Dual Lumen (dual + lumen)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Extracorporeal photopheresis with permanent subcutaneous right atrial catheters

Hartmut Ständer
Summary Background: Adequate peripheral venous access is crucial for successful extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP). As this approach is not always feasible in older patients and patients with graft-versus-host disease, central venous catheters play an increasing role in providing long-term vascular access for ECP.However, not all catheters are able to deliver the minimum flow rate of 7 ml/min for ECP. Patients and Methods: Eight different permanent subcutaneous right atrial catheters were connected in vitro to the UVAR® -XTSŌ photopheresis system and median flow rates were determined. In addition, in vivo flow rates of patients who received ECP, using either peripheral or central venous access, were determined. Results: Hemodialysis catheters with an internal diameter of 2.0 or 1.5 × 3.5 mm and a length up to 48 cm provided in vitro flow rates of 27,28 ml/min, almost identical to a peripheral access needle. Central venous catheters with a length of over 90 cm reached flow rates below 7 ml/min and are impractical for ECP. The analysis of 308 ECP collection cycles with peripheral vascular access revealed an average flow rate of 31.5 ± 6.4 ml/min. Only permanent subcutaneous right atrial catheters made for hemodialysis provided similar flow rates (Quinton PermCath Dual Lumen) (33.7 ± 4.7 ml/min, n = 198). Conclusions: Permanent subcutaneous hemodialysis catheters with a length of maximally 48 cm achieve optimal flow rates for ECP. They represent therefore the central venous access of choice in patients with inadequate peripheral vascular access. [source]

Inadvertent postdialysis anticoagulation due to heparin line locks

Abstract Large-bore dual lumen in-dwelling venous catheters are used in hemodialysis. These catheters are usually locked with heparin after the treatment. This study addressed the underappreciated postdialysis coagulopathy that can result. Thirty-six patients were included: 7 dialyzed through arterio-venous fistulae, 29 through in-dwelling venous catheters. The latter group was further subdivided according to whether they received heparin or heparin-free dialysis. To assess the heparin lock, a full-dose heparin lock as well as a much weaker heparin lock and a citrate lock were used. To assess the coagulopathy, blood was taken 1 hr after dialysis. The activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and anti-Xa level was measured. Additionally, 6 venous catheters were removed and the amount of fluid expelled upon locking with saline was measured. Clotting from the patient group with arterio-venous fistulae was normal following dialysis. The patients with in-dwelling venous catheters and heparin locks had significantly deranged clotting; 6 out of 10 patients had abnormal APTT results. All patients with catheters, heparin-free dialysis, and heparin locks had deranged clotting (7 out of 7). The rate decreased significantly when heparinized saline was used as a lock. A subset of patients had a citrate lock rather than a heparin lock; the clotting results normalized in all but one patient. An in vitro study demonstrated immediate leakage of fluid from the end of the ports upon locking. Significant postdialysis anticoagulation can occur after dialysis, which can be attributed to the heparin line locks. This risk is considerably reduced when a citrate lock is used instead. [source]

Comparison of side hole versus non side hole high flow hemodialysis catheters

Michael G. TAL
Abstract Current literature suggests that side holes may be detrimental to dialysis catheter performance. Today, these catheters are primarily available with side holes. The purpose of this study was to compare flow rates, infection rate, and survival of side hole vs. non side hole hemodialysis catheters. Over a 16-month period patients were arbitrarily assigned to either a 14.5 F MAHURKAR® MAXIDŌ cuffed dual lumen tunneled catheter with side holes or a 14.5 F MAHURKAR MAXID cuffed dual lumen tunneled catheter without side holes ("non side hole catheters"). We performed a retrospective analysis of catheter flow rates, patency, catheter survival, and catheter-related infections. Information was gathered for the life of the catheter or up to 28 weeks. A total of 54 patients were enrolled in the study. Thirty-seven of 54 (68%) patients received a catheter with side holes for a total of 3,930 catheter days and 17/54 (32%) received a similar catheter without side holes for a total of 2,188 catheter days. Catheter infection necessitating removal of the catheter occurred in 10/37 catheters with side holes and 1/17 without side holes. Infection rates per 1,000 catheter days were 2.545 with side holes and 0.254 without side holes (p<0.001). Slightly improved catheter survival (p<0.05) was recorded with the non side hole catheters. No insertion complication (e.g., air embolization, bleeding, or kinking) occurred with either catheter. One catheter without side holes had to be repositioned 5 days after insertion because of poor flows. No significant difference was recorded in mean blood flow rates between the catheters. Results indicate reduced catheter infection rate in hemodialysis patients with the use of non side hole dual lumen tunneled cuffed catheters. [source]