Advantage

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Advantage

  • adaptive advantage
  • added advantage
  • additional advantage
  • another advantage
  • biological advantage
  • certain advantage
  • clear advantage
  • clinical advantage
  • comparative advantage
  • competitive advantage
  • computational advantage
  • considerable advantage
  • cost advantage
  • different advantage
  • distinct advantage
  • ecological advantage
  • economic advantage
  • evolutionary advantage
  • fecundity advantage
  • firm competitive advantage
  • fitness advantage
  • full advantage
  • functional advantage
  • great advantage
  • greater advantage
  • growth advantage
  • health advantage
  • heterozygote advantage
  • important advantage
  • incumbency advantage
  • informational advantage
  • inherent advantage
  • key advantage
  • main advantage
  • major advantage
  • many advantage
  • maximum advantage
  • mechanical advantage
  • numerous advantage
  • obvious advantage
  • offer advantage
  • offer several advantage
  • one advantage
  • other advantage
  • own advantage
  • particular advantage
  • perceived advantage
  • performance advantage
  • physiological advantage
  • possible advantage
  • potential advantage
  • practical advantage
  • present advantage
  • price advantage
  • primary advantage
  • principal advantage
  • real advantage
  • relative advantage
  • reproductive advantage
  • respective advantage
  • safety advantage
  • selective advantage
  • several advantage
  • several important advantage
  • several potential advantage
  • significant advantage
  • significant survival advantage
  • size advantage
  • slight advantage
  • specific advantage
  • strategic advantage
  • substantial advantage
  • survival advantage
  • sustainable competitive advantage
  • take advantage
  • technical advantage
  • theoretical advantage
  • therapeutic advantage
  • unique advantage
  • various advantage
  • yield advantage


  • Selected Abstracts


    COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE AND AUSTRALIA-CHINA BILATERAL TRADE

    ECONOMIC PAPERS: A JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECONOMICS AND POLICY, Issue 1 2008
    YU SHENG
    Bilateral trade between Australia and China has expanded in recent years. This paper examines the determinants of bilateral trade at the two-digit commodity level using a modified gravity model with explicitly specified revealed comparative advantage incorporated. This methodology allows us to explore how the relative comparative advantage of Australia and China to the world, mirroring their individual pattern of factor endowments, affects the pattern of trade between the two countries and to identify whether there exists a kind of complimentarity international specialisation between the two countries against the backdrop of each country's booming trade with the rest of the world. Key commodities such as agricultural products, iron ore, petroleum, textiles and clothing, and machinery goods are considered to estimate net welfare in terms of added value deriving from bilateral trade. The findings have policy implications for forging future trade and economic cooperation between Australia and China. [source]


    TURNING ISOLATION TO ADVANTAGE IN REGIONAL COST,BENEFIT ANALYSIS

    ECONOMIC PAPERS: A JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECONOMICS AND POLICY, Issue 1 2007
    LEO DOBES
    Projects in small regional communities are rarely subjected to cost,benefit analysis, partly because of the perceived difficulty and cost of doing so. However, the very isolation of such communities means that well-established analytical techniques used for transport projects can be used to estimate the costs and benefits of government provision of goods and services. [source]


    Seeds of doubt , ADVANTAGE no one

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PRACTICE, Issue 11 2008
    G. Jackson Editor
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    RISING WAGES: HAS CHINA LOST ITS GLOBAL LABOR ADVANTAGE?

    PACIFIC ECONOMIC REVIEW, Issue 4 2010
    Dennis Tao Yang
    We document dramatic rising wages in China for the period 1978,2007 based on multiple sources of aggregate statistics. Although real wages increased seven-fold during the period, growth was uneven across ownership types, industries and regions. Over the past decade, the wages of state-owned enterprises have increased rapidly and wage disparities between skill-intensive and labour-intensive industries have widened. Comparisons of international data show that China's manufacturing wage has already converged to that of Asian emerging markets, but China still enjoys enormous labour cost advantages over its neighbouring developed economies. Our analysis suggests that China's wage growth will stabilize to a moderate pace in the near future. [source]


    NETWORK EXTERNALITIES AND COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE

    BULLETIN OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH, Issue 4 2007
    Toru Kikuchi
    D43; F12; L13 ABSTRACT In this article, I examine how the network externalities of communications activities and trading opportunities interact to determine the structure of comparative advantage. These interactions are examined by constructing a two-country, three-sector model of trade involving a country-specific communications network sector. The role of the connectivity of network providers, which allows users of a network to communicate with users of another network, is also explored. [source]


    FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA: CHANGING LOCATION-SPECIFIC ADVANTAGES AS SIGNALS OF COMPETITIVENESS

    THE DEVELOPING ECONOMIES, Issue 3 2009
    Frank L. BARTELS
    F21; R3; P42; F23 This paper uses longitudinal factor analysis of location-specific advantages that are relevant to the foreign direct investment decisions of multinational enterprises (MNEs) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) to signal changes in location competitiveness. A total of 1,216 responses by MNEs to a survey in 15 SSA countries are analyzed. We find that, first, over a three-year period (2002,5), MNEs perceive a positive change in the market-servicing environment in SSA. Second, MNEs find negative changes in SSA regarding the availability of input factors and characteristics of market demand. [source]


    Sustainable Development and the Sustainability of Competitive Advantage: A Dynamic and Sustainable View of the Firm

    CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION MANAGEMENT, Issue 3 2002
    Miguel A. Rodriguez
    Does the need for sustainable development hinder businesses' ability to create value? Is a firm's competitiveness negatively affected by considering that need? After quickly reviewing the main literature contributions on the relationship between business and society, and drawing from resource-based view of the firm and sustainable development literature, this paper presents a proposal for a dynamic and sustainable view of the firm. It shows how considering the changes introduced into the competitive landscape by sustainable development influences the way in which companies develop their resources, capabilities and activities, fostering the persistence of competitive advantages based on knowledge and innovation. [source]


    An Exploratory Analysis of the Value of the Skills of IT Personnel: Their Relationship to IS Infrastructure and Competitive Advantage

    DECISION SCIENCES, Issue 1 2001
    Terry Anthony Byrd
    Abstract Determining and assessing the requisite skills of information technology (IT) personnel have become critical as the value of IT has risen in modern organizations. In addition to technical skills traditionally expected of IT personnel, softer skills like managerial, business, and interpersonal skills have been increasingly cited in previous studies as mandatory for these employees. This paper uses a typology of IT personnel skills,technology management skills, business functional skills, interpersonal skills, and technical skills,and investigates their relationships to two information systems (IS) success variables, IS infrastructure flexibility and the competitive advantage provided by IS. The study investigates these relationships using the perceptions of chief information officers (CIOs) from mostly Fortune 2000 companies. The contributions of this study are: IT personnel skills do affect IS success, technical skills are viewed as the most important skill set in affecting IS infrastructure flexibility and competitive advantage, and modularity is viewed as more valuable to competitive advantage than integration. Several explanations are offered for the lack of positive relationships between the softer IT personnel skills and the dimensions of IS success used in this study. [source]


    Managing Design for Market Advantage: Protecting Both Form and Function of Innovative Designs

    DESIGN MANAGEMENT REVIEW, Issue 1 2004
    Joshua Cohen
    To reap the rewards of creative designs, it is critical to maintain ownership and control of those designs. Joshua Cohen summarizes the spectrum of legal options for protecting products, packaging, and related intellectual property. He highlights potential conflicts among these options, suggests how they can be used to complement one another, and proposes strategies to make design protection an integral aspect of designing and marketing. [source]


    Managing Design for Competitive Advantage A Process Approach

    DESIGN MANAGEMENT REVIEW, Issue 4 2000
    Eric M. Olson
    FOR EXECUTIVES who want to strengthen the design/ business relationship, Eric Olson, Stanley Slater, and Rachel Cooper make some clear recommendations. Make sure designers and design managers understand the organization's competitive strategy; enumerate the design elements inherent in that strategy; nurture open communication between design and other functions; develop design briefs that stimulate creativity at the same time they reinforce business strategy; and measure performance. It's advice that's both sound and challenging. [source]


    Gaining the Innovation Advantage: Cultivating Your Creativity in Turbulent Times

    EMPLOYMENT RELATIONS TODAY, Issue 4 2001
    Rick Kirschner
    [source]


    Corporate Governance and Competitive Advantage in Family-Controlled Firms

    ENTREPRENEURSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE, Issue 3 2005
    Michael Carney
    Recent attempts to identify the basis of family-controlled firms' competitive advantage have drawn upon the resource-based view of the firm. This article supplements these efforts and advances the argument that family-controlled firms' competitive advantage arises from their system of corporate governance. Systems of corporate governance embody incentives, authority patterns, and norms of legitimation that generate particular organizational propensities to create competitive advantages and disadvantages. For comparative purposes, the characteristics of managerial, alliance, and family governance are reviewed. The impact of a family's control rights over a firm's assets generates three dominant propensities (parsimony, personalism, and particularism). These propensities give advantages in scarce environments, facilitate the creation and utilization of social capital, and engender opportunistic investment processes. The experience of family-controlled firms in emerging markets is drawn upon to illustrate the argument. [source]


    Typologies of Advantage and Disadvantage: Socio-economic Outcomes in Australian Metropolitan Cities

    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH, Issue 4 2005
    SCOTT BAUM
    Abstract Australia's metropolitan cities have undergone significant social, economic and demographic change over the past several decades. In terms of socio-economic advantage and disadvantage these changes, which are often associated with globalisation, wider economic and technological restructuring, the changing demographics of the population and shifts in public policy are not evenly dispersed across cities, but represent a range of often contrasting outcomes. The current paper develops a typology of socio-economic advantage and disadvantage for locations across Australian metropolitan cities. More specifically, the paper takes a range of Australian Bureau of Statistics data and uses a model-based approach with clustering of data represented by a parameterised Gaussian mixture model and discriminant analysis utilised to consider the differences between the clusters. These clusters form the basis of a typology representing the range of socio-economic and demographic outcomes at the local community level. [source]


    Vertical Phase Separation in Poly(3-hexylthiophene): Fullerene Derivative Blends and its Advantage for Inverted Structure Solar Cells

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 8 2009
    Zheng Xu
    Abstract A method which enables the investigation of the buried interfaces without altering the properties of the polymer films is used to study vertical phase separation of spin-coated poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):fullerene derivative blends. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis reveals the P3HT enrichment at the free (air) surfaces and abundance of fullerene derivatives at the organic/substrate interfaces. The vertical phase separation is attributed to the surface energy difference of the components and their interactions with the substrates. This inhomogeneous distribution of the donor and acceptor components significantly affects photovoltaic device performance and makes the inverted device structure a promising choice. [source]


    Competition in UKHigher Education: Competitive Advantage in the Research Assessment Exercise and Porter's Diamond Model

    HIGHER EDUCATION QUARTERLY, Issue 4 2000
    Paul J. CurranArticle first published online: 9 OCT 200
    The UK public sector has been exposed to competition as a means of enhancing its performance. HE institutions now compete for resources on the basis of research. In this competitive environment the crucial question is not why one HE institution is more successful than another at research but why some institutions are home to a large number of departments that are successful. The answer lies in exploring what gives competitive advantage at the level of the department, discipline and nation. Porter' three layer ,diamond' model of competitive advantage is proposed as a framework for this exploration. This identified four major components: factor conditions (research orientation and accumulated wealth of institution); demand conditions (demand by academy for departmental research as measured by ability to secure external income/research students); related and supporting departments (research strength of institution and presence of a relevant cluster of research-strong departments) and departmental strategy, structure and rivalry (ability to focus departmental attention on the successful training of research students and publication in refereed journals). In a linked paper this model provided a framework to evaluate research performance in the discipline of geography (Curran, 2001). [source]


    Comparative Advantage in Demand: Experimental Evidence of Preferences for Genetically Modified Food in the United States and European Union

    JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS, Issue 1 2006
    Jayson L. Lusk
    Q130; Q170; Q180; C190 Abstract The United States (US) exports more than US$6 billion in agricultural commodities to the European Union(EU) each year, but one issue carries the potential to diminish this trade: use of biotechnology in food production. The EU has adopted more stringent policies towards biotechnology than the US. Understanding differences in European and American policies towards genetically modified (GM) foods requires a greater understanding of consumers' attitudes and preferences. This paper reports results from the first large-scale, cross-Atlantic study to analyse consumer demand for genetically modified food in a non-hypothetical market environment. We strongly reject the frequent if convenient assumption in trade theory that consumer preferences are identical across countries: the median level of compensation demanded by English and French consumers to consume a GM food is found to be more than twice that in any of the US locations. Results have important implications for trade theory, which typically focuses on differences in specialization, comparative advantage and factor endowments across countries, and for on-going trade disputes at the World Trade Organization. [source]


    Do Hierarchical Condition Category Model Scores Predict Hospitalization Risk in Newly Enrolled Medicare Advantage Participants as Well as Probability of Repeated Admission Scores?

    JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 12 2009
    David G. Mosley MHA
    OBJECTIVES: To compare how well hierarchical condition categories (HCC) and probability of repeated admission (PRA) scores predict hospitalization. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study with 12-month follow-up. SETTING: A Medicare Advantage (MA) plan. PARTICIPANTS: Four thousand five hundred six newly enrolled beneficiaries. MEASUREMENT: HCC scores were identified from enrollment files. The PRA tool was administered by mail and telephone. Inpatient admissions were based on notifications. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare HCC scores of PRA responders and nonresponders. The receiver operating characteristic curve provided the area under the curve (AUC) for each score. Admission risk in the top 5% of scores was evaluated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Within 60 days of enrollment, 45.1% of the 3,954 beneficiaries with HCC scores completed the PRA tool. HCC scores were lower for the 1,783 PRA respondents than the 2,171 nonrespondents (0.71 vs 0.81, P<.001). AUCs predicting hospitalization with regard to HCC and PRA were similar (0.638, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.603,0.674; 0.654, 95% CI=0.618,0.690). Individuals identified in the top 5% of scores using both tools, using HCC alone, or using PRA alone had higher risk for hospitalization than those below the 95th percentile (odds ratio (OR)=8.5, 95% CI=3.7,19.4, OR=3.8, 95% CI=2.3,6.3, and OR=3.9, 95% CI=2.3,6.4, respectively). CONCLUSION: HCC scores provided to MA plans for risk adjustment of revenue can also be used to identify hospitalization risk. Additional studies are required to evaluate whether a hybrid approach incorporating administrative and self-reported models would further optimize risk stratification efforts. [source]


    Advantage of using CBA/N strain mice in a non-radioisotopic modification of the local lymph node assay

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED TOXICOLOGY, Issue 1 2006
    Masahiro Takeyoshi
    Abstract The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is currently recognized as a stand-alone test method for determining the skin sensitizing potential of chemicals. It has been incorporated into the official test guidelines published by some authorities, including the OECD. To avoid the use of radioisotopes, efforts have been made recently to develop non-radioisotopic modifications of the LLNA. A non-radioisotopic modification of the LLNA was developed previously using 5-bromo-2,-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation (non-RI LLNA). However, the non-RI LLNA was found to be somewhat less sensitive than the standard assay. This study reports the advantage of using mice of the CBA/N strain in the non-RI LLNA to improve the sensitivity of this method. The non-RI LLNA was performed using CBA/JN and CBA/N mice exposed to one of four confirmed skin sensitizers, 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), eugenol (EG), isoeugenol (IEG) or , -hexylcinnamic aldehyde (HCA), and to one non-sensitizer, propylene glycol (PG). The EC3 values for DNCB, IEG, EG, HCA and PG were calculated to be 0.1%, 9.6%, 40.6%, 45.5% and >50% in CBA/JN mice and 0.08%, 1.9%, 10.7%, 20.3% and >50% in CBA/N mice, respectively. The EC3 values for DNCB, IEG, EG, HCA and PG in the standard LLNA using CBA/Ca mice and radioisotopes were reported elsewhere as being 0.08%, 1.3%, 13.0%, 8.0% and >50%, respectively. The EC3 values derived from the CBA/N mice in the non-RI LLNA were nearly equivalent to the EC3 values obtained using the standard radioisotopic LLNA with CBA/Ca mice. These data suggest that the use of CBA/N mice may provide a realistic opportunity to develop a version of the LLNA that does not have a requirement for the use of radioisotopes, but which nevertheless has sensitivity approaching, or comparable to, the standard method. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    High Relative Humidity In-Package of Fresh-Cut Fruits and Vegetables: Advantage or Disadvantage Considering Microbiological Problems and Antimicrobial Delivering Systems?

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 4 2008
    J.F. Ayala-Zavala
    ABSTRACT:, This hypothesis article states that the high relative humidity (RH) of packaged fresh-cut fruits or vegetables that is associated with spoilage can be used as an advantageous way to deliver antimicrobial compounds using cyclodextrins (CDs) as carriers. CDs can function as antimicrobial delivery systems as they can release antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds (guest molecules) as the humidity levels increase in the headspace. Hydrophobic antimicrobial guests can be complexed with CDs due to the amphiphatic nature of the host. Then, at high RH values, due to the water,CDs interaction, host,guest interactions are weakened; consequently, the antimicrobial molecule is released and should protect the product against the microbial growth. Potential antimicrobial compounds capable of forming complexes with CDs are discussed, as well as possible applications to preserve fresh-cut produce and future research in this area. [source]


    Quality Meets Structure: Generalized Reciprocity and Firm-Level Advantage in Strategic Networks

    JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES, Issue 4 2010
    Joakim Wincent
    abstract In this paper we extend previous research by combining network structural and network process approaches. Specifically, in a six-year, three-wave study of 41 firms in two strategic networks, we found that the interaction between generalized reciprocity among a focal firm's partners and network tie intensity and betweenness centrality improved firm performance. No influences were observed for the interaction involving degree centrality and generalized reciprocity. Our research suggests that managers in strategic networks may need to consider the balance between relationship-extensive and relationship-intensive strategies. [source]


    Gender Asymmetry in Family Migration: Occupational Inequality or Interspousal Comparative Advantage?

    JOURNAL OF MARRIAGE AND FAMILY, Issue 2 2010
    Kimberlee A. Shauman
    This paper examines gender inequality in the determinants of job-related long-distance migration among married dual-earner couples during the 1980s and 1990s. The analysis tested the structural explanation, which attributes gender asymmetry in family migration to structural inequality in the labor market, and the comparative advantage explanation derived from relative resource theory. The analysis used individual- and family-level data from 5,504 Panel Study of Income Dynamics families, occupation-level data from the 1980,2000 U.S. Decennial Censuses Integrated Public Use Micro Samples, and discrete-time event history models. Gender differences in the determinants of family migration were not explained by gender differences in occupational characteristics, but the results partially support the relative resource theory by illustrating the conditioning influence of interspousal comparative advantage. [source]


    The Persistence of Wives' Income Advantage

    JOURNAL OF MARRIAGE AND FAMILY, Issue 4 2006
    Sarah Winslow-Bowe
    Recent reports using cross-sectional data indicate an increase in the percentage of wives who outearn their husbands, yet we know little about the persistence of wives' income advantage. The present analyses utilize the 1990 , 1994 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (N= 3,481) to examine wives' long-term earnings advantage. Although a significant minority of women outearn their husbands in 1 year, considerably fewer do so for 5 consecutive years. The presence and persistence of wives' income advantage vary by demographic characteristics, economic and human capital measures, and over the individual and marital life course. The findings suggest caution in interpreting women's relative economic gains as signaling absolute progress toward eliminating gender inequality within marriages. [source]


    Distinguishing N -oxide and hydroxyl compounds: impact of heated capillary/heated ion transfer tube in inducing atmospheric pressure ionization source decompositions

    JOURNAL OF MASS SPECTROMETRY (INCORP BIOLOGICAL MASS SPECTROMETRY), Issue 6 2004
    Dilrukshi M. Peiris
    Abstract In the pharmaceutical industry, a higher attrition rate during the drug discovery process means a lower drug failure rate in the later stages. This translates into shorter drug development time and reduced cost for bringing a drug to market. Over the past few years, analytical strategies based on liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) have gone through revolutionary changes and presently accommodate most of the needs of the pharmaceutical industry. Among these LC/MS techniques, collision induced dissociation (CID) or tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS and MSn) techniques have been widely used to identify unknown compounds and characterize metabolites. MS/MS methods are generally ineffective for distinguishing isomeric compounds such as metabolites involving oxygenation of carbon or nitrogen atoms. Most recently, atmospheric pressure ionization (API) source decomposition methods have been shown to aid in the mass spectral distinction of isomeric oxygenated (N -oxide vs hydroxyl) products/metabolites. In previous studies, experiments were conducted using mass spectrometers equipped with a heated capillary interface between the mass analyzer and the ionization source. In the present study, we investigated the impact of the length of a heated capillary or heated ion transfer tube (a newer version of the heated capillary designed for accommodating orthogonal API source design) in inducing for-API source deoxygenation that allows the distinction of N -oxide from hydroxyl compounds. 8-Hydroxyquinoline (HO-Q), quinoline- N -oxide (Q-NO) and 8-hydroxyquinoline- N -oxide (HO-Q-NO) were used as model compounds on three different mass spectrometers (LCQ Deca, LCQ Advantage and TSQ Quantum). Irrespective of heated capillary or ion transfer tube length, N -oxides from this class of compounds underwent predominantly deoxygenation decomposition under atmospheric pressure chemical ionization conditions and the abundance of the diagnostic [M + H , O]+ ions increased with increasing vaporizer temperature. Furthermore, the results suggest that in API source decompostion methods described in this paper can be conducted using mass spectrometers with non-heated capillary or ion transfer tube API interfaces. Because N-oxides can undergo in-source decomposition and interfere with quantitation experiments, particular attention should be paid when developing API based bioanalytical methods. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    NeoHepatocytes From Alcoholics and Controls Express Hepatocyte Markers and Display Reduced Fibrogenic TGF-,/Smad3 Signaling: Advantage for Cell Transplantation?

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 4 2010
    Sabrina Ehnert
    Background:, Liver transplantation is the only definitive treatment for end stage liver disease. Donor organ scarcity raises a growing interest in new therapeutic options. Recently, we have shown that injection of monocyte-derived NeoHepatocytes can increase survival in rats with extended liver resection. In order to apply this technology in humans with chronic liver diseases in an autologous setting, we generated NeoHepatocytes from patients with alcoholic liver disease and healthy controls and compared those to human hepatocytes. Methods:, We generated NeoHepatocytes from alcoholics with Child A and B cirrhosis and healthy controls. Hepatocytes marker expression and transforming growth factor (TGF)-, signaling was investigated by RT-PCR, Western blot, immunofluorescent staining, and adenoviral reporter assays. Glucose and urea was measured photometrically. Phase I and II enzyme activities were measured using fluorogenic substrates. Neutral lipids were visualized by Oil Red O staining. Results:, There was no significant difference in generation and yield of NeoHepatocytes from alcoholics and controls. Hepatocyte markers, e.g., cytokeratin18 and alcohol dehydrogenase 1, increased significantly throughout differentiation. Glucose and urea production did not differ between alcoholics and controls and was comparable to human hepatocytes. During differentiation, phase I and II enzyme activities increased, however remained significantly lower than in human hepatocytes. Fat accumulation was induced by treatment with insulin, TGF-, and ethanol only in differentiated cells and hepatocytes. TGF-, signaling, via Smad transcription factors, critically required for progression of chronic liver disease, was comparable among the investigated cell types, merely expression of Smad1 and -3 was reduced (,30 and ,60%) in monocytes, programmable cells of monocytic origin, and NeoHepatocytes. Subsequently, expression of TGF-, regulated pro-fibrogenic genes, e.g., connective tissue growth factor and fibronectin was reduced. Conclusions:, Generation of NeoHepatocytes from alcoholics, displaying several features of human hepatocytes, offers new perspectives for cell therapeutic approaches, as cells can be obtained repeatedly in a noninvasive manner. Furthermore, the autologous setting reduces the need for immunosuppressants, which may support recovery of patients which are declined for liver transplantation. [source]


    Entrepreneurial Access and Absorption of Knowledge Spillovers: Strategic Board and Managerial Composition for Competitive Advantage

    JOURNAL OF SMALL BUSINESS MANAGEMENT, Issue 2 2006
    David B. Audretsch
    The resource theory of the firm implies that knowledge is a key resource bestowing a competitive advantage for entrepreneurial firms. However, it remains rather unclear up to now how new ventures and small businesses can access knowledge resources. The purpose of this study was to suggest two strategies, in particular, that facilitate entrepreneurial access to and absorption of external knowledge spillovers: the attraction of managers and directors with an academic background. Based on data on board composition of 295 high-technology firms, the results clearly demonstrate the strong link between geographical proximity to research-intense universities and board composition. [source]


    The Effect of Franchisors' Communication, Service Assistance, and Competitive Advantage on Franchisees' Intentions to Remain in the Franchise System

    JOURNAL OF SMALL BUSINESS MANAGEMENT, Issue 1 2004
    Jyh-Shen Chiou
    This study developed and empirically tested a model examining the antecedents of franchisees' overall satisfaction and intention to remain in a franchise system. Based on a sample from a convenient store franchise system in Taiwan, the results showed that communication is very important in reinforcing franchisees' trust and overall satisfaction with the franchise system. The results also showed that competitive advantage of a franchise system is the basis for a franchisee's overall satisfaction and intention to remain in a franchise system. However, satisfaction of a franchisor's service assistance did not have direct impact on a franchisee's overall satisfaction toward the franchise system. [source]


    Advantage of pancreaticogastrostomy in detecting recurrent intraductal papillary mucinous carcinoma in the remnant pancreas: A case of successful re-resection after pancreaticoduodenectomy

    JOURNAL OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY, Issue 6 2006
    Yoshito Tomimaru MD
    Abstract Recently there has been an increase in the number of case reports detailing the recurrence of cancer in the pancreatic remnants following surgical resection of intraductal papillary mucinous carcinoma (IPMC) of the pancreas. A case is presented here to indicate the advantage of pancreaticogastrostomy (PG) in terms of postoperative follow-up after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) for IPMC. A 68-year-old man underwent PD for IPMC of the pancreatic head, and the cut margin of the pancreatic duct was diagnosed as having no cancer but moderately dysplastic epithelium by an intraoperative frozen section of histology. Thus, we decided to proceed with a PG rather than pancreaticojejunostomy (PJ) in order to facilitate easier postoperative examinations. Eight years and 6 months later, during a routine follow-up examination, duct dilation of the remnant pancreas was detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Upon examination by endoscopic gastroscopy, the anastomotic site was found to be covered with a large amount of mucin from which we easily obtained both cytologic and biopsied specimens, which subsequently proved positive for cancer. In line with our diagnosis of recurrent IPMC, the patient underwent a second surgery (resection of the remnant pancreas, total pancreatectomy) and postoperative histology confirmed that indeed the patient had experienced recurrent IPMC with no nodal involvement or invasion beyond the pancreatic confines. Based on this experience, we decided to recommend PG for all patients deemed to be at high risk for the recurrence of cancer in the pancreatic remnants following PD for IPMC of the pancreatic head. J. Surg. Oncol. 2006;93:511,515. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Manifestation of emerging specialties in journal literature: A growth model of papers, references, exemplars, bibliographic coupling, cocitation, and clustering coefficient distribution

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR INFORMATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, Issue 12 2005
    Steven A. Morris
    A model is presented of the manifestation of the birth and development of a scientific specialty in a collection of journal papers. The proposed model, Cumulative Advantage by Paper with Exemplars (CAPE) is an adaptation of Price's cumulative advantage model (D. Price, 1976). Two modifications are made: (a) references are cited in groups by paper, and (b) the model accounts for the generation of highly cited exemplar references immediately after the birth of the specialty. This simple growth process mimics many characteristic features of real collections of papers, including the structure of the paper-to-reference matrix, the reference-per-paper distribution, the paper-per-reference distribution, the bibliographic coupling distribution, the cocitation distribution, the bibliographic coupling clustering coefficient distribution, and the temporal distribution of exemplar references. The model yields a great deal of insight into the process that produces the connectedness and clustering of a collection of articles and references. Two examples are presented and successfully modeled: a collection of 131 articles on MEMS RF (microelectromechnical systems radio frequency) switches, and a collection of 901 articles on the subject of complex networks. [source]


    Nutritional evaluation of peas for ducks

    JOURNAL OF THE SCIENCE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE, Issue 5 2004
    Charles M Nyachoti
    Abstract The nutritive value of four pea cultivars (AC Advantage, Carneval, CDC Mozart and Keoma) and soybean meal (SBM) was evaluated in a 102 h study with 48 male White Pekin ducks. All birds were tube-fed 25 g of dextrose at 24 and 30 h after feed withdrawal, then 25 g of each feedstuff was tube-fed to eight ducks at 48 and 54 h after feed withdrawal. Excreta were quantitatively collected during the next 54 h. Endogenous nitrogen, amino acids and energy per bird in the 54 h collection period were 1.06 0.58 g, 0.047 0.025 g and 0.098 0.049 MJ respectively. There were differences (P < 0.05) in apparent amino acid digestibilities (AAAD) and true amino acid digestibilities (TAAD). On average, AAAD were 82.8, 82.0, 70.3, 82.4 and 77.7% and TAAD were 89.4, 89.2, 82.3, 89.5 and 85.3% for SBM, AC Advantage, Carneval, CDC Mozart and Keoma respectively. The nitrogen-corrected apparent and true metabolisable energy values did not differ among the pea diets and were 13.36 0.071 and 14.59 0.071 MJ kg,1 respectively. Respective values for SBM were 12.16 0.16 and 13.39 0.16 MJ kg,1 and both were lower (P < 0.05) than in peas. Copyright 2004 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


    Children's understanding of certainty and evidentiality: Advantage of grammaticalized forms over lexical alternatives

    NEW DIRECTIONS FOR CHILD & ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT, Issue 125 2009
    Tomoko Matsui
    In verbal communication, the hearer takes advantage of the linguistic expressions of certainty and evidentiality to assess how committed the speaker might be to the truth of the informational content of the utterance. Little is known, however, about the precise developmental mechanism of this ability. In this chapter, we approach the question by elucidating factors that are likely to constrain young children's understanding of linguistically encoded certainty and evidentiality, including the types of linguistic form of these expressions, namely, grammaticalized or lexical forms. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]