Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Drinking

  • adolescent drinking
  • alcohol drinking
  • at-risk drinking
  • binge drinking
  • coffee drinking
  • college drinking
  • current drinking
  • daily drinking
  • day heavy drinking
  • episodic drinking
  • ethanol drinking
  • excessive drinking
  • frequent binge drinking
  • harmful drinking
  • hazardous drinking
  • heavy drinking
  • heavy episodic drinking
  • high-risk drinking
  • moderate drinking
  • problem drinking
  • regular drinking
  • risk drinking
  • risky drinking
  • student drinking
  • tea drinking
  • underage drinking
  • weekly drinking

  • Terms modified by Drinking

  • drinking age
  • drinking alcohol
  • drinking behavior
  • drinking behaviour
  • drinking consequence
  • drinking culture
  • drinking day
  • drinking episode
  • drinking establishment
  • drinking frequency
  • drinking guideline
  • drinking habit
  • drinking history
  • drinking level
  • drinking measure
  • drinking occasion
  • drinking onset
  • drinking outcome
  • drinking pattern
  • drinking problem
  • drinking quantity
  • drinking status
  • drinking volume
  • drinking water
  • drinking water reservoir
  • drinking water sample
  • drinking water supplies
  • drinking water supply

  • Selected Abstracts


    ADDICTION, Issue 12 2005
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    ADDICTION, Issue 9 2005
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    ADDICTION, Issue 3 2005
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Summary. This paper considers the role of pottery in the Late Iron Age to Roman transition in south-east Britain. Traditional concern with the significance of Continental imports is rejected in favour of a more holistic and bottom-up approach giving equal emphasis to locally made forms and imports in complete assemblages. Several stages of inter-site correspondence analysis are conducted on a range of sites and assemblages in the region. Patterning pertaining to the use and deposition of both imported and local pottery vessels can be seen to contradict simplistic models for ,Romanization before conquest'. The main conclusions include evidence for the selective disposal of drinking vessels and table wares in pits, the likely widespread consumption of beer as opposed to wine, and the implied importance of indigenous social practices such as feasting and communal drinking. [source]

    Cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and the risk of gallbladder cancer death: A prospective cohort study in Japan

    Kiyoko Yagyu
    Abstract Gallbladder cancer is a rare cancer with a poor prognosis, and few risk factors have been identified to date. This prospective study was conducted to evaluate the association of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption with the risk of gallbladder cancer death. A baseline survey in 45 areas throughout Japan was conducted from 1988 to 1990 using a self-administered questionnaire, and a total of 113,496 participants (65,740 women) aged 40,89 years at entry were followed for 15 years. During the follow-up period, 165 gallbladder cancer deaths (95 women) were observed. Among women, the hazard ratio (HR) [95 percent confidence interval: 95% CI] of current smoker was 2.00 [0.91,4.42], when adjusted for age and drinking. There was no clear association between alcohol consumption and the risk. Among men, HR of current smoker was 2.27 [1.05,4.90]. HRs of those who smoked 21 cigarettes or more per day and those with 801,1,000 cigarette-years were 3.18 [1.18,8.53] and 3.44 [1.40,8.45], respectively, and positive linear associations were observed between that risk and the number of cigarettes per day (p for trend = 0.007) or "cigarette-years" (p for trend = 0.012). The alcohol dose was linearly associated with risk (p for trend = 0.004), where the HR among those who consumed 72.0 g or more of alcohol per day was 3.60 [1.29,9.85]. Among both men and women, cigarette smoking may elevate the risk of death from gallbladder cancer. Drinking may pose an elevated risk among men, but that seems to be less true among women. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Lesions of the Diagonal Band of Broca Enhance Drinking in the Rat

    M. J. Sullivan
    Abstract This study examined the role of the diagonal band of Broca (DBB) in drinking behaviour and vasopressin release. Adult male rats were anaesthetized (pentobarbital 50 mg/kg) and received DBB injections of either ibotenic acid (0.5 µl of 5 µg/µl) or vehicle (0.5 µl of phosphate-buffered saline). Although baseline drinking and urine output were not affected, drinking to 30% polyethylene glycol (MW 8000; 1 ml/100 g s.c.) and angiotensin II (0, 1.5 and 3.0 mg/kg s.c.) were significantly increased in ibotenic acid in phosphate-buffered saline (DBBX) rats. Drinking to hypertonic saline (0.9, 4 and 6%; 1 ml/100 g), and water deprivation were not significantly affected. DBBX rats had significantly lower basal heart rates than controls but the cardiovascular responses to infusions of angiotensin II (100 ng/kg/min i.v. for 45 min) were not affected. DBBX rats had significantly higher basal vasopressin, but angiotensin-stimulated vasopressin release was not significantly different. Although the DBB is not involved in basal water intake, it is involved in dipsogenic responses to hypovolemic stimuli and possibly basal autonomic function and basal vasopressin release. [source]

    Sociodemographic Predictors of Pattern and Volume of Alcohol Consumption Across Hispanics, Blacks, and Whites: 10-Year Trend (1992,2002)

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 10 2010
    Raul Caetano
    Background:, There have been limited trend studies examining variations on the patterns of alcohol consumption among Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics in the United States. The current paper reports national trends in drinking patterns, volume of drinking (number of drinks per month), binge drinking, and drinking to intoxication among Blacks, Whites, and Hispanics over a period of 10 years and identifies sociodemographic predictors of these behaviors across the 3 ethnic groups. Methods:, Data are from the 1991 to 1992 National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey (NLAES; n = 42,862) and the 2001 to 2002 National Epidemiologic Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; n = 43,093). Both surveys used multistage cluster sample procedures to select respondents 18 years of age and older from the U.S. household population. Results:, Trends varied across different dimensions of drinking and ethnic groups. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean number of drinks consumed per month among men and women in any of the 3 ethnic groups between 1992 and 2002, but there was a significant rise in the proportion of current drinkers in both genders and in all 3 ethnic groups. Multivariate analysis indicated that, compared to Whites in 1992, Blacks and Hispanics did not increase their volume of drinking, but Whites did. Drinking 5 or more drinks in day at all did not increase between 1992 and 2002, but drinking 5 or more drinks at least once a month was more likely for all groups in 2002 compared to Whites in 1992. Drinking to intoxication at all was more likely among Whites in 2002 than 1992, but drinking to intoxication at least once a month was more likely among Whites and Blacks in 2002 than 1992. Conclusion:, The only common trend between 1992 and 2002 across both genders and 3 ethnic groups was a rise in the proportion of drinkers. There was also a rise in drinking 5 or more drinks in a day (Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics) and drinking to intoxication (Whites and Blacks), but this was limited to those reporting such drinking at least once a month. The reasons for these changes are many and may involve complex sociodemographic changes in the population. It is important for the field to closely monitor these cross-ethnic trends in alcohol consumption. [source]

    Drinking and Alcohol-Related Harm Among New Zealand University Students: Findings From a National Web-Based Survey

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 2 2009
    Kypros Kypri
    Background:, Alcohol-related harm is pervasive among college students in the United States of America and Canada, where a third to half of undergraduates binge drink at least fortnightly. There have been no national studies outside North America. We estimated the prevalence of binge drinking, related harms, and individual risk factors among undergraduates in New Zealand. Methods:, A web survey was completed by 2,548 undergraduates (63% response) at 5 of New Zealand's 8 universities. Drinking patterns and alcohol-related problems in the preceding 4 weeks were measured. Drinking diaries for the preceding 7 days were completed. Multivariate analyses were used to identify individual risk factors. Results:, A total of 81% of both women and men drank in the previous 4 weeks, 37% reported 1 or more binge episodes in the last week, 14% of women and 15% of men reported 2+ binge episodes in the last week, and 68% scored in the hazardous range (4+) on the AUDIT consumption subscale. A mean of 1.8 (95% confidence interval 1.4, 2.3) distinct alcohol-related risk behaviors or harmful consequences were reported, e.g., 33% had a blackout, 6% had unprotected sex, and 5% said they were physically aggressive toward someone, in the preceding 4 weeks. Drink-driving or being the passenger of a drink-driver in the last 4 weeks was reported by 9% of women and 11% of men. Risk factors for frequent binge drinking included: lower age, earlier age of drinking onset, monthly or more frequent binge drinking in high school, and living in a residential hall or a shared house (relative to living with parents). These correlates were similar to those identified in U.S. and Canadian studies. Conclusions:, Strategies are needed to reduce the availability and promotion of alcohol on and around university campuses in New Zealand. Given the high prevalence of binge drinking in high school and its strong association with later binge drinking, strategies aimed at youth drinking are also a priority. In universities, high-risk drinkers should be identified and offered intervention early in their undergraduate careers. [source]


    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 2008
    Sunju Sohn
    Aims:, Young male adults in the U. S. military drink at much higher rates than civilians and females of the same age. Drinking has been shown to be associated with stress and individuals' ability to effectively cope with stressors. Despite numerous studies conducted on young adults' drinking behaviors such as college drinking, current literature is limited in fully understanding alcohol use patterns of the young military population. The aim of the present study was to develop and test the hypothesized Structural Equation Model (SEM) of alcohol use to determine if stress coping styles moderate the relationship between stress, drinking motives, impulsivity, alcohol consumption and job performance. Methods:, Structural equation models for multiple group comparisons were estimated based on a sample of 1,715 young (aged 18 to 25) male military personnel using the 2005 Department of Defense Survey of Health Related Behaviors among Military Personnel. Coping style was used as the grouping factor in the multi-group analysis and this variable was developed through numerous steps to reflect positive and negative behaviors of coping. The equivalences of the structural relations between the study variables were then compared across two groups at a time, controlling for installation region, race/ethnicity, marital status, education, and pay grade, resulting in two model comparisons with four coping groups. If the structural weight showed differences across groups, each parameter was constrained and tested one at a time to see where the models are different. Results:, The results showed that the hypothesized model applies across all groups. The structural weights revealed that a moderation effect exists between a group whose tendency is to mostly use positive coping strategies and a group whose tendency is to mostly use negative coping strategies (,,2(39)= 65.116, p<.05). More specifically, the models were different (with and without Bonferroni Type I error correction) in the paths between "motive and alcohol use" and "alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences (job performance)." Conclusions:, It seems plausible that coping style significantly factors into moderating alcohol use among young male military personnel who reportedly drink more excessively than civilians of the same age. The results indicate that it may be particularly important for the military to assess different stress coping styles ofyoung male military personnel so as to limit excessive drinking as well as to promote individual wellness and improve job performance. [source]

    Drinking, Alcohol Problems and the Five-Year Recurrence and Incidence of Male to Female and Female to Male Partner Violence

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 1 2005
    Raul Caetano
    Background: This study examined the 5-year incidence and recurrence of male to female (MFPV) and female to male partner violence (FMPV) as well as their relationship with drinking and alcohol problems among intact couples in the United States. Methods: A national sample of couples 18 years of age or older were interviewed in 1995 and again in 2000. Results: Recurrence is slightly higher for FMPV (44%) than MFPV (39%), whereas incidence rates are similar for these two types of violence (MFPV, 5.7%; FMPV, 6%). Cross-tabulations show that a higher frequency of drinking five or more drinks on occasion is positively associated with the overall occurrence of MFPV and with both the recurrence and the overall occurrence of FMPV. Male alcohol problems are associated with a higher recurrence of MFPV and higher overall MFPV. Female alcohol problems are associated with incidence of FMPV. In multivariate analysis, black ethnicity, male unemployment, and severe physical abuse during childhood are associated with recurrence of MFPV. Black ethnicity, male unemployment, male employment status as "retired/other," female age, and couples in which the female drinks more are associated with recurrence of FMPV. Incidence of MFPV is associated with cohabitation, Hispanic ethnicity, and man's observation of violence between parents. Male unemployment, male observation of violence between parents, and man's drinking volume predict incidence of FMPV. Conclusions: Volume of drinking is the only alcohol indicator associated with intimate partner violence once the effects of other factors are controlled in multivariate analysis. Both MFPV and FMPV are areas of health disparity across whites, blacks, and Hispanics. Factors of risk that predict recurrence and incidence can be identified and used in prevention efforts. [source]

    Serotonergic Agents and Alcoholism Treatment: A Simulation

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 12 2003
    Scott F. Stoltenberg
    Background: Those with early-onset alcoholism may better respond to ondansetron (a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist) than to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment, whereas those with late-onset alcoholism may present the reverse response pattern. Johnson and colleagues proposed a model that attempts to explain the observed treatment response patterns of those with early and late alcoholism onset by focusing on the influence of a common genetic variant in the serotonin transporter regulatory region (5-HTTLPR) on serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) system function. Methods: The present study formalizes and extends Johnson's descriptive model into a computer simulation consisting of differential equations. For each of 16 conditions defined by genotype, drinking status, diagnostic status, and drug treatment, data were generated by 100 simulation runs. Results: In every condition, the S/_ genotype (S/S and S/L) had higher extracellular 5-HT levels than did the L/L genotype. The S/_ genotype also had higher rates of postsynaptic DA firing than did the L/L genotype with the exception of the SSRI treatment condition, where the firing rates were similar. Drinking generally increased levels of extracellular 5-HT, reduced rates of presynaptic 5-HT firing, and increased rates of postsynaptic DA firing. Drinking produced increases in DA activation that were greater for the L/L genotype in the SSRI treatment condition and for the S/_ genotype in the ondansetron treatment condition. Conclusions: Genotype at 5-HTTLPR may influence relative reward of drinking alcohol while a person is under pharmacological treatment for alcoholism. Alternatively, 5-HTTLPR genotype may influence pathways of alcohol craving. Clinical studies should examine these hypotheses. [source]

    Drinking to Cope in Socially Anxious Individuals: A Controlled Study

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 12 2003
    Suzanne E. Thomas
    Background: Several hypotheses exist to account for the higher than normal rate of alcoholism in individuals with high trait anxiety (or anxiety disorders). Most of these suggest that the practice of drinking alcohol to reduce anxiety leads to an increased risk of alcoholism in vulnerable individuals. The first assumption of the hypothesis is that anxious individuals use alcohol to cope with their anxiety. Few studies have examined this issue systematically, and none have used a nonanxious matched control group. Methods: Twenty-three individuals with high social anxiety and 23 nonsocially anxious matched controls were included in the study. Groups were similar on demographic variables and alcohol use. All participants were queried regarding the use of alcohol to cope, the practice of avoiding social situations if alcohol was not available, and the degree of relief attained by alcohol. Participants also were asked about using alcohol in 11 specific situations. Results: The socially anxious group was significantly more likely than controls to report using alcohol to feel more comfortable in social situations and to avoid social situations if alcohol was unavailable. They also reported a greater degree of relief of anxiety from alcohol. Exploratory analyses revealed that socially anxious individuals reported using alcohol more to cope with social interactions than with social performance situations. Conclusions: Individuals high in social anxiety deliberately drink alcohol to cope with their social fears. They report that alcohol is moderately effective at reducing their anxiety, which is seemingly sufficient to allow them to endure social situations. The data support the first assumption of the self-medication hypothesis,that alcohol is used to reduce social discomfort in socially anxious individuals; however, the study was not designed to address the veracity of the self-medication hypothesis as a whole. Results can help guide future studies that examine the relationship between social anxiety and alcohol. [source]

    (,)-Epigallocatechin gallate suppresses the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells by inhibiting activation of the vascular endothelial growth factor,vascular endothelial growth factor receptor axis

    CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 10 2009
    Yohei Shirakami
    The receptor tyrosine kinase vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor (VEGFR) plays an important role in tumor angiogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). (,)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the major biologically active component of green tea, inhibits growth in a variety of human cancer cells by inhibiting the activation of several types of receptor tyrosine kinases. In this study, we examined the effects of EGCG on the activity of the VEGF,VEGFR axis in human HCC cells. The levels of total and phosphorylated (i.e. activated) form of VEGFR-2 protein (p-VEGFR-2) were observed to increase in a series of human HCC cell lines in comparison to the Hc normal human hepatocytes. EGCG preferentially inhibited the growth of HuH7 HCC cells, which express constitutive activation of the VEGF,VEGFR axis, in comparison to Hc cells. Treatment of HuH7 cells with EGCG caused a time- and dose-dependent decrease in the expression of VEGFR-2 and p-VEGFR-2 proteins. The production of VEGF from HuH7 cells was reduced by treatment with EGCG. Drinking of EGCG significantly inhibited the growth of HuH7 xenografts in nude mice and this was associated with inhibition of the activation of VEGFR-2 and its related downstream signaling molecules, including ERK and Akt. EGCG drinking also decreased the expression of Bcl-xL protein and VEGF mRNA in the xenografts. These findings suggest that EGCG can exert, at least in part, its growth-inhibitive effect on HCC cells by inhibiting the VEGF,VEGFR axis. EGCG might therefore be useful in the treatment of HCC. (Cancer Sci 2009; 100: 1957,1962) [source]

    Subjective daytime sleepiness and its predictors in Finnish adolescents in an interview study

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 5 2001
    O Saarenpää-Heikkilä
    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the predictors of subjective daytime sleepiness (SDS) and its chronicity in adolescents. Two groups of adolescents (107 with SDS and 107 without SDS) from our first questionnaire study were invited to an interview after 3 y. A follow-up questionnaire had been sent to them one year earlier. The interview included questions about sleep, daytime sleepiness, living habits, physical and mental health, and progress at school. The adolescents were also examined clinically. Interviews were conducted with 66 out of 107 subjects with SDS and 64 out of 107 without SDS (age range 12 to 19 y). In this interview 42 out of the 130 adolescents had SDS. A total of 20 adolescents reported SDS in both questionnaire studies and in the interview (chronic SDS). In a multivariate analysis (logistic regression) sleep disorders, frequent medication and depressive emotions were significantly associated with SDS. Chronic SDS was connected in a bivariate analysis (Pearson's chi-square) with excessive night waking, difficulty in falling asleep, dreaming, frequent medication, frequent alcohol drinking, and irregular breakfast eating, and in our previous studies also with delayed sleep rhythm. Conclusion: Sleep disorders and health problems were more common causes of SDS than undesirable living habits. However, alcohol drinking and delayed sleep rhythm were associated with chronic SDS in addition to sleep disorders and medication. [source]

    Effects of aerobic fitness on hypohydration-induced physiological strain and exercise impairment

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 2 2010
    T. L. Merry
    Abstract Aim:, Hypohydration exacerbates cardiovascular and thermal strain and can impair exercise capacity in temperate and warm conditions. Yet, athletes often dehydrate in exercise, are hypervolaemic and have less cardiovascular sensitivity to acute hypervolaemia. We tested the hypothesis that trained individuals have less cardiovascular, thermoregulatory and performance affect of hypohydration during exercise. Methods:, After familiarization, six trained [O2 peak = 64 (SD 8) mL kg,1 min,1] and six untrained [O2 peak = 45 (4) mL kg,1 min,1] males cycled 40 min at 70%O2 peak while euhydrated or hypohydrated by 1.5,2.0% body mass (crossover design), before a 40-min work trial with euhydration or ad libitum drinking (in Hypohydration trial), in temperate conditions (24.3,°C, RH 50%, va = 4.5 m s,1). Baseline hydration was by complete or partial rehydration from exercise+heat stress the previous evening. Results:, During constant workload, heart rate and its drift were increased in Hypohydration compared with Euhydration for Untrained [drift: 33 (11) vs. 24 beats min,1 h,1 (10), 95% CI 5,11] but not Trained [14 (3) vs. 13 beats min,1 h,1 (3), CI ,2 to 3; P = 0.01 vs. Untrained]. Similarly, rectal temperature drift was faster in Hypohydration for Untrained only [by 0.57,°C h,1 (0.25); P = 0.03 vs. Trained], concomitant with their reduced sweat rate (P = 0.05) and its relation to plasma osmolality (P = 0.03). Performance power tended to be reduced for Untrained (,13%, CI ,35 to 2) and Trained (,7%, CI: ,16 to 1), without an effect of fitness (P = 0.38). Conclusion:, Mild hypohydration exacerbated cardiovascular and thermoregulatory strain and tended to impair endurance performance, but aerobic fitness attenuated the physiological effects. [source]

    Changes in patterns of excessive alcohol consumption in 25 years of high security hospital admissions from England and Wales

    Celia McMahon
    Background It is now generally acknowledged that alcohol abuse increases the risk of violence among people with major mental disorder. Studies in the 1980s and earlier, however, tended to report an inverse relationship between their alcohol use and violence. Aims A study was undertaken to test a hypothesis that among people with major mental disorder considered to pose a serious risk to others the likelihood of excessive alcohol consumption in a period leading up to a violent or dangerous act has increased over time. Methods Analysis was made of annual high security hospital admission cohort case register data of 1 January 1975 to 31 December 1999; alcohol use data were taken from interview and records, and problem drinking defined as consumption of alcohol in excess of 21 units per week during the 12 months prior to the index offence or act. Results There was a linear increase in the proportion of patients in five-year admission cohorts who had engaged in excessive alcohol consumption during the year prior to their index offence or act. The increase was steeper among women than men, but cut across all diagnosis and offending groups. It was strongly associated with increasing tendency to abuse illicit drugs. Conclusions The greater proportion of patients affected by excessive alcohol consumption occurred in spite of a reduction over the same period in admission of people in the diagnostic groups most likely to be implicated in substance misuse (personality disorder). This increased trend may simply reflect similar trends in the general population, but may also be associated with a lack of services or current consensus on appropriate treatment for patients whose mental illness is complicated by excessive alcohol use. Regardless, the trend suggests a growing need for ,dual diagnosis' services within and outside high security hospital. Copyright © 2003 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

    Does self-control account for the relationship between binge drinking and alcohol-related behaviours?

    Alex R. Piquero
    Introduction Gottfredson and Hirschi's theory that there is an underlying factor accounting for all sorts of antisocial behaviour has attracted widespread theoretical and empirical attention. One of their most controversial statements is a ,generality' hypothesis, a notion that criminal, deviant and reckless acts are highly correlated because they are caused by individual differences in self-control. In this paper, we examine the extent to which self-control accounts for the relationship between two behaviours: binge drinking and involvement in alcohol-related behaviours, including criminal behaviour. Method Questionnaires were given to students at a southern US university. A final sample of 241 students (35% males, 91% whites, aged 17,40). One question concerned binge-drinking, 11 others related to other alcohol-related behaviour; a 24-item scale measured self-control and sex was recorded. A probit model was used to test the effect of low self-control on binge drinking and on other alcohol-related behaviours. It was found that self-control exhibits a positive effect on both. But binge drinking and other alcohol-related behaviours are correlated, so a further analysis using a bivariate probit model was undertaken using a naļve model (no covariates), an unconstrained model (allowing self-control to exert a unique effect on both outcomes), and a constrained model forcing self-control to be the same for both outcomes. Results Our results suggest that while low self-control is a significant predictor of both binge drinking and alcohol-related problems, it does not fully account for the relationship between the two outcomes. In addition, separate estimation for each sex reveal a substantively different pattern of results. Discussion Further research is needed to disentangle the differences between the sexes. Situational factors, especially in males, may account for adverse alcohol-related behaviours. Other measures of self-control are also needed. Copyright © 2002 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

    Alcohol expectancies in convicted rapists and child molesters

    Anu S. Aromäki PhD
    Background Previous findings suggest that cognitive factors and expectancies related to drinking can mediate subjective sexual arousal as well as aggression in men. Our aim was to investigate the drinking habits and alcohol-related expectancies that might predispose men to sexually aggress in two groups of sexual offenders. Method Men convicted of rape (n = 10) were compared with men convicted of child molesting (n = 10) and with control subjects (n = 31). Current drinking habits (while not in prison) were assessed by self-report, and the extent of alcohol abuse was mapped by the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST; Selzer, 1971). Cognitive expectancies related to alcohol use were explored by the standard Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (AEQ; Brown et al., 1980). Results The majority of the men who committed rape (70%) but only a third of the men convicted of child molesting were diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder. Alcohol abuse was common in men convicted of both rape and child molesting and the men convicted of rape expected significantly more positive effects from drinking than the control group. Both sex offender groups were the only groups to express significant alcohol-related cognitive expectancies linked to arousal and aggression. Expectancy patterns were directly linked to the antisocial personality characteristics. Conclusion Alcohol abuse is common in men who commit both rape and child molesting. Heavy drinking and the anticipation of alcohol effects such as sexual enhancement, arousal and aggression may facilitate sexual aggression in offenders with antisocial personality disorder. Copyright © 2001 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

    Prevention of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders,

    R. Louise Floyd
    Abstract Alcohol use among women of childbearing age is a leading, preventable cause of birth defects and developmental disabilities in the United States. Although most women reduce their alcohol use upon pregnancy recognition, some women report drinking during pregnancy and others may continue to drink prior to realizing they are pregnant. These findings emphasize the need for effective prevention strategies for both pregnant and nonpregnant women who might be at risk for an alcohol-exposed pregnancy (AEP). This report reviews evidence supporting alcohol screening and brief intervention as an effective approach to reducing problem drinking and AEPs that can lead to fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. In addition, this article highlights a recent report of the National Task Force on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effect that describes effective interventions to reduce alcohol use and AEPs, and outlines recommendations on promoting and improving these strategies. Utilizing evidence-based alcohol screening tools and brief counseling for women at risk for an AEP and other effective population-based strategies can help achieve future alcohol-free pregnancies. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Dev Disabil Res Rev 2009;15:193,199. [source]

    Single Question about Drunkenness to Detect College Students at Risk for Injury

    Mary Claire O'Brien MD
    Abstract Objectives: To examine the frequency of injuries reported by college students who replied affirmatively to the question, "In a typical week, how many days do you get drunk?" Methods: In Fall 2003, a Web-based survey was administered to a stratified random sample of 3,909 college students from ten North Carolina (NC) universities. Students answered questions regarding alcohol use and its consequences. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression, controlling for within-school clustering of drinking behaviors and adjusting for other significant covariates. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for significant predictors (p < 0.05). Results: Two thousand four hundred eighty-eight students reported that they are current drinkers; 1,353 (54.4%) reported getting drunk at least once in a typical week. Compared with students who did not report getting drunk at least once a week, these students had higher odds of being hurt or injured at least once as a result of their own drinking (AOR = 4.97; 95% CI = 3.47 to 7.09), experiencing a fall from a height that required medical treatment (AOR = 2.16; 95% CI = 1.36 to 3.43), and being taken advantage of sexually as a result of another's drinking (AOR = 2.59; 95% CI = 1.72 to 3.89). Students who reported getting drunk at least one day in a typical week also were more likely to cause an injury requiring medical treatment to someone else. They had higher odds of causing injury in an automobile crash (AOR = 1.84; 95% CI = 1.01 to 3.40), of causing a burn that required medical treatment (AOR = 2.85; 95% CI = 1.51 to 5.39), and of causing a fall from a height that required medical treatment (AOR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.01 to 4.04). Getting drunk was a better indicator of "self-experienced injury" and of "injury caused to someone else" than was binge drinking, for all outcomes (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The single question, "In a typical week, how many days do you get drunk?" identifies college students who are at higher than normal risk of injury as a result of their own drinking and the drinking of others. Future research should assess this question's effectiveness as a screening tool in campus health centers and in emergency departments. [source]

    Emergence of long-term memory for conditioned aversion in the rat fetus

    Nadčge Gruest
    Abstract Pregnant rats were subjected to garlic essential oil as the conditioned stimulus and 45 min later to LiCl as the unconditioned stimulus either on embryonic Days 15 and 16 (E15 and E16) or on 18 and 19 (E18 and E19). Control dams received only garlic, LiCl, or water. Progenies were tested on garlic drinking 6 weeks after the exposure to the stimuli via the mothers. In the E18 to 19 group, rats that were exposed to paired garlic,LiCl expressed a significant aversion for garlic. In the E15 to 16 group, no significant differences appeared between subgroups. These results confirm that an associative memory can be established before birth and suggests that this ability potentially emerges in a short time window of 3 days at the end of gestation. Moreover, it appears that a long-term memory can be acquired in utero and retained to be expressed postnatally when animals are autonomous. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 44: 189,198, 2004. [source]

    Diabetes mellitus and alcohol

    Albert van de Wiel
    Abstract Alcohol influences glucose metabolism in several ways in diabetic patients as well as in non-diabetic patients. Since alcohol inhibits both gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, its acute intake without food may provoke hypoglycaemia, especially in cases of depleted glycogen stores and in combination with sulphonylurea. Consumed with a meal including carbohydrates, it is the preferred fuel, which may initially lead to somewhat higher blood glucose levels and hence an insulin response in type 2 diabetic patients. Depending on the nature of the carbohydrates in the meal, this may be followed by reactive hypoglycaemia. Moderate consumption of alcohol is associated with a reduced risk of atherosclerotic disorders. Diabetic patients benefit from this favourable effect as much as non-diabetic patients. Apart from effects on lipid metabolism, haemostatic balance and blood pressure, alcohol improves insulin sensitivity. This improvement of insulin sensitivity may also be responsible for the lower incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus reported to be associated with light-to-moderate drinking. In case of moderate and sensible use, risks of disturbances in glycaemic control, weight and blood pressure are limited. Excessive intake of alcohol, however, may not only cause loss of metabolic control, but also annihilate the favourable effects on the cardiovascular system. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Genetic polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferases T1, M1 and P1 and susceptibility to reflux esophagitis

    B. Liu
    SUMMARY., Recent studies indicate that the prevalence of reflux esophagitis (RE) in China is increasing. RE is one of the most common esophageal complications associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and RE-Barrett's esophagus-esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) sequence has been considered as an histogenesis model for EAC in Western countries. RE is only present in a subset of patients with GERD, suggesting an altered susceptibility to RE may exist in these GERD individuals. However, the genetic changes related with high susceptibility to RE is largely unknown. The polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) T1, M1 and P1 have been reported with high susceptibity to esophageal cancer in Chinese people. The present case-control study was thus undertaken to characterize the genetic polymorphisms of GSTs and their correlation with susceptibility to RE. One hundred and nine patients with RE, 97 patients with nonerosive reflux disease (NERD) and 97 normal controls were recruited in this study. All the subjects were from Beijing, China, and received endoscopic examination and questionnaires for RE. Genomic DNA was extracted from the lymphocytes of peripheral blood for each subject. Genotypes of the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes were analyzed by a multiplex PCR method. A,G polymorphism of codon 104 of the GSTP1 gene was detected using PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP). The variant GSTP1 genotypes (*A/*B,*B/*B) was found with a high frequency in the case with RE (40%), and followed by NERD (25%) and normal control (22%). The differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). The risk for RE increased 2.42-fold [odds ratio (OR); 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 2.42 (1.22,4.80)] in the subjects with variant GSTP1 genotype. The subjects with positive variant GSTP1 genotypes and negative H. pylori infection showed increasing tendency for risk of RE [OR (95% CI), 2.67 (1.06,6.70)]. However, the subjects with GSTT1 and GSTM1 polymorphisms did not show any correlation with high risk for RE or NERD. No significant interactions were identified between the variant GSTs and cigarette smoking, or alcohol drinking and subtype of RE. The present result suggests that GSTP1 genetic polymorphism may be one of the high susceptibility factors involved in the mechanisms of RE. H. pylori infection may play a protective role against RE. [source]

    The effectiveness of brief alcohol interventions in primary care settings: A systematic review

    Abstract Issues. Numerous studies have reported that brief interventions delivered in primary care are effective in reducing excessive drinking. However, much of this work has been criticised for being clinically unrepresentative. This review aimed to assess the effectiveness of brief interventions in primary care and determine if outcomes differ between efficacy and effectiveness trials. Approach. A pre-specified search strategy was used to search all relevant electronic databases up to 2006. We also hand-searched the reference lists of key articles and reviews. We included randomised controlled trials (RCT) involving patients in primary care who were not seeking alcohol treatment and who received brief intervention. Two authors independently abstracted data and assessed trial quality. Random effects meta-analyses, subgroup and sensitivity analyses and meta-regression were conducted. Key Findings. The primary meta-analysis included 22 RCT and evaluated outcomes in over 5800 patients. At 1 year follow up, patients receiving brief intervention had a significant reduction in alcohol consumption compared with controls [mean difference: ,38 g week,1, 95%CI (confidence interval): ,54 to ,23], although there was substantial heterogeneity between trials (I2 = 57%). Subgroup analysis confirmed the benefit of brief intervention in men but not in women. Extended intervention was associated with a non-significantly increased reduction in alcohol consumption compared with brief intervention. There was no significant difference in effect sizes for efficacy and effectiveness trials. Conclusions. Brief interventions can reduce alcohol consumption in men, with benefit at a year after intervention, but they are unproven in women for whom there is insufficient research data. Longer counselling has little additional effect over brief intervention. The lack of differences in outcomes between efficacy and effectiveness trials suggests that the current literature is relevant to routine primary care. [Kaner EFS, Dickinson HO, Beyer F, Pienaar E, Schlesinger C, Campbell F, Saunders JB, Burnand B, Heather N. The effectiveness of brief alcohol interventions in primary care settings: A systematic review. Drug Alcohol Rev 2009;28:301,323] [source]

    Are we becoming more alike?

    2004 national household surveys, Comparison of substance use in Australia, the United States as seen in the 199
    Abstract Introduction. This paper reports the results of the 1995, 1998, 2001 and 2004 Australian and US household surveys, with emphasis on changes since 2001. Design and Methods. The US survey data were recalculated to match age groups in the Australian data. Statistically significant changes are reported. Differences in prevalence of use by gender within age group were tested for significance. Results. The past-year use of ,any illicit drug', cannabis, cocaine, tranquillisers and injecting drugs decreased between 2001 and 2004 in Australia, but remained stable for all these drugs except ecstasy between 2002 and 2004 in the United States. The use of hallucinogens decreased in both countries. Alcohol and use of many illicit drugs by teenage girls in both countries increased to rates similar to or higher than boys, and teens in both countries reported binge and heavy drinking in the past month. Australians in their 20s had the highest rates of use, but in the United States, past-year use of many drugs was highest among teenagers. Discussion. More treatment services are needed, particularly for people dependent upon non-opiate drugs. The changes in acceptability of use of different drugs and their perceived availability are related to changes in prevalence rates. Even with the similarities in levels of use, there are differences in patterns of use and preferences for certain drugs in each country, and geographic proximity to drug sources is a factor. [source]

    All-cause mortality and fatal alcohol poisoning in Belarus, 1970,2005

    Abstract Introduction and Aims. Although alcohol appears to be an important contributor to the burden of disease in the countries of eastern Europe, little systematic research has been undertaken on its impact on mortality in the former Soviet republic of Belarus. There may be a number of factors underlying the particularly negative effect of alcohol on mortality in Belarus, including the pattern of drinking and use of surrogates. A solid body of research and empirical evidence suggests that hazardous patterns of alcohol consumption (binge drinking) lead to quicker and deeper intoxication, increasing the propensity for alcohol-related mortality. Design and Method. To estimate the aggregate level effect of binge drinking on the all-cause mortality rate, trends in the all-cause mortality and fatal alcohol poisoning rates (as a proxy for binge drinking) in Belarus from 1970 to 2005 were analysed employing AutoRegressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) time,series analysis in order to assess a bivariate relationship between the two time,series. Results. The results of time,series analysis suggest a close relationship between all-cause mortality and fatal alcohol poisoning rates at the population level. Conclusions. This study supports the hypothesis that alcohol and all-cause mortality are connected closely in countries where the drinking culture is characterised by heavy drinking episodes and adds to the growing body of evidence that a substantial proportion of total mortality in Belarus is due to acute effects of binge drinking. [source]

    Hazardous alcohol consumption and other barriers to antiviral treatment among hepatitis C positive people receiving opioid maintenance treatment

    Abstract Amongst people on opioid maintenance treatment (OMT), chronic hepatitis C (HCV) is common but infrequently treated. Numerous barriers, including misuse of alcohol may limit efforts at anti-viral treatment. The aim of this study was to define barriers, including alcohol misuse, to the effective treatment of HCV amongst OMT recipients. Ninety-four OMT patients completed the 3-item Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C). A semi-structured interview was used in 53 subjects to assess alcohol use in detail, psychological health, discrimination and access to HCV treatment. Feasibility of brief intervention for alcohol misuse was assessed. Of the screening participants, 73% reported they were HCV positive. Of the detailed interview participants, 26% reported no drinking in the past month, but 53% scored 8 or more on AUDIT and 42% exceeded NHMRC drinking guidelines. Twenty subjects received brief intervention and among 17 re-interviewed at one month, alcohol consumption fell by 3.1 g/day (p = 0.003). Severe or extremely severe depression, stress and anxiety were found in 57%, 51% and 40% of interviewees respectively. Episodic heavy drinking, mental health problems, perceived discrimination, limited knowledge concerning HCV were all common and uptake of HCV treatment was poor. Brief intervention for alcohol use problems was acceptable to OMT patients, and warrants further study. [source]

    Pre-operative screening for excessive alcohol consumption among patients scheduled for elective surgery

    Abstract Pre-operative intervention for excessive alcohol consumption among patients scheduled for elective surgery has been shown to reduce complications of surgery. However, successful intervention depends upon an effective and practical screening procedure. This study examines current screening practices for excessive alcohol consumption amongst patients scheduled for elective surgery in general hospitals. It also examines the appropriateness of potential sites and staff for pre-operative screening. Forms used routinely to assess alcohol consumption in the pre-admission clinics (PAC) of eight Sydney hospitals were examined. In addition, the appropriateness of six staff categories (surgeons, surgeons' secretaries, junior medical officer, anaesthetists, nurses and a research assistant) and of two sites (surgeons' office and PAC) in conducting additional screening was assessed at two hospitals. Outcomes included observed advantages and disadvantages of sites and personnel, and number of cases with excessive drinking identified. There was duplication in information collected routinely on alcohol use in the PACs in eight Sydney Hospitals. Questions on alcohol consumption in patient self-completion forms were not validated. The PAC provided for efficient screening but time to surgery was typically too short for successful intervention in many cases. A validated tool and efficient screening procedure is required to detect excessive drinking before elective surgery. Patients often present to the PAC too close to the time of surgery for any change in drinking to reverse alcohol's effects. The role of the referring general practitioner and of printed advice from the surgeon in preparing patients for surgery needs further investigation. [source]

    The relationship of behavioural undercontrol to alcoholism in higher-functioning adults

    Abstract Externalising behaviours, including the personality characteristics of behavioural undercontrol (BU), represent one of several genetically influenced domains that impact on the alcoholism risk. Because genes explain only about 60% of the vulnerability toward alcohol use disorders (AUDs), an optimal understanding of how such behaviours affect the risk requires evaluation of their impact in the context of additional influences. Few studies have addressed this question regarding BU among relatively well-functioning adults. This paper presents results from testing a BU-based mediational model of risk in men from the San Diego Prospective Study. Structured research instruments were used with 430 adult Caucasian males to evaluate the performance of BU in predicting AUDs at the 15-year follow-up using Pearson product-moment correlations among domains and an AMOS-based structural equation model (SEM). While both the family history of AUDs (FHalc) and BU predicted alcohol-related outcome, BU by itself did not mediate the relationship of the FH to alcohol disorders. The impact of BU on alcohol problems was mediated by alcohol expectancies, peer drinking and by coping. The SEM explained 42% of the variance for AUDs. The current results indicate that BU contributed to the risk for alcohol-related problems, even among more highly functional subjects and after excluding the impact of the antisocial personality disorder, but by itself did not mediate the relationship of FH to outcome in these subjects. [source]

    Cannabis use in adolescents: the impact of risk and protective factors and social functioning

    Abstract The study uses a school-based sample to test the social and familial risk and protective factors relating to cannabis use. Based on a self-completion survey of 2078 14,16-year-olds (mean age of 15 years) attending seven standard state-run secondary schools in south London, an assessment was made of rates and risk factors for cannabis use. Twenty-four per cent of the total sample had ever used cannabis, with 15% having done so in the month prior to assessment. In addition to greater likelihood of illicit drug use, lifetime cannabis users were less likely to spend time regularly with both their mothers and fathers, but more likely to spend free time with friends who smoked, drank alcohol and used illicit drugs, and with friends involved in criminal activities. Among those who had ever used cannabis, frequency of cannabis use was predicted (using linear regression) by two onset factors (earlier initiation of drinking and cannabis use were both linked to more frequent use) and two social factors (more time spent with drug-using friends and less time spent with the mother). Overall, the study showed that early onset, itself predicted by social networks, is linked to more frequent use of cannabis and that this appears to be sustained by less time spent with parents and more with drug-using peers. [source]