Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Du

  • et du

  • Terms modified by Du

  • du bien
  • du canada
  • du centre
  • du contrôle
  • du développement
  • du groupe
  • du marché
  • du marché du travail
  • du modèle
  • du patient
  • du pay
  • du public
  • du québec
  • du secteur public
  • du sol
  • du sud
  • du sujet
  • du temps
  • du terme
  • du travail

  • Selected Abstracts

    Gastroesophageal reflux before and after Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    A prospective study using ambulatory 24-h esophageal pH monitoring
    SUMMARY, The aim of this study was to assess prevalence of GERD before and after Helicobacter pylori (HP) eradication utilizing 24-h esophageal pH/manometry studies. Helicobacter pylori status was confirmed by the Campylobacter like organism test. Those testing positive underwent 24-h pH/manometry followed by HP eradication therapy and urea breath test. Patients were followed up at 6 months and then at 1 year when they underwent a repeat 24-h pH/manometry. Twenty patients, 10 with non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) and 10 with duodenal ulcer (DU) were enrolled, though only 10 patients attended for a repeat 24-h pH/manometry study. The patients were well matched, though patients with NUD had a significantly higher symptom score at entry compared with the DU group (8.5 vs 5.7, P < 0.05). The pH and esophageal manometry data were similar in the two groups. Overall nine patients (45%; DU = 5, NUD = 4) had evidence of GERD prior to HP eradication and it persisted one year after cure of the infection. The reflux disease occurred in the presence of normal LES pressure (mean 15.6 ± 3.3 mmHg). New onset GERD was uncommon after cure of HP infection, occurring in only one patient with NUD. Overall HP eradication had no impact on percentage of time pH < 4 (4.69 ± 3 vs 4.79 ± 3), episodes > 5 min (9.8 ± 16 vs 15.5 ± 25.3) and Johnson DeMeester Score (16.8 ± 7.5 vs 26.8 ± 18). In addition successful cure of HP produced no significant changes in LES pressure (17.9 ± 3.8 mmHg vs 19.3 ± 4.6 mmHg), and other esophageal manometry data. Half of HP-positive patients with NUD and DU have evidence of GERD before HP eradication. This persists after successful cure of the infection. New onset GERD occurs very uncommonly one year after HP eradication. [source]

    Effects of depleted uranium on the health and survival of Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca

    Wendy W Kuhne
    Abstract Depleted uranium (DU) has been used as a substitute for the fissionable enricheduranium component of atomic weapons tested at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) (Los Alamos, NM, USA) since the early 1950s, resulting in considerable concentrations of DU in the soils within the test sites. Although the movement of DU into major aquatic systems has been shown to be minimal, there are many small-order ephemeral streams and areas of standing water in canyons throughout LANL that may be affected by inputs of DU via runoff, erosion, and leaching. Ninety-six-hour acute and 7-d chronic toxicity assays were conducted to measure the toxicity of DU on survival and reproduction of Ceriodaphnia dubia. A 14-d water-only assay was conducted to measure survival and growth of Hyalella azteca. The estimated median lethal concentration (LC50) to produce 50% mortality of the test population for the 96-h Ceriodaphnia dubia assay was 10.50 mg/L. Reproductive effects occurred at a lowest-observable-effect concentration ,3.91 mg/L with a no-observable-effect concentration of 1.97 mg/L. The estimated 14-d LC50 for the Hyalella azteca assay was 1.52 mg/L. No significant relationship was detected between growth and DU concentrations. Concentrations at which toxicity effects were observed in this study for both invertebrates exceeded concentrations of total uranium observed in runoff from LANL lands. Thus, it is likely that current runoff levels of uranium do not pose a threat to these types of aquatic invertebrates. [source]

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) among HIV-infected drug users: a prospective cohort study of sexual risk and injecting behaviour

    ADDICTION, Issue 3 2006
    Colette Smit
    ABSTRACT Aims To study sexual risk and injecting behaviour among HIV-infected drug users (DU) receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)., Design and setting As part of an ongoing prospective cohort study, HIV-infected DU who commenced HAART (n = 67) were matched with those not starting HAART (n = 130) on CD4 cell counts, duration of cohort participation, age and calendar year of visit. Immunological and virological responses of the HAART-treated DU were compared with the HAART-treated homosexual men from the same cohort (n = 212). Measurements Trends in behaviour and therapeutic response were tested with a logistic regression model adjusted for repeated measurements and a piecewise random effects model, respectively. Findings Non-HAART users reported more episodes of injecting than HAART users. In both groups injecting declined over time with no effect of HAART initiation. Before HAART initiation an increase in sexual risk behaviour was observed among those who had been assigned to receive HAART; their sexual risk behaviour declined thereafter. No change in sexual risk behaviour was found among non-HAART users. Relative to homosexual men, DU had a similar initial therapeutic response, but DU started HAART at lower CD4 cell counts and higher viral load levels. Conclusion DU who are treated with HAART are not increasing their risk behaviour, and their early response to HAART is similar to homosexual men. However, before the treated DU received HAART they were seen to inject less often than those not treated with HAART. This suggests that selection of potential HAART starters is based on limited drug use. Although the DU who commence HAART are a selected group, our results show that HIV-infected DU can be treated effectively. [source]

    Meta-analysis on drugs in people with eating disorders

    Ana Calero-Elvira
    Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to examine whether drug use (DU) is higher in people with eating disorders (EDs) compared to a healthy control group and to perform a meta-analysis on the literature related to DU in people with EDs. Method We searched electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, Web of Science and CINAHL) and reviewed studies published from 1994 to August, 2007, in English, German or Spanish. A total of 16 papers fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included. Results The general meta-analysis revealed a negligible albeit significant effect size (0.119, p,<,.05). Risk was found to be higher in bulimia nervosa (BN, ,,=,0.462, p,=,,<,.001), smaller in binge eating disorder (,,=,0.14, p,<,.05) and non-significant in anorexia nervosa (AN, ,,=,,.167, p,=,.070). Conclusions The differential risk observed in patients with BN might be related to differences in temperament or might be the result of reward sensitization. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

    Color stability of resin matrix restorative materials as a function of the method of light activation

    Ralf Janda
    The purpose was to investigate the influence of curing devices and curing times on the yellow value (b-value) of composites, ormocers and compomers after performing a suntest (EN ISO 7491). Eight samples of Charisma (CH), Durafill (DU), Definite (DE), and Dyract AP (DY) each were light cured with Translux Energy (tungsten halogen light) for 20, 40 or 60 s and with Apollo 95-E (plasma light) for 3, 10 or 20 s. All samples were subjected to a suntest. Before and after the suntest the yellow values (b-values) were determined and the change (,b) was calculated. When cured with Translux Energy for 20 and 40 s DU, CH, and DY revealed significantly negative ,b-values. The b-value of DE remained nearly constant. When cured for 60 s, DU and DE shifted to more yellow while CH and DY still bleached a little. When cured with Apollo 95-E, a dramatic bleaching process of all materials investigated occurred after the suntest (significant negative ,b). It may be concluded that the bleaching of composites, ormocers and compomers depends on (i) the used light curing device and (ii) the chosen curing times. The tungsten halogen light provided highly significantly superior results. [source]

    Modelflow estimates of cardiac output compared with Doppler ultrasound during acute changes in vascular resistance in women

    Kenneth S. Dyson
    We compared Modelflow (MF) estimates of cardiac stroke volume (SV) from the finger pressure-pulse waveform (Finometer®) with pulsed Doppler ultrasound (DU) of the ascending aorta during acute changes in total peripheral resistance (TPR) in the supine and head-up-tilt (HUT) postures. Twenty-four women were tested during intravenous infusion of 0.005 or 0.01 ,g kg,1 min,1 isoprenaline, 10 or 50 ng kg,1 min,1 noradrenaline and 0.3 mg sublingual nitroglycerine. Responses to static hand-grip exercise (SHG), graded lower body negative pressure (LBNP, from ,20 to ,45 mmHg) and 45 deg HUT were evaluated on separate days. Bland,Altman analysis indicated that SVMF yielded lower estimates than SVDU during infusion of 0.01 ,g kg,1 min,1 isoprenaline (SVMF 92.7 ± 15.5 versus SVDU 104.3 ± 22.9 ml, P= 0.03) and SHG (SVMF 78.8 ± 12.0 versus SVDU 106.1 ± 28.5 ml, P < 0.01), while larger estimates were recorded with SVMF during ,45 mmHg LBNP (SVMF 52.6 ± 10.7 versus SVDU 46.2 ± 14.5 ml, P= 0.04) and HUT (SVMF 59.3 ± 13.6 versus SVDU 45.2 ± 11.3 ml, P < 0.01). Linear regression analysis revealed a relationship (r2= 0.41, P < 0.01) between the change in TPR from baseline and the between-methods discrepancy in SV measurements. This relationship held up under all of the experimental protocols (regression for fixed effects, P= 0.46). These results revealed a discrepancy in MF estimates of SV, in comparison with those measured by DU, during acute changes in TPR. [source]

    Role of Mucin Lewis Status in Resistance to Helicobacter pylori Infection in Pediatric Patients

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 4 2010
    Sara Lindén
    Abstract Background:,Helicobacter pylori causes gastritis, peptic ulcer and is a risk factor for adenocarcinoma and lymphoma of the stomach. Gastric mucins, carrying highly diverse carbohydrate structures, present functional binding sites for H. pylori and may play a role in pathogenesis. However, little information is available regarding gastric mucin in children with and without stomach diseases. Materials and Methods:, Expression of mucins and glycosylation was studied by immunohistochemistry on gastric biopsies from 51 children with and without H. pylori infection and/or peptic ulcer disease. Results:, In all children, MUC5AC was present in the surface epithelium and MUC6 in the glands. No MUC6 in the surface epithelium or MUC2 was detected in any section. The Leb and Lea blood group antigens were present in the surface epithelium of 80% and 29% of children, respectively. H. pylori load was higher in Leb negative children than in Leb positive individuals (mean ± SEM 17.8 ± 3.5 vs 10.8 ± 1.5; p < 0.05), but there was no correlation between Lea or Leb status and gastritis, nodularity, and gastric or duodenal ulcer (DU). Expression of sialyl-Lex was associated with H. pylori infection, and DU. Conclusions:, Mucin expression and glycosylation is similar in children and adults. However, in contrast to adults, pediatric H. pylori infection is not accompanied by aberrant expression of MUC6 or MUC2. Furthermore, the lower H. pylori density in Leb positive children indicates that H. pylori is suppressed in the presence of gastric mucins decorated with Leb, the binding site of the H. pylori BabA adhesin. [source]

    Prevalence of Duodenal Ulcer-Promoting Gene (dupA) of Helicobacter pylori in Patients with Duodenal Ulcer in North Indian Population

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 6 2007
    H. S. Jayasinghe Arachchi
    Abstract Background: , The duodenal ulcer (DU)-promoting gene (dupA) of Helicobacter pylori has been identified as a novel virulent marker associated with an increased risk for DU. The presence or absence of dupA gene of H. pylori present in patients with DU and functional dyspepsia in North Indian population was studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and hybridization analysis. Materials and Methods: , One hundred and sixty-six patients (96 DU and 70 functional dyspepsia) were included in this study. In addition, sequence diversity of dupA gene of H. pylori found in these patients was analyzed by sequencing the PCR products jhp0917 and jhp0918 on both strands with appropriate primers. Results: , PCR and hybridization analyses indicated that dupA gene was present in 37.5% (36/96) of H. pylori strains isolated from DU patients and 22.86% (16/70) of functional dyspepsia patients (p .05). Of these, 35 patients with DU (97.2%) and 14 patients with functional dyspepsia (81.25%) were infected by H. pylori positive for cagA genotype. Furthermore, the presence of dupA was significantly associated with the cagA -positive genotype (p .02). Conclusion: , Results of our study have shown that significant association of dupA gene with DU in this population. The dupA gene can be considered as a novel virulent marker for DU in this population. [source]

    Improvement of Reflux Symptoms 3 Years After Cure of Helicobacter pylori Infection: A Case-Controlled Study in the Japanese Population

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 4 2002
    Hiroto Miwa
    Abstract Background. Development of reflux esophagitis is one of the adverse effects that cause concern in relation to curative treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection. However, recent studies present a rather negative association between curative treatment and development of reflux esophagitis or reflux symptoms. Therefore, this issue has remained controversial. Accordingly, we investigated the long-term adverse effects of H. pylori eradication treatment in special reference to development of reflux symptoms. Patients and Methods. We conducted a case controlled study by mailing structured questionnaires on past (before curative treatment or 3 years previously) and current status. A case was an endoscopically confirmed peptic ulcer patient with confirmed cure of the infection after eradication treatment 3 years previously and a control was one who had not undergone the eradication treatment during the same period. We studied 241 pairs who matched for age, gender, and type of ulcer disease (GU, DU or GDU). Of these pairs, 81.3% were male and the mean age was 52.6 ± 9.6 year (range 23,76). Results. The rates of patients with improved reflux symptoms in the case and control groups were 65.4% and 30.4%, respectively, with the rate being significantly greater in the case group. On the contrary, the rates of those with worsened reflux symptoms were similar (5.1% and 7.6%). Regarding general events, the rate of patients with decreased frequency of hospital visits and of those who regularly used antiacid medications were significantly decreased in the case group. Furthermore, the case group experienced significantly fewer hospital admissions for various diseases in this 3-year period. However, a significantly greater number of case group patients than control subjects gained weight. Conclusion. Reflux symptoms as well as general well-being were significantly improved after cure of H. pylori infection. [source]

    Disease-specific Helicobacter pylori Virulence Factors: The Unfulfilled Promise

    HELICOBACTER, Issue S1 2000
    David Y. Graham
    A number of putative virulence factors for Helicobacter pylori have been identified including cagA, vacA and iceA. The criteria for a true virulence factor includes meeting the tests of biologically plausibility with the associations being both experimentally and epidemiologically consistent. Although disease-specific associations have been hypothesized/claimed, there are now sufficient data to conclusively state that none of these putative virulence factors have disease specificity. CagA has been claimed to be associated with increased mucosal IL-8 and inflammation, increased density of H. pylori in the antrum, duodenal ulcer (DU), gastric cancer, and protection against Barrett's cancer. Only the increase in IL-8/inflammation is direct and substantiated. Different H. pylori strains with functional cag pathogenicity islands do not vary in virulance as it has been shown that mucosal IL-8 levels are proportional to the number of cagA +H. pylori independent of the disease from which the H. pylori were obtained. It is now known that the density of either cagA + and cagA,H. pylori in the antrum of patients with H. pylori gastritis is the same. In contrast, the mean density of H. pylori in the antrum in DU is greater than in the antrum of patients with H. pylori gastritis. Of interest, the density of H. pylori is higher in the corpus of patients with H. pylori gastritis than those with DU, suggesting that acid secretion plays a critical role in these phenomena. The presence of a functional cag pathogenicity island increases inflammation and it is likely that any factor that results in an increase in inflammation also increases the risk of a symptomatic outcome. Nevertheless, the presence of a functional cag pathogenicity island has no predictive value for the presence, or the future development of a clinically significant outcome. The hypothesis that iceA has disease specificity has not been confirmed and there is currently no known biological or epidemiological evidence for a role for iceA as a virulence factor in H. pylori -related disease. The claim that vacA genotyping might prove clinically useful, e.g. to predict presentation such as duodenal ulcer, has been proven wrong. Analysis of the worldwide data show that vacA genotype s1 is actually a surrogate for the cag pathogenicity island. There is now evidence to suggest that virulence is a host-dependent factor. The pattern of gastritis has withstood the test of time for its relation to different H. pylori -related diseases (e.g. antral predominant gastritis with duodenal ulcer disease). The primary factors responsible for the different patterns of gastritis in response to an H. pylori infection are environmental (e.g. diet), with the H. pylori strain playing a lesser role. Future studies should work to eliminate potential bias before claiming disease associations. Controls must exclude regional or geographic associations related to the common strain circulation and not to the outcome. The authors must also control for both the presence of the factor and for the disease association. The study should be sufficiently large and employ different diseases and ethnic groups for the results to be robust. The findings in the initial sample (data derived hypothesis) should be tested in a new group (hypothesis testing), preferably from another area, before making claims. Finally, it is important to ask whether the results are actually a surrogate for another marker (e.g. vacA s1 for cagA) masquerading for a new finding. Only the cag pathogenicity island has passed the tests of biological plausibility (increased inflammation) and experimental and epidemiological consistency. [source]

    PX-478, an inhibitor of hypoxia-inducible factor-1,, enhances radiosensitivity of prostate carcinoma cells,

    Sanjeewani T. Palayoor
    Abstract Overexpression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1, (HIF-1,) in human tumors is associated with poor prognosis and poor outcome to radiation therapy. Inhibition of HIF-1, is considered as a promising approach in cancer therapy. The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of a novel HIF-1, inhibitor PX-478 as a radiosensitizer under normoxic and hypoxic conditions in vitro. PC3 and DU 145 prostate carcinoma cells were treated with PX-478 for 20 hr, and HIF-1, protein level and clonogenic cell survival were determined under normoxia and hypoxia. Effects of PX-478 on cell cycle distribution and phosphorylation of H2AX histone were evaluated. PX-478 decreased HIF-1, protein in PC3 and DU 145 cells. PX-478 produced cytotoxicity in both cell lines with enhanced toxicity under hypoxia for DU-145. PX-478 (20 ,mol/L) enhanced the radiosensitivity of PC3 cells irradiated under normoxic and hypoxic condition with enhancement factor (EF) 1.4 and 1.56, respectively. The drug was less effective in inhibiting HIF-1, and enhancing radiosensitivity of DU 145 cells compared to PC3 cells with EF 1.13 (normoxia) and 1.25 (hypoxia) at 50 ,mol/L concentration. PX-478 induced S/G2M arrest in PC3 but not in DU 145 cells. Treatment of PC3 and DU 145 cells with the drug resulted in phosphorylation of H2AX histone and prolongation of ,H2AX expression in the irradiated cells. PX-478 is now undergoing Phase I clinical trials as an oral agent. Although the precise mechanism of enhancement of radiosensitivity remains to be identified, this study suggests a potential role for PX-478 as a clinical radiation enhancer. Published 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Vesicle traffic through intercellular bridges in DU 145 human prostate cancer cells

    Cristina Vidulescu
    Abstract We detected cell-to-cell communication via intercellular bridges in DU 145 human prostate cancer cells by fluorescence microscopy. Since DU 145 cells have deficient gap junctions, intercellular bridges may have a prominent role in the transfer of chemical signals between these cells. In culture, DU 145 cells are contiguous over several cell diameters through filopodial extensions, and directly communicate with adjacent cells across intercellular bridges. These structures range from 100 nm to 5 ,m in diameter, and from a few microns to at least 50,100 ,m in length. Time-lapse imagery revealed that (1) filopodia rapidly move at a rate of microns per minute to contact neighboring cells and (2) intercellular bridges are conduits for transport of membrane vesicles (1,3 ,m in diameter) between adjacent cells. Immunofluorescence detected alpha-tubulin in intercellular bridges and filopodia, indicative of microtubule bundles, greater than a micron in diameter. The functional meaning, interrelationship of these membrane extensions are discussed, along with the significance of these findings for other culture systems such as stem cells. Potential applications of this work include the development of anticancer therapies that target intercellular communication and controlling formation of cancer spheroids for drug testing. [source]

    Microtubule-associated protein tau in human prostate cancer cells: Isoforms, phosphorylation, and interactions,

    Skye Souter
    Abstract Tau is a microtubule-associated protein whose function has been investigated primarily in neurons. Recently, tau expression has been correlated with increased drug resistance in various cancers of non-neuronal tissues. In this report, we investigate the tau expressed in cancerous prostate lines ALVA-31, DU 145, and PC-3. Prostate cancer tau is heat-stable and highly phosphorylated, containing many of the modifications identified in Alzheimer's disease brain tau. RT-PCR and phosphatase treatment indicated that all six alternatively spliced adult brain tau isoforms are expressed in ALVA-31 cells, and isoforms containing exon 6 as well as high molecular weight tau isoforms containing either exon 4A or a larger splice variant of exon 4A are also present. Consistent with its hyperphosphorylated state, a large proportion of ALVA-31 tau does not bind to microtubules, as detected by confocal microscopy and biochemical tests. Finally, endogenous ALVA-31 tau can interact with the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, as demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitations and in vitro protein-binding assays. Our results suggest that tau in prostate cancer cells does not resemble that from normal adult brain and support the hypothesis that tau is a multifunctional protein. J. Cell. Biochem. 108: 555,564, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Pecsi Gy
    To determine the upper abdominal symptoms, the use of ASD and the recurrence-rate of Helicobacter pylori in DU (Hp) patients one year after ulcer healing and successful HP eradication. Patient and methods: 37 endoscopically proven healed and successfully eradicated DU patients were successfully recruited in the study. All patients had active ulcer and showed HP positivity both by rapid urease test and histology 5 weeks before the enrollement endoscopy. The severity and character of dyspeptic symptoms and the use of ASD-s were checked by questionnaires at the start and one year after successful eradication therapy. NSAID users and reflux oesophagitis patients were excluded at inclusion. Eradication was performed by a one week LAC combination followed by 4 week ranitidine therapy. HP reinfection was controlled by C13 urea breath test at the 12 month visit. Results: 7 patients were lost for follow up by the end of the one year program. A together the data of 30 eligible patients (17 females, 13 males, mean age 49 years) were analyzed. The questionnaires represent the symptoms and ASD use of the whole year program. Only 12 out of 30 patients (40%) were permanently and completely symptoms free after the cessation of the short-term therapy. 16 patients (53.3%) had temporary and 2 patients (6.7%) had persistant symptom. About half of the patients (n=17) were taking absolutely no ASD during the follow up. The number of occasional and continuous ASD users were 7 (23.4%) and 6 (20%) respectively. HP reinfections occurred in one patient and no ulcer relaps was proven. Conclusions: 1. More than half of the patients had clinically relevant dyspeptic symptoms during the year after successful HP eradication and ulcer healing. 2. The majority of them required occasional or long term ASD therapy in this period. 3. Recurrences rate of HP was low. [source]

    Constrained Sintering of Low-Temperature Co-Fired Ceramics

    Aravind Mohanram
    This paper discusses the effect of uniaxial compressive stress and pressureless constraint on the microstructure, density, and shrinkage anisotropy during the sintering of two commercial low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) systems, i.e., Heraeus CT2000 (CT) and DuPont 951Tape (DU). Under uniaxial compression, the ratio of axial to transverse shrinkage of DU is significantly higher than that of CT. A simple linear viscous theory was used to estimate the change in the strain rates produced by the external stress and the stress required to produce zero shrinkage. The theory was found to overestimate the measured stress-induced strain rates. The uniaxial compressive stress required for zero overall shrinkage was estimated to be ,60 kPa for DU and 80 kPa for CT. The estimate for the DU materials was in good agreement with the experimental data, but there was significant deviation for the CT material. Higher viscosity and higher constraining stresses led to lower densities in pressure-less constrained CT specimens compared with DU. [source]

    Review article: Helicobacter pylori -negative duodenal ulcer disease

    Aliment Pharmacol Ther,30, 791,815 Summary Background,Helicobacter pylori infection rates in duodenal ulcer (DU) patients may be lower than previously estimated. Aim, To review the real prevalence of H. pylori -negative DUs and its possible causes. Methods, Bibliographical searches in MEDLINE looking for the terms ,H. pylori' and ,duodenal ulcer'. Results, Mean prevalence of H. pylori infection in DU disease, calculated from studies published during the last 10 years including a total of 16 080 patients, was 81%, and this figure was lower (77%) when only the last 5 years were considered. Associations with H. pylori -negative DU were: (1) False negative results of diagnostic methods, (2) NSAID use (21% in studies with <90% infection rate), (3) Complicated DU (bleeding, obstruction, perforation), (4) Smoking, (5) Isolated H. pylori duodenal colonization, (6) Older age, (7) Gastric hypersecretion, (8) Diseases of the duodenal mucosa, (9) Helicobacter,heilmanii' infection and (10) Concomitant diseases. Conclusion, In patients with H. pylori -negative DU disease, one should carefully confirm that the assessment of H. pylori status is reliable. In truly H. pylori -negative patients, the most common single cause of DU is, by far, the use of NSAIDs. Ulcers not associated with H. pylori, NSAIDs or other obvious causes should, for the present, be viewed as ,idiopathic'. True idiopathic DU disease only exceptionally exists. [source]

    Time trends in peptic ulcer, erosive reflux oesophagitis, gastric and oesophageal cancers in a multiracial Asian population

    K.-L. GOH
    Summary Background, Dramatic changes in the prevalence and pattern of gastrointestinal disease has taken place in Asia in recent years. Aim, To compare the prevalence of duodenal (DU) and gastric ulcers (GU), erosive oesophagitis (EO), gastric cancer (GCA) and oesophageal cancer (OCA) and Helicobacter pylori infection over a 10-year interval of time in a multiracial South-East Asian population. Methods, Endoscopy records of first time gastroscopy in the University of Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were reviewed for 1989/1990 and 1999/2000. Results, In the period of 1989,1990, 3252 records and in 1999,2000, 4615 records were analysed. Both DU (21.1,9.5%) and GU (11.9,9.4%) had decreased significantly (P < 0.001). EO had increased significantly from 2.0% to 8.4% (P < 0.001). Both GCA and OCA had declined in the 10-year interval. Helicobacter pylori prevalence had decreased from 51.7% to 30.3% (P < 0.001). The decrease in DU and GU was seen in all racial groups. The increase in EO was most marked in Indians and the decrease in GCA in Chinese. The proportion of H. pylori- associated DU and GU had also decreased with time. Conclusions, Peptic ulcers and H. pylori infection had declined over a 10-year period of time and showed an opposing time trend with EO, which had increased dramatically. Both GCA and OCA had declined in prevalence. [source]

    Analytic Formula for the Clear-sky UV Index

    Sasha Madronich
    An approximate formula for the UV Index (UVI) under cloud-free, unpolluted, low surface albedo conditions is: where ,o is the cosine of the solar zenith angle and , is the total vertical ozone column (in Dobson Units, DU). The dependence on ,o and , is based on a simple physical model of biologically weighted atmospheric transmission in the UV-B and UV-A spectral bands, with coefficients tuned to a detailed radiative transfer model, and is accurate to 10% or better over 0,60° and 200,400 DU. Other factors (clouds, haze, ground, etc.) mostly conserve this dependence and scale simply. [source]

    Comparing Household Listing Techniques in a Rural Midwestern Vanguard Center of the National Children's Study

    Katie Dreiling
    ABSTRACT The National Children's Study (NCS) is a longitudinal study that will examine the influence of environmental and social factors on the health and development of 100,000 children, following them from before birth until age 21. Proposed participant recruitment methods call for locating and listing all dwelling units (DUs) located within randomly selected segments within the 105 NCS sites. One of seven Vanguard Centers of the NCS includes four rural counties that span approximately 2,500 square miles. The size of this sampling area presents unique geographic challenges. In order to determine the most efficient method for listing DUs within this large area, a study was undertaken to investigate the differences in the percent of DUs identified and the cost of four different approaches. It compared the on-site listing method of physically identifying each DU with three other methods: plat maps, postal listings, and Geographic Information Systems (GIS)/satellite imagery techniques. The on-site method had the strongest , (.85) in terms of identifying true DUs. There was a moderate agreement (.59) with the plat map method, fair agreement (.34) with the postal method, and only a slight agreement (.14) with the GIS/satellite imagery method. The plat map, postal listing, and GIS/satellite methods were less time-consuming than the on-site method. [source]

    New potential anti-cancer agents synergize with bortezomib and ABT-737 against prostate cancer

    THE PROSTATE, Issue 8 2010
    Bulbul Pandit
    Abstract BACKGROUND We previously described the identification of a transcriptional inhibitor ARC and FoxM1 inhibitors, thiazole antibiotics, Siomycin A and thiostrepton that were able to induce potent p53-independent apoptosis in cancer cell lines of different origin. Here, we report the characterization of these drugs individually or in combination with ABT-737 and bortezomib on a panel of prostate cancer cell lines. METHODS DU 145, LNCaP and PC-3 prostate cancer cells were treated with ARC, Siomycin A and thiostrepton to evaluate their activity as single agents or in combination with ABT-737 and bortezomib to measure their synergistic potential in anti-proliferative and cell cycle assays. Chou-Talalay method was used to quantitate the synergistic interaction. Western blot method was used to determine Mcl-1 and FoxM1 expression and caspase-3 cleavage. RESULTS We show that ARC inhibited the viability of prostate cancer cells and induced apoptosis in low nanomolar concentration. It potently downregulated the expression of Mcl-1 and showed synergistic combination effect with Bcl-2 inhibitor ABT-737. Thiazole antibiotics, Siomycin A and thiostrepton inhibited growth, FoxM1 expression and induced cell death in prostate cancer cells in low micromolar concentrations. In addition, thiostrepton and ARC synergistically induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells following combination treatment with proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. Furthermore, we found that all tested drug combinations were able to induce apoptosis selectively in transformed, but not normal cells of the same origin. CONCLUSIONS Based on their in vitro activity as single or combination agents, ARC, Siomycin A and thiostrepton represent potential candidates for drug development against prostate cancer. Prostate 70: 825,833, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The phylogeny of Chinese indigenous pig breeds inferred from microsatellite markers

    ANIMAL GENETICS, Issue 1 2005
    M. Fang
    Summary A genetic study of 32 local Chinese, three foreign pig breeds [Duroc (DU), Landrace and Yorkshire], and two types of wild boar (Hainan and Dongbei wild boar) based on 34 microsatellite loci was carried out to clarify the phylogeny of Chinese indigenous pig breeds. The allele frequencies, effective numbers of alleles, and the average heterozygosity within populations were calculated. The results showed that the genetic variability of the Lingao pig was the largest, while the Jiaxing pig was the lowest. The greatest distance between domestic pigs was found between Shanggao and DU pig and the shortest was found between Wuzhishan and Lingao pig, respectively. A neighbour-joining tree constructed from Modified Cavalli-Sforza genetic distances divided Chinese pigs into two clusters; four subclusters were also identified. Our results only partly agree with the traditional types of classification and also provide a new relationship among Chinese local pig breeds. Our data also confirmed that Chinese pig breeds have a different origin from European/American breeds and can be utilized in programmes that aim to maintain Chinese indigenous pig breeds. [source]

    Effects of sphingosine-1-phosphate and sphingosylphosphorylcholine on intracellular Ca2+ and cell death in prostate cancer cell lines

    A. C. M. Mulders
    Summary The sphingolipid metabolites sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) can be involved in cellular growth and apoptosis, by both receptor-dependent and -independent mechanisms. We investigated the role of S1P and SPC in intracellular Ca2+ elevation, cell proliferation and cell death in DU 145 and PC3 hormone-refractory prostate cancer cell lines. S1P and SPC increased intracellular Ca2+ levels, most likely in a receptor-independent manner. Surprisingly, both S1P and SPC did not stimulate but rather reduced cell growth through induction of apoptosis. Therefore, antagonists targeted against S1P, SPC and their receptors do not appear to be promising new approaches in the treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer. [source]

    Estimating the lipophilicity of a number of 2-amino-1-cyclohexanol derivatives exhibiting anticonvulsant activity ,

    bieta P
    Abstract The lipophilicity of a number of N -acyl derivatives of trans - or cis -: racemic, (1R,2R)- or (1S,2S)-aminocyclohexanol (1,13) exhibiting anticonvulsant activity was investigated. Their lipophilicity (Rm0) was determined using reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography (RP-TLC) with mixtures of methanol and water as mobile phases. The partition coefficients of compounds 1,13 (log P) were also calculated using two computer programs (Pallas and Chem DU) and compared with Rm0. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The role of Doppler sonography in predicting severity of acute pancreatitis

    Naile Bolca Topal MD
    Abstract Purpose To investigate the role of Doppler sonography (DUS) examination of major abdominal arteries in predicting severity of acute pancreatitis (AP). Methods Twenty-nine patients diagnosed with AP and 14 controls were blindly and prospectively evaluated with Doppler sonography. Disease severity was defined clinically according to acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE II) score and was classified as severe for APACHE II score ,8. DUS examination included the measurement of peak systolic velocity (PSV), end diastolic velocity (EDV), pulsatility index (PI), and resistance index (RI) of the celiac artery (CA) and superior mesenteric artery (SMA). Statistical analysis included Mann-Whitney U test, Student t test, and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Results Twelve patients had severe AP and 17 had mild AP. PSV, EDV, and PI of the CA and RI of the SMA were higher in the severe AP group than in the mild AP and control groups (p < 0.001 and p < 0.0001, respectively). The sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 94%, respectively, for a 87 cm/second CA PSV cutoff value, 75% and 100%, respectively, for a 22 cm/second CA EDV cutoff value, 92% and 82%, respectively, for a 1.29 CA PI cutoff value, and 100% and 100%, respectively, for a 0.86 SMA RI cutoff value. Conclusion DUS can be useful in predicting the severity of AP in the early period of admission phase of the disease. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound, 2008 [source]

    Performance of Doppler ultrasound in the prediction of severe portal hypertension in hepatitis C virus-related chronic liver disease

    LIVER INTERNATIONAL, Issue 10 2007
    Francesco Vizzutti
    Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the correlation between hepatic vein pressure gradient measurement and Doppler ultrasonography (DUS) in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). Patients and methods: Sixty-six patients with fibrotic to cirrhotic hepatitis C virus-related CLD, were consecutively included upon referral to our haemodynamic laboratory. Superior mesenteric artery pulsatility index (SMA-PI), right interlobar renal and intraparenchymal splenic artery resistance indices, were determined, followed by hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) measurement. Results: A correlation was found between HVPG and intraparenchymal splenic artery resistance index (SA-RI) (r=0.50, P<0.0001), SMA-PI (r=,0,48, P<0.0001), right interlobar renal artery resistance index (RRA-RI) (r=0.51, P<0.0001) in the whole patient population. However, dividing patients according to the presence/absence of severe portal hypertension (i.e. HVPG ,12 mmHg), a correlation between HVPG and intraparenchymal SA-RI (r=0.70, P<0.0001), SMA-PI (r=,0.49, P=0.02), RRA-RI (r=0.66, P=0.0002) was observed only for HVPG values <12 mmHg. HVPG but not DUS correlated with the presence of esophageal varices (P<0.0001). Conclusions: Superior mesenteric artery pulsatility index, intraparenchymal splenic and right interlobar renal artery resistance indices do not adequately predict severe portal hypertension. [source]

    Effect of donor pneumoperitoneum on early allograft perfusion following renal transplantation in pediatric patients: An intraoperative Doppler ultrasound study

    S. Dave
    Abstract:, Decreased perfusion and trauma during laparoscopic harvesting are proposed causative factors for DGF and rejection in children following renal transplantation with laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) allograft. We performed a retrospective review of 11 children who underwent LDN transplant and 11 preceding patients who underwent ODN transplant. Intraoperative DUS findings, creatinine values and clearance, time to nadir creatinine and AR episodes were compared. There were no significant differences in the BMI, vascular anatomy, side of nephrectomy, or warm ischemia time in the two groups. Mean follow-up duration was 11.4 and 30.4 months in LDN and ODN groups. DUS showed initial turbulent flow in five of the LDN and four of the ODN group with an average RI of 0.59 and 0.66 in the ODN and LDN groups, respectively (NS). Three patients in the ODN group had an abnormal RI compared to none in the LDN group (p = 0.034). The creatinine values, creatinine clearances (at 24 h, one, four wk and last follow-up) and AR episodes were similar in both groups. Pneumoperitoneum during LDN does not appear to have an adverse impact on early graft reperfusion. [source]

    Early Hepatic Artery Thrombosis after Liver Transplantation: A Systematic Review of the Incidence, Outcome and Risk Factors

    J. Bekker
    To clarify inconsistencies in the literature we performed a systematic review to identify the incidence, risk factors and outcome of early hepatic artery thrombosis (eHAT) after liver transplantation. We searched studies identified from databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index) and references of identified studies. Seventy-one studies out of 999 screened abstracts were eligible for this systematic review. The incidence of eHAT was 4.4% (843/21, 822); in children 8.3% and 2.9% in adults (p < 0.001). Doppler ultrasound screening (DUS) protocols varied from ,no routine' to ,three times a day.' The median time to detection was at day seven. The overall retransplantation rate was 53.1% and was higher in children (61.9%) than in adults (50%, p < 0.03). The overall mortality rate of patients with eHAT was 33.3% (range: 0,80%). Mortality in adults (34.3%) was higher than in children (25%, p < 0.03). The reported risk factors for eHAT were, cytomegalovirus mismatch (seropositive donor liver in seronegative recipient), retransplantation, arterial conduits, prolonged operation time, low recipient weight, variant arterial anatomy, and low volume transplantation centers. eHAT is associated with significant graft loss and mortality. Uniform definitions of eHAT and uniform treatment modalities are obligatory to confirm these results and to obtain a better understanding of this disastrous complication. [source]

    Outcome of the distal ureteric stump after (hemi)nephrectomy and subtotal ureterectomy for reflux or obstruction

    BJU INTERNATIONAL, Issue 6 2001
    P.A. Androulakakis
    Objective To assess the outcome of the distal ureteric stump (DUS) after (hemi)nephrectomy with subtotal ureterectomy. Patients and methods The records of 89 patients (median age 2.7 years, range 0.25,12) who underwent nephrectomy (24) or heminephrectomy (65) with subtotal ureterectomy between 1982 and 1996 were reviewed retrospectively for symptoms caused by the DUS. The mean follow-up was 9.8 years. Nephrectomy was undertaken for a poorly functioning dysplastic (in nine), scarred (in 10) or hydronephrotic (in five) kidney, and heminephrectomy for a poorly functioning upper moiety associated with ectopic ureterocele (in 26) or stenotic hydroureter (in 15), or for a poorly functioning lower moiety associated with reflux (in 24). There were 38 refluxing and 51 non-refluxing ureteric stumps. Two additional patients primarily operated elsewhere were referred with DUS symptoms. Results Only one patient had a symptomatic DUS, with recurrent haematuria and bacteriuria. The two patients referred from elsewhere presented with febrile UTIs. The first had been left with a long refluxing stump opening ectopically into the urethra, and the second with a long stump which was converted from nonrefluxing to a refluxing stump when he developed dysfunctional voiding. Surgical excision of the distal stump was curative in each case. Conclusions The risk of a symptomatic DUS in patients who undergo subtotal ureterectomy in conjunction with (hemi)nephrectomy is very low, with no difference between refluxing and nonrefluxing stumps. Long ureteric stumps and dysfunctional voiding may cause symptoms. Because of the low morbidity associated with a short ureteric stump, we recommend subtotal ureterectomy in children who undergo (hemi)nephrectomy for reflux, vesico-ureteric obstruction or ectopic ureterocele associated with a poorly functioning kidney or kidney moiety. [source]

    Testicular tissue bleeding as an indicator of gonadal salvageability in testicular torsion surgery

    BJU INTERNATIONAL, Issue 1 2001
    I.S. Arda
    Objective To investigate the reliability of using bleeding from the cut surface of testicular tissue during surgery for testicular torsion to assess testicular viability, compared with the duration of symptoms and preoperative findings on testicular Doppler ultrasonography (DUS). Patients and methods The study comprised 19 children with testicular torsion who underwent surgery; all underwent DUS before surgery. During surgery the tunica vaginalis of the affected gonad was incised and a deep incision made through the medulla after obtaining a wedge biopsy for histological examination. After waiting up to 10 min to assess any fresh arterial bleeding from the cut surface, the patients were categorized using three grades; grade I (sufficient bleeding, i.e. bleeding or oozing when the biopsy was obtained); grade II (insufficient bleeding, no bleeding immediately after the incision but starting within 10 min); and grade III (no bleeding within 10 min). The final surgical decision on whether to save the testis was made according to the grade of testicular tissue bleeding; grade I and II testes were saved and grade III testes were removed. The biopsies were histopathologically examined and classified as haemorrhagic, necrotic or indeterminate. The patients were followed up at 15 days and at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months, with the affected testis examined using DUS. At the end of the study, the sensitivity and specificity of the duration of symptoms, characteristics of blood flow on DUS and grading of testicular tissue bleeding at surgery were calculated for predicting testis viability, using the histopathological diagnosis as the reference standard. Results The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were respectively 100%, 90%, 90% and 100% for a duration of symptoms of > 10 h, 78%, 80%, 78% and 80% for DUS findings, and 100%, 78%, 83% and 100% for testicular tissue bleeding in predicting gonad viability after torsion, respectively. Conclusion Although the 10 h limit for the duration of symptoms seems a more accurate predictor of the fate of a twisted testis than were the other variables, testicular tissue bleeding may also be a good indicator of gonadal viability during surgery. The surgeon should wait up to 10 min after incising the testicular tissue deep to the medulla before deciding the type of surgery. In cases where bleeding from the cut surface is sufficient or insufficient (according to the proposed grading system), orchidopexy is the treatment of choice. The salvaged testes should be assessed during follow-up, especially in those who had had insufficient bleeding at surgery and/or a duration of symptoms > 10 h, to assess for any delayed damage to the untwisted testis. If no bleeding is seen during surgery the best option is to remove the affected testis. [source]

    Review article: Helicobacter pylori -negative duodenal ulcer disease

    Aliment Pharmacol Ther,30, 791,815 Summary Background,Helicobacter pylori infection rates in duodenal ulcer (DU) patients may be lower than previously estimated. Aim, To review the real prevalence of H. pylori -negative DUs and its possible causes. Methods, Bibliographical searches in MEDLINE looking for the terms ,H. pylori' and ,duodenal ulcer'. Results, Mean prevalence of H. pylori infection in DU disease, calculated from studies published during the last 10 years including a total of 16 080 patients, was 81%, and this figure was lower (77%) when only the last 5 years were considered. Associations with H. pylori -negative DU were: (1) False negative results of diagnostic methods, (2) NSAID use (21% in studies with <90% infection rate), (3) Complicated DU (bleeding, obstruction, perforation), (4) Smoking, (5) Isolated H. pylori duodenal colonization, (6) Older age, (7) Gastric hypersecretion, (8) Diseases of the duodenal mucosa, (9) Helicobacter,heilmanii' infection and (10) Concomitant diseases. Conclusion, In patients with H. pylori -negative DU disease, one should carefully confirm that the assessment of H. pylori status is reliable. In truly H. pylori -negative patients, the most common single cause of DU is, by far, the use of NSAIDs. Ulcers not associated with H. pylori, NSAIDs or other obvious causes should, for the present, be viewed as ,idiopathic'. True idiopathic DU disease only exceptionally exists. [source]