Dual Inhibition (dual + inhibition)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Methyl esters of N -(dicyclohexyl)acetyl-piperidine-4-(benzylidene-4-carboxylic acids) as drugs and prodrugs: A new strategy for dual inhibition of 5,-reductase type 1 and type 2

Martina Streiber
Abstract Steroid 5,-reductase (5,R) inhibitory potency of three N -(dicyclohexyl)acetyl-piperidine-4-(benzylidene-4-carboxylic acids) and their corresponding methyl esters was monitored for type 2 isoenzyme in a benign prostatic hyperplasia cell free preparation and for type 1 isoenzyme in DU145 cells and in a cell free assay. The hydrolytic stability of the esters and their bioconversion to the corresponding acids was assessed in aqueous buffered solution (pH 7.4) and in selected biological media having measurable esterase activities. The carboxylic acids 1, 2, and 3 with high type 2 inhibitory potencies displayed only little type 1 inhibition. The esters 1a, 2a, and 3a, originally designed as prodrugs to enhance cell permeation, proved to be potent type 1 inhibitors and are therefore acting as drugs themselves. They are stable in buffered salt solution (pH 7.4), Caco-2 cells, and human plasma, whereas all esters are cleaved into the corresponding acids in benign prostatic hyperplasia tissue homogenate. Methyl esters, applied as hydrolytically stable precursor drugs to facilitate cell permeation, will yield the corresponding carboxylic acids as type 2 inhibitors after hydrolysis in the target organ. The esters themselves,stable in human plasma and Caco-2 cells,are acting as potent drugs toward 5,R type 1. Thus, dual inhibition of 5,R type 1 and type 2 can be achieved by applying a single parent compound. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 94:473,480, 2005 [source]

A novel strategy to inhibit FAK and IGF-1R decreases growth of pancreatic cancer xenografts

Donghang Zheng
Abstract Deregulation of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling pathways plays an important role in cancer cell proliferation and metastasis. In pancreatic cancer cells, the crosstalk and compensatory mechanisms between these two pathways reduce the efficacy of the treatments that target only one of the pathways. Ablation of IGF-1R signaling by siRNA showed minimal effects on the survival and growth of pancreatic cancer cells. An increased activity of FAK pathway was seen in these cells after IGF-1R knockdown. Further inhibition of FAK pathway using Y15 significantly decreased cell survival, adhesion, and promoted apoptosis. The combination of Y15 treatment and IGF-1R knockdown also showed significant antitumor effect in vivo. The current study demonstrates the importance of dual inhibition of both these signaling pathways as a novel strategy to decrease both in vitro and in vivo growth of human pancreatic cancer. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Treatment with imatinib prevents fibrosis in different preclinical models of systemic sclerosis and induces regression of established fibrosis

Alfiya Akhmetshina
Objective Imatinib is a small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor capable of selective, dual inhibition of the transforming growth factor , and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) pathways. Imatinib has previously been shown to prevent the development of inflammation-driven experimental fibrosis when treatment was initiated before administration of the profibrotic stimulus. The aim of this study was to confirm the efficacy of imatinib in a murine model of systemic sclerosis (SSc) that is less driven by inflammation and to investigate whether imatinib is also effective for the treatment of established fibrosis. Methods The tight skin 1 (TSK-1) mouse model of SSc was used to evaluate the antifibrotic effects of imatinib in a genetic model of the later stages of SSc. In addition, the efficacy of imatinib for the treatment of preestablished fibrosis was analyzed in a modified model of bleomycin-induced dermal fibrosis in which the application of bleomycin was prolonged and the onset of treatment was late. Results Treatment with imatinib reduced dermal and hypodermal thickening in TSK-1 mice and prevented the differentiation of resting fibroblasts into myofibroblasts. In the model of preestablished dermal fibrosis, imatinib not only stopped further progression of fibrosis but also induced regression of preexisting dermal fibrosis, with a reduction in dermal thickness below pretreatment levels. Conclusion These results indicate that combined inhibition of the tyrosine kinase c-Abl and PDGF receptor might be effective in the later, less inflammatory stages of SSc and for the treatment of established fibrosis. Thus, imatinib might be an interesting candidate for clinical trials in patients with longstanding disease and preexisting tissue fibrosis. [source]

Imatinib mesylate reduces production of extracellular matrix and prevents development of experimental dermal fibrosis

Jörg H. W. Distler
Objective Imatinib mesylate is a clinically well-tolerated small molecule inhibitor that exerts selective, dual inhibition of the transforming growth factor , (TGF,) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) pathways. This study was undertaken to test the potential use of imatinib mesylate as an antifibrotic drug for the treatment of dermal fibrosis in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Methods The expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in SSc and normal dermal fibroblasts was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and Sircol collagen assay. Proliferation capacity was assessed with the MTT assay. Cell viability was analyzed by mitochondrial membrane potential and by annexin V/propidium iodide staining. Bleomycin-induced experimental dermal fibrosis was used to assess the antifibrotic effects of imatinib mesylate in vivo. Results Imatinib mesylate efficiently reduced basal synthesis of COL1A1, COL1A2, and fibronectin 1 messenger RNA in SSc and normal dermal fibroblasts, in a dose-dependent manner. The induction of ECM proteins after stimulation with TGF, and PDGF was also strongly and dose-dependently inhibited by imatinib mesylate. These results were confirmed at the protein level. Imatinib mesylate did not alter proliferation or induce apoptosis and necrosis in dermal fibroblasts. Consistent with the in vitro findings, imatinib mesylate reduced dermal thickness, the number of myofibroblasts, and synthesis of ECM proteins in experimental dermal fibrosis, without evidence of toxic side effects. Conclusion These data show that imatinib mesylate at biologically relevant concentrations has potent antifibrotic effects in vitro and in vivo, without toxic side effects. Considering its favorable pharmacokinetics and clinical experience with its use in other diseases, imatinib mesylate is a promising candidate for the treatment of fibrotic diseases such as SSc. [source]