of entrapped insulin by UV/visible methods was affected by aggregation. The design of the release experiment influenced the results regarding the entrapment efficiency (EE) and the maximum percentage of released insulin. It was also found that the presence of colloidal polymeric particles, insufficient centrifugation times and the kind of solvent used in the release test might lead to mistakes in the percentage of liberated insulin when UV/visible based methods are employed. CONCLUSIONS: This contribution demonstrates that serious discrepancies in the EE and percentage of released protein may arise if some key experimental factors are not taken into account. Therefore, the analysis presented here tries to point out important aspects of this topic currently not reported, unnoticed or not properly analyzed in the open literature. The results are useful for the entrapment of any protein on any polymeric device using UV/visible based methods to quantify them. Copyright © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Affective reactivity in response to criticism in remitted bipolar disorder: a laboratory analog of expressed emotion,

    Amy K. Cuellar
    Abstract Potential mechanisms to explain the relationship between Expressed Emotion (EE) and poor outcome within bipolar disorder are poorly understood. One possibility is that people with bipolar disorder have difficulty regulating their affect in response to criticism. The present study examined whether participants with bipolar disorder were more affectively dysregulated than control participants when presented with a criticism by a confederate. There was a trend for people with bipolar disorder to react more negatively to the criticism, but there was also evidence that they recovered as quickly as controls. Exploratory analyses found that female gender, the perception of the criticism as more negative, being disabled, and having fewer positive relationships predicted greater reactivity to criticism among people with bipolar disorder. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol 65:1,17, 2009. [source]

    Family-focused treatment for bipolar disorder in adults and youth

    Chad D. Morris
    Levels of familial expressed emotion during an acute episode are consistently associated with rates of recurrence among bipolar patients. This article briefly reviews the evidence for expressed emotion (EE) as a prognostic indicator and then illustrates family-focused treatment (FFT) with adults and adolescents suffering from bipolar disorder. FFT is a time-limited, modularized treatment consisting of psychoeducation, communication enhancement training, and problem-solving skills. Controlled trials indicate that FFT is an efficacious adjunct to pharmacotherapy for patients with bipolar disorder. We describe its recent application to early onset bipolar patients and include a clinical vignette. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol: In Session 63: 433,445, 2007. [source]

    Analysis of Headspace Volatile and Oxidized Volatile Compounds in DHA-enriched Fish Oil on Accelerated Oxidative Storage

    H. Lee
    ABSTRACT: Oxidative stability of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and volatile and oxidized volatile compounds in 2 types of DHA-enriched fish oil, triacylglycerol (TG) and ethyl ester (EE), were studied during storage at 80 °C with aeration. The rate of DHA autoxidation was higher than that of EPA. DHA in EE form was more susceptible to autoxidation than in TG form. Thirty-one volatile compounds were identified in EE and 23 volatile compounds in TG. (E)-2-pentenal, 2-(1-pentenyl) furan, and (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal were commonly detected as oxidized volatile compounds from TG and EE fish oil. These volatile oxidized compounds might be formed mainly from the oxidation of DHA and EPA, the main fatty acids of the oil. [source]

    Mothers' expressed emotion towards children with and without intellectual disabilities

    A. Beck
    Objectives To identify factors associated with maternal expressed emotion (EE) towards their child with intellectual disability (ID). Design and method A total of 33 mothers who had a child with ID and at least one child without disabilities between the ages of 4 and 14 years participated in the study. Mothers completed self-assessment questionnaires which addressed their sense of parenting competence, beliefs about child-rearing practices, and their reports of behavioural and emotional problems of their child with ID. Telephone interviews were conducted to assess maternal EE towards the child with ID and towards a sibling using the Five Minute Speech Sample (FMSS; Magana et al. 1986), and also to assess the adaptive behaviour of the child with ID using the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scale (VABS; Sparrow et al. 1984). Results Mothers with high EE towards their child with ID were more satisfied with their parenting ability, and their children had more behaviour problems. Analysis of differential maternal parenting, through comparisons of EE towards their two children, showed that mothers were more negative towards their child with ID for all domains of the FMSS except dissatisfaction. Conclusions A small number of factors associated with maternal EE towards children with ID were identified. Differences in maternal EE towards their child with ID and their other child suggest that EE is child-driven rather than a general maternal characteristic. Implications of the data for future research are discussed. [source]

    Estrogens inhibit l -glutamate uptake activity of astrocytes via membrane estrogen receptor ,

    Kaoru Sato
    Abstract We investigated the effects of estrogen-related compounds including xenoestrogens [17,-estradiol (E2), 17,-ethynylestradiol (EE), diethylstilbestrol (DES), p-nonylphenol (PNP), bisphenol A (BPA) and 17,-estradiol (17,)] on l -glu uptake by cultured astrocytes via glutamate-aspartate transporter (GLAST). After 24 h treatment, E2 inhibited the l -glu uptake at 1 µm and higher concentrations. EE and DES also inhibited the l -glu uptake at 1 nm and higher concentrations. The other four compounds had no effect. The effects of E2, EE and DES were completely blocked by 10 nm of ICI182 780 (ICI). ,-Estradiol 17-hemisuccinate : bovine serum albumin (E2-BSA), a membrane-impermeable conjugate of E2, also elicited the inhibition of l -glu uptake at 1 nm and higher concentrations, and the effect was blocked by ICI. 16,-Iodo-17,-estradiol (16,IE2), an estrogen receptor , (ER,) selective ligand, revealed an inhibitory effect at 10 nm, while genistein, an ER, selective ligand, failed to reveal such an effect at this concentration. Western blot analysis showed that the predominant ER of cultured astrocytes was ER,. The colocalization of ER, with GLAST on plasma membranes was immunohistochemically detected in these cells. From these results, we concluded that estrogens down-regulate l -glu uptake activity of astrocytes via membrane ER,. [source]

    Measurement of resting energy expenditure in infants

    JE Bines
    Objective: The method for measurement of basal metabolic rate (BMR) using indirect calorimetry in adults is well established but is impractical in infants. Methods: In this prospective study energy expenditure was measured using indirect calorimetry in 14 infants when sleeping and when lying quietly awake. Results: Sleeping metabolic rate (SMR) was lower than energy expenditure (EE) measured in the same infants in a quiet resting state (mean difference [SD]: 297 [162] kJ/d; P < 0.005; 55 [33.4] kJ/kg per day; P < 0.005). The correlation within individuals suggests that these differences are related to the level of arousal. Awake EE, but not SMR, was significantly greater than estimated BMR using the FAO/WHO/UNU predictive equation. Conclusions: In infants, the level of arousal during measurement of EE can significantly impact on the interpretation of EE results. A standardized method for the measurement of EE in infants using indirect calorimetry is proposed. [source]

    Effective Efficiency as a Tool for Sustainable Water Resources Management,

    Naim Haie
    Abstract:, The sufficiency and usefulness of Effective Efficiency (EE) as a water resources index is shown through conceptual formulation of a generalized EE and practical applications. Two EE models are proposed: one is based on water quantity and the other on quantity and quality, with the possibility of considering water reuse (recycling) in both. These models were developed for two scales: the first is called Project EE and the second Basin EE. The latter gives the influence of the project on the water resources systems of the basin while the former does not make such connection to the whole basin. Such considerations give proper signals as to the adequacy of any intervention to increase efficiency. A crucial distinction is made between depletion and diversion water savings. Classical Efficiency (CE) models are analyzed and compared with the various EE models. CE results in values that are less than EE because of not considering water reuse and water quality in its calculation. Some authors, pointing to these problems , particularly the first problem , have advocated the use of hydrological "fractions" instead of efficiency concepts. This paper defends the use of a proper efficiency model such as EE and suggests putting an end to the use of the CE indicators. To test the models, they are applied to five cases of irrigation and city water use in the United States and Egypt. The analysis of the results demonstrates all the points mentioned above and the potential of the EE models to adequately describe the water resources efficiency and sustainability at a location. [source]