Drosophila

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Drosophila

  • fly drosophila
  • genus drosophila
  • transgenic drosophila

  • Terms modified by Drosophila

  • drosophila brain
  • drosophila cell
  • drosophila development
  • drosophila embryo
  • drosophila gene
  • drosophila genome
  • drosophila homologue
  • drosophila larva
  • drosophila melanogaster
  • drosophila model
  • drosophila neuron
  • drosophila s2 cell
  • drosophila species

  • Selected Abstracts


    LEARNING ABILITY AND LONGEVITY: A SYMMETRICAL EVOLUTIONARY TRADE-OFF IN DROSOPHILA

    EVOLUTION, Issue 6 2008
    Joep M. S. Burger
    Learning ability can be substantially improved by artificial selection in animals ranging from Drosophila to rats. Thus these species have not used their evolutionary potential with respect to learning ability, despite intuitively expected and experimentally demonstrated adaptive advantages of learning. This suggests that learning is costly, but this notion has rarely been tested. Here we report correlated responses of life-history traits to selection for improved learning in Drosophila melanogaster. Replicate populations selected for improved learning lived on average 15% shorter than the corresponding unselected control populations. They also showed a minor reduction in fecundity late in life and possibly a minor increase in dry adult mass. Selection for improved learning had no effect on egg-to-adult viability, development rate, or desiccation resistance. Because shortened longevity was the strongest correlated response to selection for improved learning, we also measured learning ability in another set of replicate populations that had been selected for extended longevity. In a classical olfactory conditioning assay, these long-lived flies showed an almost 40% reduction in learning ability early in life. This effect disappeared with age. Our results suggest a symmetrical evolutionary trade-off between learning ability and longevity in Drosophila. [source]


    CONSPECIFIC SPERM PRECEDENCE IN SISTER SPECIES OF DROSOPHILA WITH OVERLAPPING RANGES

    EVOLUTION, Issue 4 2004
    Audrey S. Chang
    Abstract Barriers to gene flow that act after mating but before fertilization are often overlooked in studies of reproductive isolation. Where species are sympatric, such "cryptic' isolating barriers may be important in maintaining species as distinct entities. Drosophilayakuba and its sister species D. santomea have overlapping ranges on the island of Sao Tome, off the coast of West Africa. Previous studies have shown that the two species are strongly sexually isolated. However, the degree of sexual isolation observed in the laboratory cannot explain the low frequency (,1%) of hybrids observed in nature. This study identifies two "cryptic" isolating barriers that may further reduce gene flow betweenD. yakuba andD. santomea where they are sympatric. First, noncompetitive gametic isolation has evolved between D. yakuba and D. santomea: heterospecific matings between the two species produce significantly fewer offspring than do conspecific matings. Second, conspecific sperm precedence (CSP) occurs when D. yakuba females mate with conspecific and heterospecific males. However, CSP is asymmetrical: D. santomea females do not show patterns of sperm usage consistent with CSP. Drosophila yakuba and D. santomea females also differ with respect to remating propensity after first mating with conspecific males. These results suggest that noncompetitive and competitive gametic isolating barriers may contribute to reproductive isolation between D. yakuba and D. santomea. [source]


    Further delineation of 9q22 deletion syndrome associated with basal cell nevus (Gorlin) syndrome: Report of two cases and review of the literature

    CONGENITAL ANOMALIES, Issue 1 2009
    Kayono Yamamoto
    ABSTRACT Basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS; Gorlin syndrome) is an autosomal dominant disorder, characterized by a predisposition to neoplasms and developmental abnormalities. BCNS is caused by mutations in the human homolog of the Drosophila patched gene-1, PTCH1, which is mapped on chromosome 9q22.3. Nonsense, frameshift, in-frame deletions, splice-site, and missense mutations have been found in the syndrome. Haploinsufficiency of PTCH1, which is caused by interstitial deletion of 9q22.3, is also responsible for the syndrome. To date, 19 cases with interstitial deletion of long arm of chromosome 9 involving the region of q22 have been reported. We describe two unrelated patients with some typical features of BCNS associated with deletion of 9q21.33-q31.1 and determined the boundary of the deletion by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones. The results showed that the size of deletions is between 15.33 and 16.04 Mb in patient 1 and between 18.08 and 18.54 Mb in patient 2. Although the size and breakpoints were different from those of previously reported cases, the clinical features are common to patients with 9q22 deletion associated with BCNS. Delineation of the 9q22 deletions and further consideration of the genes responsible for the characteristic manifestations may provide insight into this newly recognized deletion syndrome. [source]


    Axoneme-dependent tubulin modifications in singlet microtubules of the Drosophila sperm tail

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 4 2008
    Henry D. Hoyle
    Abstract Drosophila melanogaster sperm tubulins are posttranslationally glutamylated and glycylated. We show here that axonemes are the substrate for these tubulin C-terminal modifications. Axoneme architecture is required, but full length, motile axonemes are not necessary. Tubulin glutamylation occurs during or shortly after assembly into the axoneme; only glutamylated tubulins are glycylated. Tubulins in other testis microtubules are not modified. Only a small subset of total Drosophila sperm axoneme tubulins have these modifications. Biochemical fractionation of Drosophila sperm showed that central pair and accessory microtubules have the majority of poly-modified tubulins, whereas doublet microtubules have only small amounts of mono- and oligo-modified tubulins. Glutamylation patterns for different ,-tubulins experimentally assembled into axonemes were consistent with utilization of modification sites corresponding to those identified in other organisms, but surrounding sequence context was also important. We compared tubulin modifications in the 9 + 9 + 2 insect sperm tail axonemes of Drosophila with the canonical 9 + 2 axonemes of sperm of the sea urchin Lytichinus pictus and the 9 + 0 motile sperm axonemes of the eel Anguilla japonica. In contrast to Drosophila sperm, L. pictus sperm have equivalent levels of modified tubulins in both doublet and central pair microtubule fractions, whereas the doublets of A. japonica sperm exhibit little glutamylation but extensive glycylation. Tubulin C-terminal modifications are a prevalent feature of motile axonemes, but there is no conserved pattern for placement or amount of these modifications. We conclude their functions are likely species-specific. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Opposite effects of overexpressed myosin Va or heavy meromyosin Va on vesicle distribution, cytoskeleton organization, and cell motility in nonmuscle cells

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 3 2008
    Robbin D. Eppinga
    Abstract Myosin Va, an actin-based motor protein that transports intracellular cargos, can bundle actin in vitro. Whether myosin Va regulates cellular actin dynamics or cell migration remains unclear. To address this, we compared Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells that stably express GFP fused to either full length mouse myosin Va (GFP-M5) or heavy meromyosin Va (GFP-M5,). GFP-M5 and GFP-M5, co-immunoprecipitate with CHO myosin Va and serve as overexpression of wild-type and dominant negative mutants of myosin Va. Compared to non-expressing control cells, GFP-M5-overexpressing cells have peripheral endocytic vesicles, spread slowly after plating, as well as produce robust interior actin stress fibers, myosin II bundles, and focal adhesions. However, these cells display normal cell migration and lamellipodial dynamics. In contrast, GFP-M5,-expressing cells have perinuclear endocytic vesicles, produce thin interior actin and myosin bundles and contain no interior focal adhesions. In addition, these cells spread rapidly, migrate slowly and display reduced lamellipodial dynamics. Similarly, neurite outgrowth is compromised in neurons cultured from transgenic Drosophila that express M5,-dsRed and in neurons cultured from Drosophila that produce a tailless version of endogenous myosin V. Together, these data suggest that myosin Va overexpression induces actin bundles in vivo whereas the tailless version fails to bundle actin and disrupts cell motility. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 2008. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Shaggy/GSK-3, kinase localizes to the centrosome and to specialized cytoskeletal structures in Drosophila

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 6 2006
    Yves Bobinnec
    Abstract The assembly of a functional bipolar mitotic spindle requires an exquisite regulation of microtubule behavior in time and space. To characterize new elements of this machinery we carried out a GFP based "protein trap" screen and selected fusion proteins which localized to the spindle apparatus. By this method we identified Shaggy, the Drosophila homologue of glycogen synthase kinase-3, (GSK-3,), as a component of centrosomes. GSK-3, acting in the Wingless signaling pathway is involved in a vast range of developmental processes, from pattern formation to cell-fate specification, and is a key factor for cell proliferation in most animals. We exploited our Shaggy::GFP Drosophila line to analyze the subcellular localizations of GSK-3,/Shaggy and shed light on its multiple roles during embryogenesis. We found that Shaggy becomes enriched transiently in a variety of specialized cytoskeletal structures of the embryo, including centrosomes throughout mitosis, suggesting that this kinase is involved in the regulation of many aspects of the cytoskeleton function. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Targeted gene expression by the Gal4-UAS system in zebrafish

    DEVELOPMENT GROWTH & DIFFERENTIATION, Issue 6 2008
    Kazuhide Asakawa
    Targeted gene expression by the Gal4-UAS system is a powerful methodology for analyzing function of genes and cells in vivo and has been extensively used in genetic studies in Drosophila. On the other hand, the Gal4-UAS system had not been applied effectively to vertebrate systems for a long time mainly due to the lack of an efficient transgenesis method. Recently, a highly efficient transgenesis method using the medaka fish Tol2 transposable element was developed in zebrafish. Taking advantage of the Tol2 transposon system, we and other groups developed the Gal4 gene trap and enhancer trap methods and established various transgenic fish expressing Gal4 in specific cells. By crossing such Gal4 lines with transgenic fish lines harboring various reporter genes and effector genes downstream of UAS (upstream activating sequence), specific cells can be visualized and manipulated in vivo by targeted gene expression. Thus, the Gal4 gene trap and enhancer trap approaches together with various UAS lines should be important tools for investigating roles of genes and cells in vertebrates. [source]


    Differing strategies for forming the arthropod body plan: Lessons from Dpp, Sog and Delta in the fly Drosophila and spider Achaearanea

    DEVELOPMENT GROWTH & DIFFERENTIATION, Issue 4 2008
    Hiroki Oda
    In the insect Drosophila embryo, establishment of maternal transcription factor gradients, rather than cell,cell interactions, is fundamental to patterning the embryonic axes. In contrast, in the chelicerate spider embryo, cell,cell interactions are thought to play a crucial role in the development of the embryonic axes. A grafting experiment by Holm using spider eggs resulted in duplication of the embryonic axes, similar to the Spemann's organizer experiment using amphibian eggs. Recent work using the house spider Achaearanea tepidariorum has demonstrated that the homologs of decapentaplegic (dpp), short gastrulation (sog) and Delta, which encode a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-type ligand, its antagonist and a Notch ligand, respectively, are required in distinct aspects of axis formation. Achaearanea Dpp appears to function as a symmetry-breaking signal, which could account for Holm's results to some extent. Experimental findings concerning Achaearanea sog and Delta have highlighted differences in the mechanisms underlying ventral and posterior development between Drosophila and Achaearanea. Achaearanea ventral patterning essentially depends on sog function, in contrast to the Drosophila patterning mechanism, which is based on the nuclear gradient of Dorsal. Achaearanea posterior (or opisthosomal) patterning relies on the function of the caudal lobe, which develops from cells surrounding the blastopore through progressive activation of Delta-Notch signaling. In this review, we describe the differing strategies for forming the arthropod body plan in the fly and spider, and provide a perspective towards understanding the relationship between the arthropod and vertebrate body plans. [source]


    Mi-2 chromatin remodeling factor functions in sensory organ development through proneural gene repression in Drosophila

    DEVELOPMENT GROWTH & DIFFERENTIATION, Issue 7 2006
    Yasutoyo Yamasaki
    Mi-2, the central component of the nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylation (NuRD) complex, is known as an SNF2-type ATP-dependent nucleosome remodeling factor. No morphological mutant phenotype of Drosophila Mi-2 (dMi-2) had been reported previously; however, we found that rare escapers develop into adult flies showing an extra bristle phenotype. The dMi-2 enhanced the phenotype of acHw49c, which is a dominant gain-of-function allele of achaete (ac) and produces extra bristles. Consistent with these observations, the ac -expressing proneural clusters were expanded, and extra sensory organ precursors (SOP) were formed in the dMi-2 mutant wing discs. Immunostaining of polytene chromosomes showed that dMi-2 binds to the ac locus, and dMi-2 and acetylated hisotones distribute on polytene chromosomes in a mutually exclusive manner. The chromatin immunoprecipitation assay of the wing imaginal disc also demonstrated a binding of dMi-2 on the ac locus. These results suggest that the Drosophila Mi-2/NuRD complex functions in neuronal differentiation through the repression of proneural gene expression by chromatin remodeling and histone deacetylation. [source]


    GATA factors as key regulatory molecules in the development of Drosophila endoderm

    DEVELOPMENT GROWTH & DIFFERENTIATION, Issue 9 2005
    Ryutaro Murakami
    Essential roles for GATA factors in the development of endoderm have been reported in various animals. A Drosophila GATA factor gene, serpent (srp, dGATAb, ABF), is expressed in the prospective endoderm, and loss of srp activity causes transformation of the prospective endoderm into ectodermal foregut and hindgut, indicating that srp acts as a selector gene to specify the developmental fate of the endoderm. While srp is expressed in the endoderm only during early stages, it activates a subsequent GATA factor gene, dGATAe, and the latter continues to be expressed specifically in the endoderm throughout life. dGATAe activates various functional genes in the differentiated endodermal midgut. An analogous mode of regulation has been reported in Caenorhabditis elegans, in which a pair of GATA genes, end-1/3, specifies endodermal fate, and a downstream pair of GATA genes, elt-2/7, activates genes in the differentiated endoderm. Functional homology of GATA genes in nature is apparently extendable to vertebrates, because endodermal GATA genes of C. elegans and Drosophila induce endoderm development in Xenopus ectoderm. These findings strongly imply evolutionary conservation of the roles of GATA factors in the endoderm across the protostomes and the deuterostomes. [source]


    Cloning a novel developmental regulating gene, Xotx5: Its potential role in anterior formation in Xenopus laevis

    DEVELOPMENT GROWTH & DIFFERENTIATION, Issue 2 2000
    Hiroki Kuroda
    The vertebrate Otx gene family is related to otd, a gene contributing to head development in Drosophila. In Xenopus, Xotx1, Xotx2, and Xotx4 have already been isolated and analyzed. Here the cloning, developmental expression and functions of the additional Otx Xenopus gene, Xotx5 are reported. This latter gene shows a greater degree of homology to Xotx2 than Xotx1 and Xotx4. Xotx5 was initially expressed in Spemann's organizer and later in the anterior region. Ectopic expression of Xotx5 had similar effects to other Xotx genes in impairing trunk and tail development, and especially similar effects to Xotx2 in causing secondary cement glands. Taken together, these findings suggest that Xotx5 stimulates the formation of the anterior regions and represses the formation of posterior structures similar to Xotx2. [source]


    Probing events with single molecule sensitivity in zebrafish and Drosophila embryos by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS, Issue 12 2009
    Xianke Shi
    Abstract Zebrafish and Drosophila are animal models widely used in developmental biology. High-resolution microscopy and live imaging techniques have allowed the investigation of biological processes down to the cellular level in these models. Here, using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), we show that even processes on a molecular level can be studied in these embryos. The two animal models provide different advantages and challenges. We first characterize their autofluorescence pattern and determine usable penetration depth for FCS especially in the case of zebrafish, where tissue thickness is an issue. Next, the applicability of FCS to study molecular processes is shown by the determination of blood flow velocities with high spatial resolution and the determination of diffusion coefficients of cytosolic and membrane-bound enhanced green fluorescent protein,labeled proteins in different cell types. This work provides an approach to study molecular processes in vivo and opens up the possibility to relate these molecular processes to developmental biology questions. Developmental Dynamics 238:3156,3167, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Asator, a tau-tubulin kinase homolog in Drosophila localizes to the mitotic spindle

    DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS, Issue 12 2009
    Hongying Qi
    Abstract We have used a yeast two-hybrid interaction assay to identify Asator, a tau-tubulin kinase homolog in Drosophila that interacts directly with the spindle matrix protein Megator. Using immunocytochemical labeling by an Asator-specific mAb as well as by transgenic expression of a GFP-labeled Asator construct, we show that Asator is localized to the cytoplasm during interphase but redistributes to the spindle region during mitosis. Determination of transcript levels using qRT-PCR suggested that Asator is expressed throughout development but at relatively low levels. By P-element excision, we generated a null or strong hypomorphic Asatorexc allele that resulted in complete adult lethality when homozygous, indicating that Asator is an essential gene. That the observed lethality was caused by impaired Asator function was further supported by the partial restoration of viability by transgenic expression of Asator-GFP in the Asatorexc homozygous mutant background. The finding that Asator localizes to the spindle region during mitosis and directly can interact with Megator suggests that its kinase activity may be involved in regulating microtubule dynamics and microtubule spindle function. Developmental Dynamics 238:3248,3256, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Genome-wide expression profiling in the Drosophila eye reveals unexpected repression of notch signaling by the JAK/STAT pathway

    DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS, Issue 9 2009
    Maria Sol Flaherty
    Abstract Although the JAK/STAT pathway regulates numerous processes in vertebrates and invertebrates through modulating transcription, its functionally relevant transcriptional targets remain largely unknown. With one jak and one stat (stat92E), Drosophila provides a powerful system for finding new JAK/STAT target genes. Genome-wide expression profiling on eye discs in which Stat92E is hyperactivated, revealed 584 differentially regulated genes, including known targets domeless, socs36E, and wingless. Other differentially regulated genes (chinmo, lama, Mo25, Imp-L2, Serrate, Delta) were validated and may represent new Stat92E targets. Genetic experiments revealed that Stat92E cell-autonomously represses Serrate, which encodes a Notch ligand. Loss of Stat92E led to de-repression of Serrate in the dorsal eye, resulting in ectopic Notch signaling and aberrant eye growth there. Thus, our micro-array documents a new Stat92E target gene and a previously unidentified inhibitory action of Stat92E on Notch signaling. These data suggest that this study will be a useful resource for the identification of additional Stat92E targets. Developmental Dynamics 238:2235,2253, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Zinc-finger paralogues tsh and tio are functionally equivalent during imaginal development in Drosophila and maintain their expression levels through auto- and cross-negative feedback loops

    DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS, Issue 1 2009
    Josť Bessa
    Abstract teashirt (tsh) and tiptop (tio) are two Drosophila gene paralogues encoding zinc-finger transcription factors. While tsh is an important developmental regulator, tio null individuals are viable and fertile. Here, we show that tio and tsh have coincident expression domains in the imaginal discs, the precursors of the adult body, and that both genes show similar functional properties when expressed ectopically. Furthermore, tio is able to rescue the development of tsh mutants, indicating that both genes are functionally equivalent during imaginal development. Of interest, the transcriptional regulation of tio and tsh is linked by a negative feedback loop. This mechanism might be required to maintain a tight control on the total levels of tio/tsh and could help explaining why Drosophila keeps an apparently dispensable gene. Developmental Dynamics 238:19,28, 2009. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Muscle stem cells and model systems for their investigation

    DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS, Issue 12 2007
    Nicolas Figeac
    Abstract Stem cells are characterized by their clonal ability both to generate differentiated progeny and to undergo self-renewal. Studies of adult mammalian organs have revealed stem cells in practically every tissue. In the adult skeletal muscle, satellite cells are the primary muscle stem cells, responsible for postnatal muscle growth, hypertrophy, and regeneration. In the past decade, several molecular markers have been found that identify satellite cells in quiescent and activated states. However, despite their prime importance, surprisingly little is known about the biology of satellite cells, as their analysis was for a long time hampered by a lack of genetically amenable experimental models where their properties can be dissected. Here, we review how the embryonic origin of satellite cells was discovered using chick and mouse model systems and discuss how cells from other sources can contribute to muscle regeneration. We present evidence for evolutionarily conserved properties of muscle stem cells and their identification in lower vertebrates and in the fruit fly. In Drosophila, muscle stem cells called adult muscle precursors (AMP) can be identified in embryos and in larvae by persistent expression of a myogenic basic helix,loop,helix factor Twist. AMP cells play a crucial role in the Drosophila life cycle, allowing de novo formation and regeneration of adult musculature during metamorphosis. Based on the premise that AMPs represent satellite-like cells of the fruit fly, important insight into the biology of vertebrate muscle stem cells can be gained from genetic analysis in Drosophila. Developmental Dynamics 236:3332,3342, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Nucleolar colocalization of TAF1 and testis-specific TAFs during Drosophila spermatogenesis

    DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS, Issue 10 2007
    Chad E. Metcalf
    Abstract In Drosophila, testis-specific TBP-associated factors (tTAFs) predominantly localize to spermatocyte nucleoli and regulate the transcription of genes necessary for spermatocyte entry into meiosis. tTAFs are paralogs of generally expressed TAF subunits of transcription factor IID (TFIID). Our recent observation that the generally expressed TAF1 isoform TAF1-2 is greatly enriched in testes prompted us to explore the functional relationship between general TAFs and tTAFs during spermatogenesis. Analysis by immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that among the general TFIID subunits examined (TATA-box binding protein [TBP], TAF1, TAF4, TAF5, and TAF9), only TAF1 colocalized with the tTAF Mia in spermatocyte nucleoli. Nucleolar localization of TAF1, but not Mia, was disrupted in tTAF mutant flies, and TAF1 dissociated from DNA prior to Mia as spermatocytes entered meiosis. Taken together, our results suggest stepwise assembly of a testis-specific TFIID complex (tTFIID) whereby a TAF1 isoform, presumably TAF1-2, is recruited to a core subassembly of tTAFs in spermatocyte nucleoli. Developmental Dynamics 236:2836,2843, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Evolutionary conservation and divergence of the segmentation process in arthropods

    DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS, Issue 6 2007
    Wim G. M. Damen
    Abstract A fundamental characteristic of the arthropod body plan is its organization in metameric units along the anterior,posterior axis. The segmental organization is laid down during early embryogenesis. Our view on arthropod segmentation is still strongly influenced by the huge amount of data available from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster (the Drosophila paradigm). However, the simultaneous formation of the segments in Drosophila is a derived mode of segmentation. Successive terminal addition of segments from a posteriorly localized presegmental zone is the ancestral mode of arthropod segmentation. This review focuses on the evolutionary conservation and divergence of the genetic mechanisms of segmentation within arthropods. The more downstream levels of the segmentation gene network (e.g., segment polarity genes) appear to be more conserved than the more upstream levels (gap genes, Notch/Delta signaling). Surprisingly, the basally branched arthropod groups also show similarities to mechanisms used in vertebrate somitogenesis. Furthermore, it has become clear that the activation of pair rule gene orthologs is a key step in the segmentation of all arthropods. Important findings of conserved and diverged aspects of segmentation from the last few years now allow us to draw an evolutionary scenario on how the mechanisms of segmentation could have evolved and led to the present mechanisms seen in various insect groups including dipterans like Drosophila. Developmental Dynamics 236:1379,1391, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Microtubule-dependent organization of subcortical microfilaments in the early Drosophila embryo

    DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS, Issue 3 2007
    Maria Giovanna Riparbelli
    Abstract Dynamic alterations in the spatial organization of cytoskeletal elements constitute a prominent morphological feature of the early, syncytial stages of embryogenesis in Drosophila. Here, we describe and characterize the dynamic behavior of cytoplasmic, subcortical microfilaments, which form a series of nucleus-associated structures, at different phases of the simultaneous nuclear division cycles characteristic of early Drosophila embryos. Remodeling of the cytoplasmic microfilament arrays takes place in parallel to the established cyclic reorganization of cortical microfilament structures. We provide evidence that the cortical and subcortical microfilament populations organize independently of each other, and in response to distinct instructive cues. Specifically, formation of subcortical microfilament structures appears to rely on, and spatially mirror, the organization of polarized microtubule arrays, while cortical microfilament restructuring constitutes a centrosome-dependent process. Genetic analysis identifies a requirement for SCAR, a key mediator of Arp2/3-based microfilament dynamics, in organization of subcortical microfilament structures. Developmental Dynamics 236:662,670, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Polycomblike-2 -deficient mice exhibit normal left,right asymmetry

    DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS, Issue 3 2007
    Shusheng Wang
    Abstract Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are required for maintaining the repressed state of developmentally important genes such as homeotic genes. Polycomblike (Pcl), a member of PcG genes with two characteristic PHD finger motifs, was shown to strongly enhance the effects of PcG genes in Drosophila. Three Pcl genes exist in the mouse genome, with their function largely unknown. Our previous studies demonstrate that the chick Pcl2 is essential for the left,right asymmetry by silencing Shh expression in the right side of the node (Wang et al., [2004b] Development 131:4381,4391). To elucidate the in vivo role of mouse Pcl2, we generated Pcl2 mutant mice. Phenotypic analyses indicate the normal development of left,right asymmetry in the Pcl2 mutant mice. However, Pcl2 mutant mice exhibit posterior transformation of axial skeletons and other phenotypic defects, with a relatively low penetrance. These results demonstrate that Pcl2 is dispensable for the normal left,right axis development in mice. Developmental Dynamics 236:853,861, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Temporal and spatial expression profiles of the Fat3 protein, a giant cadherin molecule, during mouse development

    DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS, Issue 2 2007
    Shigenori Nagae
    Abstract Cadherins constitute a superfamily of cell,cell interaction molecules that participate in morphogenetic processes of animal development. Fat cadherins are the largest members of this superfamily, with 34 extracellular cadherin repeats. Classic Fat, identified in Drosophila, is known to regulate cell proliferation and planar cell polarity. Although 4 subtypes of Fat cadherin, Fat1, Fat2, Fat3, and Fat4/Fat-J, have been identified in vertebrates, their protein localization remains largely unknown. Here we describe the mRNA and protein distributions of Fat3 during mouse development. We found that Fat3 expression was restricted to the nervous system. In the brain, Fat3 was expressed in a variety of regions and axon fascicles. However, its strongest expression was observed in the olfactory bulb and retina. Detailed analysis of Fat3 in the developing olfactory bulb revealed that Fat3 mRNA was mainly expressed by mitral cells and that its proteins were densely localized along the dendrites of these cells as well as in their axons to some extent. Fat3 transcripts in the retina were expressed by amacrine and ganglion cells, and its proteins were concentrated in the inner plexiform layer throughout development. Based on these observations, we suggest that Fat3 plays a role in the interactions between neurites derived from specific subsets of neurons during development. Developmental Dynamics 236:534,543, 2007. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Drosophila melanogaster p24 genes have developmental, tissue-specific, and sex-specific expression patterns and functions

    DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS, Issue 2 2007
    Kara A. Boltz
    Abstract Genes encoding members of the p24 family of intracellular trafficking proteins are present throughout animal and plant lineages. However, very little is known about p24 developmental, spatial, or sex-specific expression patterns or how localized expression affects function. We investigated these problems in Drosophila melanogaster, which contains nine genes encoding p24 proteins. One of these genes, logjam (loj), is expressed in the adult female nervous system and ovaries and is essential for oviposition. Nervous system-specific expression of loj, but not ovary-specific expression, rescues the behavioral defect of mutants. The Loj protein localizes to punctate structures in the cellular cytoplasm. These structures colocalize with a marker specific to the intermediate compartment and cis -Golgi, consistent with experimental evidence from other systems suggesting that p24 proteins function in intracellular transport between the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi. Our findings reveal that Drosophila p24 transcripts are developmentally and tissue-specifically expressed. CG31787 is male-specifically expressed gene that is present during the larval, pupal, and adult stages. Female CG9053 mRNA is limited to the head, whereas males express this gene widely. Together, our studies provide experimental evidence indicating that some p24 genes have sex-specific expression patterns and tissue- and sex-limited functions. Developmental Dynamics 236:544,555, 2007. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Analysis of pattern precision shows that Drosophila segmentation develops substantial independence from gradients of maternal gene products

    DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS, Issue 11 2006
    David M. Holloway
    Abstract We analyze the relation between maternal gradients and segmentation in Drosophila, by quantifying spatial precision in protein patterns. Segmentation is first seen in the striped expression patterns of the pair-rule genes, such as even-skipped (eve). We compare positional precision between Eve and the maternal gradients of Bicoid (Bcd) and Caudal (Cad) proteins, showing that Eve position could be initially specified by the maternal protein concentrations but that these do not have the precision to specify the mature striped pattern of Eve. By using spatial trends, we avoid possible complications in measuring single boundary precision (e.g., gap gene patterns) and can follow how precision changes in time. During nuclear cleavage cycles 13 and 14, we find that Eve becomes increasingly correlated with egg length, whereas Bcd does not. This finding suggests that the change in precision is part of a separation of segmentation from an absolute spatial measure, established by the maternal gradients, to one precise in relative (percent egg length) units. Developmental Dynamics 235:2949,2960, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Maternal expression and function of the Drosophila sox gene Dichaete during oogenesis

    DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS, Issue 10 2006
    Ashim Mukherjee
    Abstract Members of the Sox family of DNA-binding HMG domain proteins have been shown to regulate gene transcription in a wide range of developmental processes, including sex determination, neurogenesis, and chondrogenesis. However, little is known about their potential functions in developing germline tissues. In Drosophila, the Sox protein Dichaete (a.k.a., Fish-hook) is a member of the SoxB subgroup whose HMG domain shares strong sequence similarity to that of vertebrate Sox2. Dichaete exhibits dynamic expression in embryonic and larval stages and has pleiotropic functions in a variety of tissues. In this study, we extend analyses of Dichaete function and show that expression of Dichaete protein is detected in the developing oocyte during early to mid stages of oogenesis. Strikingly, Dichaete exhibits cytoplasmic distribution and is not detected in the oocyte nucleus. Germline mosaic analyses revealed that the Dichaete gene has maternal functions that influence dorsal/ventral patterning of the egg chamber. Dichaete mutant eggs exhibit defects in formation of the dorsal appendages, differentiation of dorsal/anterior follicle cells, and mislocalization of Gurken protein and gurken mRNA. Dichaete protein was shown to possess RNA-binding capabilities, suggesting a direct post-transcriptional role in regulating RNA functions. Developmental Dynamics 235:2828,2835, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Bapx1 homeobox gene gain-of-function mice show preaxial polydactyly and activated Shh signaling in the developing limb

    DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS, Issue 9 2006
    Carla Tribioli
    Abstract To explore Bapx1 homeobox gene function in embryonic control of development, we employed a gain-of-function approach to complement our previous loss-of-function mutant analysis. We show that transgenic mice overexpressing Bapx1 are affected by skeletal defects including hindlimb preaxial polydactyly and tibial hypoplasia. Bapx1 overexpression generates limb anteroposterior patterning defects including induction of Shh signaling and ectopic activation of functions downstream of Shh signaling into the anterior region of the autopod. Moreover, Bapx1 overexpression stimulates formation of limb prechondrogenic condensations. We also show that Shh is reciprocally able to activate Bapx1 expression in mouse embryos as the orthologous hedgehog (hh) does with the bagpipe/Bapx1 gene in Drosophila. Our results indicate that Bapx1 can modulate appendicular skeletal formation, that the genetic hierarchy between Shh/hh and Bapx1/bagpipe has been conserved during evolution, and that in mouse embryos these two genes can influence one another in a genetically reciprocal manner. We conclude that it is reasonable to expect overexpression of Bapx1 in certain forms of polydactyly. Developmental Dynamics 235:2483,2492, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    The zebrafish bHLH PAS transcriptional regulator, single-minded 1 (sim1), is required for isotocin cell development

    DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS, Issue 8 2006
    Jennifer L. Eaton
    Abstract A wide range of physiological and behavioral processes, such as social, sexual, and maternal behaviors, learning and memory, and osmotic homeostasis are influenced by the neurohypophysial peptides oxytocin and vasopressin. Disruptions of these hormone systems have been linked to several neurobehavioral disorders, including autism, Prader-Willi syndrome, affective disorders, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Studies in zebrafish promise to reveal the complex network of regulatory genes and signaling pathways that direct the development of oxytocin- and vasopressin-like neurons, and provide insight into factors involved in brain disorders associated with disruption of these systems. Isotocin, which is homologous to oxytocin, is expressed early, in a simple pattern in the developing zebrafish brain. Single-minded 1 (sim1), a member of the bHLH-PAS family of transcriptional regulatory genes, is required for terminal differentiation of mammalian oxytocin cells and is a master regulator of neurogenesis in Drosophila. Here we show that sim1 is expressed in the zebrafish forebrain and is required for isotocin cell development. The expression pattern of sim1 mRNA in the embryonic forebrain is dynamic and complex, and overlaps with isotocin expression in the preoptic area. We provide evidence that the role of sim1 in zebrafish neuroendocrine cell development is evolutionarily conserved with that of mammals. Developmental Dynamics 235:2071,2082, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    A novel mutant phenotype implicates dicephalic in cyst formation in the Drosophila ovary

    DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS, Issue 4 2006
    Ruth McCaffrey
    Abstract The establishment of polarity in Drosophila requires the correct specification of the oocyte in early stages of oogenesis, its positioning at the posterior of the egg chamber, and signalling events between the oocyte and the adjacent posterior follicle cells. As a consequence, the anterior-posterior and the dorsal-ventral axes are fixed. The posterior localisation of the oocyte depends on cadherin-mediated adhesion between the oocyte and the follicle cells. Here we show that dicephalic mutants affect the posterior positioning of the oocyte without interfering with oocyte specification in the germarium. Unlike other mutants that also affect the posterior placement of the oocyte, dicephalic mutants affect neither gurken expression nor karyosome formation during meiosis. By analysing in detail the mutant phenotypes of dicephalic, we find that cyst formation in mutant germaria is defective and that it shares some similarities with cysts that lack DE-cadherin in the germline cells. We propose a model in which dicephalic is involved in the proper adhesion between the oocyte and the somatic follicle cells. Developmental Dynamics 235:908,917, 2006. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Functional analysis of murine CBF1 during Drosophila development

    DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS, Issue 4 2006
    Markus Kaspar
    Abstract Transcription factors of the CSL family are the main mediators of the Notch signalling pathway. The CSL factor in Drosophila is called Suppressor of Hairless (Su(H)) and it has been shown that it acts as a transcriptional repressor in the absence of a Notch signal and as a transcriptional activator in its presence in several developmental contexts. Furthermore, recent data suggest that Su(H) can also activate and maintain transcription of some target genes in a Notch-independent manner. However, although it has been shown that the mammalian CSL ortholog, CBF1, acts as a repressor of transcription in cell culture experiments, so far in vivo evidence for such a function has been lacking. Moreover, it is not known whether CBF1 can activate transcription in a Notch-independent manner, just like Su(H). Here we have investigated these questions by introducing murine CBF1 (mCBF1) and asked whether it can functionally replace Su(H) during Drosophila development. We found that this is indeed the case. We show that mCBF1 can act as a repressor of transcription and can activate and maintain the expression of some target genes in a Notch-independent manner. Our results, therefore, indicate that CBF1 can exert these functions also in its normal context, that is during mammalian development. Developmental Dynamics 235:918,927, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Abelson, enabled, and P120catenin exert distinct effects on dendritic morphogenesis in Drosophila

    DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS, Issue 4 2005
    Wenjun Li
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Fjx1: A notch-inducible secreted ligand with specific binding sites in developing mouse embryos and adult brain

    DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS, Issue 3 2005
    Rebecca Rock
    Abstract The mouse fjx1 gene was identified as a homologue to the Drosophila gene four-jointed (fj). Fj encodes a transmembrane type II glycoprotein that is partially secreted. The gene was found to be a downstream target of the Notch signaling pathway in leg segmentation and planar cell polarity processes during eye development of Drosophila. Here, we show that fjx1 is not only conserved in vertebrates, but we also identified the murine fjx1 gene as a direct target of Notch signaling. In addition to the previously described expression of fjx1 in mouse brain, we show here that fjx1 is expressed in the peripheral nervous system, epithelial cells of multiple organs, and during limb development. The protein is processed and secreted as a presumptive ligand. Through the use of an fjx1-AP fusion protein, we could visualize fjx1 binding sites at complementary locations, supporting the notion that fjx1 may function as a novel signaling molecule. Developmental Dynamics 234:602,612, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]