Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Drugs

  • abused drug
  • acidic drug
  • active drug
  • addictive drug
  • administered drug
  • alternative drug
  • anaesthetic drug
  • analgesic drug
  • anesthetic drug
  • another drug
  • anti-angiogenic drug
  • anti-cancer drug
  • anti-diabetic drug
  • anti-epileptic drug
  • anti-hbv drug
  • anti-hiv drug
  • anti-inflammatory drug
  • anti-rheumatic drug
  • anti-tb drug
  • anti-tumor drug
  • anti-viral drug
  • antiangiogenic drug
  • antiarrhythmic drug
  • antibacterial drug
  • antibiotic drug
  • anticancer drug
  • anticholinergic drug
  • anticoagulant drug
  • anticonvulsant drug
  • antidepressant drug
  • antidiabetic drug
  • antiemetic drug
  • antiepileptic drug
  • antifungal drug
  • antihypertensive drug
  • antiinflammatory drug
  • antimalarial drug
  • antimicrobial drug
  • antimuscarinic drug
  • antimycotic drug
  • antineoplastic drug
  • antioxidant drug
  • antiparasitic drug
  • antiparkinson drug
  • antiparkinsonian drug
  • antiplatelet drug
  • antipsychotic drug
  • antiretroviral drug
  • antirheumatic drug
  • antithrombotic drug
  • antithyroid drug
  • antitubercular drug
  • antituberculosi drug
  • antitumor drug
  • antiviral drug
  • anxiolytic drug
  • applied drug
  • appropriate drug
  • approved drug
  • asthma drug
  • atypical antipsychotic drug
  • available drug
  • basic drug
  • blocking drug
  • cancer drug
  • candidate drug
  • cardiovascular drug
  • cationic drug
  • causative drug
  • certain drug
  • chemotherapeutic drug
  • chiral drug
  • class iii antiarrhythmic drug
  • clinical drug
  • coadministered drug
  • common drug
  • concomitant antiepileptic drug
  • conventional drug
  • crude drug
  • crystalline drug
  • current drug
  • cytostatic drug
  • cytotoxic drug
  • designer drug
  • different drug
  • disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug
  • disease-modifying antirheumatic drug
  • disease-modifying drug
  • dopaminergic drug
  • effective anticancer drug
  • effective drug
  • emerging drug
  • encapsulated drug
  • enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drug
  • essential drug
  • expensive drug
  • first drug
  • first-line drug
  • free drug
  • gabaergic drug
  • gastrointestinal drug
  • generic drug
  • hepatotoxic drug
  • herbal drug
  • hydrophobic drug
  • hypnotic drug
  • iii antiarrhythmic drug
  • iii drug
  • illegal drug
  • illicit drug
  • immunomodulatory drug
  • immunosuppressant drug
  • immunosuppressive drug
  • individual drug
  • inhibitor drug
  • initial antiepileptic drug
  • intravenous drug
  • investigational drug
  • investigational new drug
  • least one drug
  • line drug
  • lipid lowering drug
  • lipid-lowering drug
  • lipophilic drug
  • lowering drug
  • many drug
  • marketed drug
  • medicinal drug
  • model drug
  • multiple drug
  • narcotic drug
  • neuromuscular blocking drug
  • neuroprotective drug
  • neurotoxic drug
  • new antiepileptic drug
  • new antithrombotic drug
  • new drug
  • newer drug
  • non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug
  • non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug
  • nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug
  • nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug
  • novel antiepileptic drug
  • novel drug
  • of drug
  • offending drug
  • old drug
  • one drug
  • oral antidiabetic drug
  • oral drug
  • orphan drug
  • other antiepileptic drug
  • other cytotoxic drug
  • other drug
  • other illicit drug
  • other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug
  • parent drug
  • particular drug
  • peptide drug
  • pharmaceutical drug
  • pharmacological drug
  • potent anticancer drug
  • potential drug
  • potential therapeutic drug
  • prescribed drug
  • prescription drug
  • probe drug
  • prokinetic drug
  • promising drug
  • prophylactic drug
  • protein drug
  • psychiatric drug
  • psychoactive drug
  • psychostimulant drug
  • psychotropic drug
  • pure drug
  • recreational drug
  • reference drug
  • respiratory drug
  • safe drug
  • same drug
  • second drug
  • second-line drug
  • sedative drug
  • selected drug
  • selective drug
  • serotonergic drug
  • several drug
  • single drug
  • soluble drug
  • specific drug
  • standard drug
  • stimulant drug
  • street drug
  • study drug
  • substrate drug
  • sympathomimetic drug
  • synthetic drug
  • systemic drug
  • target drug
  • targeted drug
  • test drug
  • therapeutic drug
  • thiopurine drug
  • topical drug
  • traditional drug
  • unchanged drug
  • unlicensed drug
  • used drug
  • used illicit drug
  • useful drug
  • variety of drug
  • various drug
  • vasoactive drug
  • veterinary drug
  • water-soluble drug
  • well-tolerated drug
  • wrong drug

  • Terms modified by Drugs

  • drug absorption
  • drug abstinence
  • drug abuse
  • drug abuse treatment
  • drug abuser
  • drug accumulation
  • drug act
  • drug action
  • drug active
  • drug activity
  • drug addict
  • drug addiction
  • drug adherence
  • drug administration
  • drug administration approval
  • drug administration system
  • drug allergies
  • drug allergy
  • drug alone
  • drug and alcohol
  • drug and alcohol problem
  • drug and alcohol use
  • drug application
  • drug approval
  • drug association
  • drug available
  • drug benefit
  • drug binding
  • drug binding site
  • drug bioavailability
  • drug candidate
  • drug carrier
  • drug category
  • drug cisplatin
  • drug claim
  • drug class
  • drug combination
  • drug company
  • drug complex
  • drug compliance
  • drug compound
  • drug concentration
  • drug consumption
  • drug content
  • drug control
  • drug cost
  • drug counseling
  • drug court
  • drug coverage
  • drug craving
  • drug cyclosporin
  • drug decreased
  • drug delivery
  • drug delivery application
  • drug delivery carrier
  • drug delivery device
  • drug delivery system
  • drug delivery vehicle
  • drug dependence
  • drug depot
  • drug design
  • drug design strategy
  • drug detoxification
  • drug development
  • drug development process
  • drug development.
  • drug diffusion
  • drug discontinuation
  • drug discovery
  • drug discovery effort
  • drug discovery process
  • drug discovery program
  • drug disposition
  • drug distribution
  • drug dosage
  • drug dose
  • drug dosing
  • drug effect
  • drug effectiveness
  • drug effects
  • drug efficacy
  • drug efflux
  • drug efflux pump
  • drug efflux transporter
  • drug elimination
  • drug eluting stent
  • drug enantiomer
  • drug encapsulation
  • drug entity
  • drug error
  • drug eruption
  • drug event
  • drug expenditure
  • drug exposure
  • drug failure
  • drug family
  • drug formulation
  • drug formulations
  • drug free
  • drug group
  • drug groups
  • drug hepatotoxicity
  • drug history
  • drug hypersensitivity
  • drug impurity
  • drug information
  • drug infusion
  • drug ingestion
  • drug injection
  • drug intake
  • drug interaction
  • drug interaction potential
  • drug interaction studies
  • drug intervention
  • drug involvement
  • drug label
  • drug lead
  • drug level
  • drug load
  • drug loading
  • drug loading capacity
  • drug management
  • drug market
  • drug mechanism
  • drug metabolism
  • drug metabolism studies
  • drug metabolite
  • drug metabolizing enzyme
  • drug molecule
  • drug monitoring
  • drug nifedipine
  • drug only
  • drug other
  • drug overdose
  • drug overdose death
  • drug paclitaxel
  • drug pair
  • drug particle
  • drug penetration
  • drug permeation
  • drug pharmacokinetic
  • drug plan
  • drug plasma concentration
  • drug poisoning
  • drug policy
  • drug potency
  • drug prescribing
  • drug prescription
  • drug price
  • drug problem
  • drug products
  • drug property
  • drug rash
  • drug reaction
  • drug regime
  • drug regimen
  • drug register
  • drug relate harm
  • drug release
  • drug release behavior
  • drug release profile
  • drug release property
  • drug release rate
  • drug release studies
  • drug research
  • drug resistance
  • drug resistance mechanism
  • drug resistant
  • drug response
  • drug review
  • drug reward
  • drug safety
  • drug safety evaluation
  • drug sales
  • drug sample
  • drug screening
  • drug selection
  • drug self-administration
  • drug sensitivity
  • drug side effects
  • drug solubility
  • drug strategy household survey
  • drug studies
  • drug substance
  • drug susceptibility
  • drug tablet
  • drug target
  • drug targeting
  • drug test
  • drug testing
  • drug therapy
  • drug toxicity
  • drug trade
  • drug trafficking
  • drug transport
  • drug transporter
  • drug treatment
  • drug treatment court
  • drug trial
  • drug trials
  • drug type
  • drug uptake
  • drug usage
  • drug use
  • drug used
  • drug user
  • drug utilisation
  • drug utilization
  • drug withdrawal

  • Selected Abstracts


    ADDICTION, Issue 4 2009
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Pecsi Gy
    To determine the upper abdominal symptoms, the use of ASD and the recurrence-rate of Helicobacter pylori in DU (Hp) patients one year after ulcer healing and successful HP eradication. Patient and methods: 37 endoscopically proven healed and successfully eradicated DU patients were successfully recruited in the study. All patients had active ulcer and showed HP positivity both by rapid urease test and histology 5 weeks before the enrollement endoscopy. The severity and character of dyspeptic symptoms and the use of ASD-s were checked by questionnaires at the start and one year after successful eradication therapy. NSAID users and reflux oesophagitis patients were excluded at inclusion. Eradication was performed by a one week LAC combination followed by 4 week ranitidine therapy. HP reinfection was controlled by C13 urea breath test at the 12 month visit. Results: 7 patients were lost for follow up by the end of the one year program. A together the data of 30 eligible patients (17 females, 13 males, mean age 49 years) were analyzed. The questionnaires represent the symptoms and ASD use of the whole year program. Only 12 out of 30 patients (40%) were permanently and completely symptoms free after the cessation of the short-term therapy. 16 patients (53.3%) had temporary and 2 patients (6.7%) had persistant symptom. About half of the patients (n=17) were taking absolutely no ASD during the follow up. The number of occasional and continuous ASD users were 7 (23.4%) and 6 (20%) respectively. HP reinfections occurred in one patient and no ulcer relaps was proven. Conclusions: 1. More than half of the patients had clinically relevant dyspeptic symptoms during the year after successful HP eradication and ulcer healing. 2. The majority of them required occasional or long term ASD therapy in this period. 3. Recurrences rate of HP was low. [source]


    A model of illicit, addictive drug use is proposed when users have foresight. Impacts of drug use penalties, penalties on drug use-related crime, support for drug user rehabilitation as well as the effects of health-related, harm-minimisation policies are analysed. In the short run, government policies impact only on the drug use intensities of existing addicted and casual users. Longer term policy-induced user-cost changes impact on new user and addict numbers through their effect on recruitment into addiction and quit dynamics. Effects of policies on user numbers, usage intensities and impacts on long-run social costs are analysed over this long-term horizon. The model provides a setting for analysing the long-run effects of illicit drug management policies on the social costs of illicit drug use and allows assessment of drug use abstinence and harm minimisation policy tradeoffs. [source]


    ADDICTION, Issue 5 2010
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    ECONOMIC AFFAIRS, Issue 1 2009
    Roger Bate
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    ADDICTION, Issue 12 2009
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    ADDICTION, Issue 2 2009
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    ADDICTION, Issue 1 2009
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    ADDICTION, Issue 6 2006
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Maarit J. Korhonen PhD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Drug misuse and acquisitive crime among clients recruited to the National Treatment Outcome Research Study (NTORS)

    Duncan Stewart
    Background Criminal activity among drug-misusing populations can result in considerable costs. This paper examines the relationship between acquisitive criminal behaviour and drug use among a cohort of 1075 clients recruited to the National Treatment Outcome Research Study (NTORS). Method Clients were recruited from 54 drug misuse treatment programmes in England. A structured interview was administered by clinical staff. The majority of clients were opiate-dependent poly-drug users. Results 27 000 acquisitive criminal offences were reported by the cohort in the three months prior to starting treatment, of which shoplifting was the most common offence. There was marked variation in the amount of acquisitive crime reported; just 10% of the sample were responsible for three-quarters of the crimes committed. Two other groups were identified: low-rate offenders, and those who did not commit an acquisitive crime. Multivariate analyses revealed that frequency of illicit drug use was associated with increased levels of criminal behaviour. Compared with the no-crime group, the high-rate offenders were 11 times more likely to be regular users of heroin, and three times more likely to have used cocaine regularly. Discussion These findings suggest that the most dependent and problematic drug misusers present treatment services with the greatest challenge in terms of reducing levels of criminality. Copyright © 2000 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

    A placebo-controlled trial of mirtazapine for the management of methamphetamine withdrawal

    Abstract Introduction and Aims. As an antidepressant with sedative and anxiolytic properties, mirtazapine may be an appropriate pharmacotherapy for methamphetamine withdrawal. This study sought to examine whether mirtazapine improves retention and alleviates methamphetamine withdrawal symptoms in an out-patient setting. Design and Methods. An out-patient double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial of mirtazapine for the treatment of methamphetamine withdrawal was conducted (15 mg nocte for 2 days, 30 mg nocte for 12 days). Both groups were offered narrative therapy counselling. Measures recorded on days 0, 3, 7, 14 and 35 included: treatment retention, Amphetamine Cessation Symptoms Assessment, the Athens Insomnia Scale, the Brief Symptom Inventory, the Depression,Anxiety,Stress Scale (DASS), Severity of Dependence scale and the Opiate Treatment Index Drug Use subscale. Results. Thirty-one participants were recruited (18 placebo, 13 mirtazapine) and 52% completed the 2-week medication phase. No significant differences between the mirtazapine and placebo groups in retention, or any symptom measure were observed, except greater DASS,anxiety and longer sleep duration were measured at baseline among the mirtazapine group. Discussion and Conclusions. Results suggest that mirtazapine does not facilitate retention or recruitment in out-patient methamphetamine withdrawal treatment, although recruitment may have been insufficient to identify a significant treatment effect. The potential role of narrative therapy for methamphetamine dependent patients deserves further exploration. [source]

    Long circulating nanoparticles of etoposide using PLGA-MPEG and PLGA-pluronic block copolymers: characterization, drug-release, blood-clearance, and biodistribution studies

    Khushwant S. Yadav
    Abstract The anti-leukemic drug, etoposide (ETO), has variable oral bioavailability ranging from 24,74% with a short terminal half-life of 1.5,h i.v. necessitating continuous infusion for 24,34,h for the treatment of leukemia. In the present study, etoposide-loaded PLGA-based surface-modified nanoparticles (NPs) with long circulation were designed as an alternative to continuous i.v. administration. PLGA-mPEG and PLGA-PLURONIC copolymers were synthesised and used to prepared ETO-loaded NPs by high-pressure homogenization. The mean particle size of ETO-loaded PLGA-MPEG nanoparticles was 94.02±3.4,nm, with an Entrapment Efficiency (EE) of 71.2% and zeta potential value of ,6.9±1.3,mV. ETO-loaded PLGA-pluronic nanoparticles had a mean particle size of 148.0±2.1,nm, an EE of 73.12±2.7%, and zeta potential value of ,21.5±1.6,mV. In vitro release of the pure drug was complete within 4,h, but was sustained up to 7 days from PLGA-mPEG nanoparticles and for 5 days from PLGA-pluronic nanoparticles. Release was first order and followed non-Fickian diffusion kinetics in both instances. ETO and ETO-loaded PLGA nanoparticles labeled with 99mTc were used in blood clearance studies in rats where the two coated NPs, 99mTc- ETO-PLGA-PLU NP and 99mTc- ETO-PLGA-mPEG NP, were found to be available in higher concentrations in the circulation as compared to the pure drug. Biodistribution studies in mice showed that ETO-loaded PLGA-MPEG NP and PLGA-PLURONIC NP had reduced uptake by the RES due to their steric barrier properties and were present in the circulation for a longer time. Moreover, the NPs had greater uptake in bone and brain where concentration of the free drug, ETO, was negligible. Drug delivered from these NPs could result in a single i.v. injection that would release the drug for a number of days, which would be potentially beneficial and in better control of leukemia therapy. Drug Dev Res 71: 228,239, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Accelerating drug development: methodology to support first-in-man pharmacokinetic studies by the use of drug candidate microdosing

    Matthew A. McLean
    Abstract Microdosing of experimental therapeutics in humans offers a number of benefits to the drug development process. Microdosing, conducted under an exploratory Investigational New Drug (IND) application, entails administration of a sub-pharmacological dose of a new chemical entity (NCE) that allows for early evaluation of human pharmacokinetics. Such information can be pivotal for: (1) selecting a compound for full drug development from a small group of candidates; (2) defining the amount of material needed for early development; and (3) setting the initial Phase I dose regimen in humans. Appropriate safety studies must be conducted to support microdosing in humans, but the requirements are generally less extensive than those needed to support a traditional IND. To date, microdosing has not been broadly applied by the pharmaceutical industry due to concerns about analytical sensitivity and the possibility of non-linear pharmacokinetics at extremely low doses. The primary method for detecting analytes following microdosing until now has been accelerator mass spectrometry, which is expensive, not generally available, and requires test agents to be radiolabeled. Presented in this report is an example of pharmacokinetics analysis using LC/MS/MS following microdosing of an experimental agent in cynomolgus monkeys. The results show good linearity in plasma pharmacokinetics for oral doses of 10,mg/kg (therapeutic dose) and 0.0005,mg/kg (microdose) of the test agent. The results also demonstrate the feasibility of applying standard laboratory analytics to support microdosing in humans and raise the possibility of establishing an animal model to screen for compounds having non-linear pharmacokinetics at low dose levels. Drug Dev. Res. 68:14,22, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Characteristics and comorbidity of drug and alcohol-related emergency department presentations detected by nursing triage text

    ADDICTION, Issue 5 2010
    Devon Indig
    ABSTRACT Introduction This study used nursing triage text to detect drug- and alcohol-related emergency department (ED) presentations and describe their patient and service delivery characteristics. Methods Data were reviewed for all ED presentations from 2004 to 2006 (n = 263 937) from two hospitals in Sydney, Australia. Each record included two nursing triage free-text fields, which were searched for more than 100 drug-related and more than 60 alcohol-related terms. Adjusted odds ratios were used to compare the characteristics of drug and alcohol-related ED presentations with all other ED presentation types. Results Just over 5% of ED presentations were identified as alcohol-related and 2% as drug-related. The most prevalent drug-related ED presentations specified were related to amphetamines (18%), heroin (14%), cannabis (14%) and ecstasy (12%), while nearly half (43%) were drug unspecified. Polydrug use was mentioned in 25% of drug-related and 9% of alcohol-related ED presentations, with the highest rate of polydrug use among ecstasy-related (68%) presentations. Drug- and alcohol-related ED presentations were significantly more likely than other ED presentations to have a mental health diagnosis, with the highest rates found among cannabis-related (OR = 7.6) or amphetamine-related (OR = 7.5) presentations. Conclusion The ED provides an opportunity for early intervention for patients presenting with comorbid drug and alcohol and mental health problems. Further research is needed to assess the prevalence of drug and alcohol problems in ED patients with mental health problems and to develop effective interventions in that setting. [source]

    Test,re-test reliability of DSM-IV adopted criteria for 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) abuse and dependence: a cross-national study

    ADDICTION, Issue 10 2009
    Linda B. Cottler
    ABSTRACT Aims This study evaluated the prevalence and reliability of DSM-IV adopted criteria for 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) abuse and dependence with a purpose to determine whether it is best conceptualized within the category of hallucinogens, amphetamines or its own category. Design Test,re-test study. Participants MDMA users (life-time use >5 times) were recruited in St Louis, Miami and Sydney (n = 593). The median life-time MDMA consumption was 50 pills at the baseline. Measurements The computerized Substance Abuse Module for Club Drug (CD-SAM) was used to assess MDMA abuse and dependence. The Discrepancy Interview Protocol (DIP) was used to determine the reasons for the discrepant responses between the two interviews. Reliability of diagnoses, individual diagnostic criteria and withdrawal symptoms was examined using the kappa coefficient (,). Findings For baseline data, 15% and 59% met MDMA abuse and dependence, respectively. Substantial test,re-test reliability of the diagnoses was observed consistently across cities (, = 0.69). ,Continued use despite knowledge of physical/psychological problems' (87%) and ,withdrawal' (68%) were the two most prevalent dependence criteria. ,Physically hazardous use' was the most prevalent abuse criterion. Six dependence criteria and all abuse criteria were reported reliably across cities (,: 0.53,0.77). Seventeen of 19 withdrawal symptoms showed consistency in the reliability across cities. The most commonly reported reason for discrepant responses was ,interpretation of question changed'. Only a small proportion of the total discrepancies were attributed to lying or social desirability. Conclusion The adopted DSM-IV diagnostic classification for MDMA abuse and dependence was moderately reliable across cities. Findings on MDMA withdrawal support the argument that MDMA should be separated from other hallucinogens in DSM. [source]

    Highly Sensitive and Selective Measurement of Bismuth in Seawater and Drug with 1,2-Phenylenedioxydiacetic Acid by Cathodic Adsorptive Stripping Voltammetry

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 7 2006
    B. Gholivand
    Abstract A new method is presented for determination of bismuth based on cathodic adsorptive stripping of complex bismuth with 1,2-phenylenedioxydiacetic acid (PDA) at a hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE). The effect of various parameters such as pH, concentration of ligand, accumulation potential and accumulation time on the selectivity and sensitivity were studied. The optimum conditions for determination of bismuth include nitric acid concentration 0.01,M, 8.0×10,4,M PDA and accumulation time 120,s, accumulation potential of ,200,mV. The limits of detection are 0.25 and 0.05,nM, and responses are linear 1,1000 and 0.1,400,nM at tacc of 60 and 120,s, respectively. Many common anions and cations do not interfere in the determination of bismuth. The method was applied to the determination of bismuth in some real samples such as sea , and spring water and drug. [source]

    Drug,liposome distribution phenomena studied by capillary electrophoresis-frontal analysis

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 16 2008
    Jesper Østergaard Professor
    Abstract The potential of using CE frontal analysis (CE-FA) for the study of low-molecular-weight drug,liposome interactions was assessed. The interaction of bupivacaine, brompheniramine, chlorpromazine, imipramine, and ropivacaine with net negatively charged 80/20,mol% 1-oleoyl-2-palmitoyl- sn -glycero-3-phosphocholine/egg yolk phosphatidic acid liposome suspensions in HEPES buffer at pH,7.4 was investigated. The fraction of free drug as a function of lipid concentration was measured and apparent liposome , buffer distribution coefficients were determined for the basic drug substances. The distribution coefficients increased in the order ropivacaine, bupivacaine, brompheniramine, imipramine, and chlorpromazine. The developed CE method was relatively fast allowing estimates of drug,liposome affinity to be obtained within 15,min. CE-FA may have the potential to become a valuable tool for the characterization of drug,liposome interactions in relation to estimation of drug lipophilicity and for the evaluation of drug distribution in liposomal drug delivery systems. [source]

    A social network perspective on heroin and cocaine use among adults: evidence of bidirectional influences

    ADDICTION, Issue 7 2009
    Amy S. B. Bohnert
    ABSTRACT Aims While several studies have documented a relationship between initiation of drug use and social network drug use in youth, the direction of this association is not well understood, particularly among adults or for stages of drug involvement beyond initiation. The present study sought to examine two competing theories (social selection and social influence) in the longitudinal relationship between drug use (heroin and/or cocaine) and social network drug use among drug-experienced adults. Design Three waves of data came from a cohort of 1108 adults reporting a life-time history of heroin and/or cocaine use. Setting Low-income neighborhoods with high rates of drug use in Baltimore, Maryland. Participants Participants had weekly contact with drug users and were 18 years of age or older. Measurements Drug use data were self-report. Network drug use was assessed through a social network inventory. Close friends were individuals whom the participant reported seeing daily or rated as having the highest level of trust. Findings Structural equation modeling indicated significant bidirectional influences. The majority of change in network drug use over time was due to change in the composition of the network rather than change in friends' behavior. Drug use by close peers did not influence participant drug use beyond the total network. Conclusions There is evidence of both social selection and social influence processes in the association between drug use and network drug use among drug-experienced adults. [source]

    Characterization of basic drug,human serum protein interactions by capillary electrophoresis

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 17 2006
    María A. Martínez-Gómez
    Abstract Drug,protein interactions are determining factors in the therapeutic, pharmacodynamic and toxicological drug properties. The affinity of drugs towards plasmatic proteins is apparently well established in bibliography. Albumin (HSA) especially binds neutral and negatively charged compounds; ,1 -acid glycoprotein,(AGP) binds many cationic drugs, lipoproteins bind to nonionic and lipophilic drugs and some anionic drugs while globulins interact inappreciably with the majority of drugs. In this paper, the characterization of the interaction between cationic drugs, ,-blockers and phenotiazines towards HSA, AGP, and both HSA + AGP mixtures of proteins under physiological conditions by CE-frontal analysis is presented. Furthermore, the binding of these drugs to all plasmatic proteins is evaluated by using ultrafiltration and CE. The results indicate that the hydrophobic character of compounds seems to be the key factor on the interaction between cationic drugs towards proteins. In fact, hydrophobic basic drugs bind in great extension to HSA, while hydrophilic basic drugs present low interactions with proteins and bind especially to AGP. [source]

    Anticonvulsant Profile and Teratogenicity of N -methyl-tetramethylcyclopropyl Carboxamide: A New Antiepileptic Drug

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 2 2002
    Nina Isoherranen
    Summary: ,Purpose: The studies presented here represent our efforts to investigate the anticonvulsant activity of N -methyl-tetramethylcyclopropyl carboxamide (M-TMCD) and its metabolite tetramethylcyclopropyl carboxamide (TMCD) in various animal (rodent) models of human epilepsy, and to evaluate their ability to induce neural tube defects (NTDs) and neurotoxicity. Methods: The anticonvulsant activity of M-TMCD and TMCD was determined after intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration to CF#1 mice, and either oral or i.p. administration to Sprague,Dawley rats. The ability of M-TMCD and TMCD to block electrical-, chemical-, or sensory-induced seizures was examined in eight animal models of epilepsy. The plasma and brain concentrations of M-TMCD and TMCD were determined in the CF#1 mice after i.p. administration. The induction of NTDs by M-TMCD and TMCD was evaluated after a single i.p. administration at day 8.5 of gestation in a highly inbred mouse strain (SWV) that is susceptible to valproic acid,induced neural tube defects. Results: In mice, M-TMCD afforded protection against maximal electroshock (MES)-induced, pentylenetetrazol (Metrazol)-induced, and bicuculline-induced seizures, as well as against 6-Hz "psychomotor" seizures and sound-induced seizures with ED50 values of 99, 39, 81, 51, and 10 mg/kg, respectively. In rats, M-TMCD effectively prevented MES- and Metrazol-induced seizures and secondarily generalized seizures in hippocampal kindled rats (ED50 values of 82, 45, and 39 mg/kg, respectively). Unlike M-TMCD, TMCD was active only against Metrazol-induced seizures in mice and rats (ED50 values of 57 and 52 mg/kg, respectively). Neither M-TMCD nor TMCD was found to induce NTDs in SWV mice. Conclusions: The results obtained in this study show that M-TMCD is a broad-spectrum anticonvulsant drug that does not induce NTDs and support additional studies to evaluate its full therapeutic potential. [source]

    Prognostic Significance of Failure of the Initial Antiepileptic Drug in Children with Absence Epilepsy

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 6 2001
    Elaine Wirrell
    Summary: ,Purpose: In children with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) and juvenile absence epilepsy (JAE), to determine the impact of failure of initial antiepileptic drug (AED) for lack of efficacy in eventual seizure control and long-term remission of epilepsy. Methods: Centralized EEG records for the province of Nova Scotia allowed identification of all children seen with CAE or JAE between 1977 and 1985. Information regarding success or failure of initial AED in fully controlling seizures and long-term seizure control and remission of epilepsy was collected by patient questionnaire and chart review. Results: Eighty-six of 92 eligible patients were followed up (75 CAE, 11 JAE). Initial AED treatment was successful in 52 (60%) of 86. Success tended to be greater for valproate (VPA) than for other AEDs (p = 0.07), and lower if generalized tonic,clonic or myoclonic seizures coexisted (p < 0.004 and p < 0.03). Terminal remission was more likely if the initial AED was successful than if it had failed (69% vs. 41%; p < 0.02). Compared with those in whom the initial AED was successful, subjects whose initial AED had failed were more likely to progress to juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) at last follow-up (32% vs. 10%; p < 0.02) and to develop intractable epilepsy (17% vs. 2%; p < 0.04). Conclusions: Initial AED was successful in 60% of children with AE. If the first AED failed, the outcome was less favorable, with a lower rate of terminal remission and a higher rate of progression to JME and intractable epilepsy. [source]

    Drug use patterns and mental health of regular amphetamine users during a reported ,heroin drought'

    ADDICTION, Issue 7 2004
    Amanda Baker
    ABSTRACT Aims The present study extends the findings of a pilot study conducted among regular amphetamine users in Newcastle, NSW, in 1998. It compares key features between current participants in a state capital city (Brisbane) and a regional city (Newcastle) and between the 1998 and current Newcastle sample. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Brisbane and Newcastle, Australia. Participants The survey was conducted among 214 regular amphetamine users within the context of a randomized controlled trial of brief interventions for amphetamine use. Measurements Demographic characteristics, past and present alcohol and other drug use and mental health, treatment, amphetamine-related harms and severity of dependence. Findings The main findings were as follows: (i) the rate of mental health problems was high among regular amphetamine users and these problems commonly emerged after commencement of regular amphetamine use; (ii) there were regional differences in drug use with greater accessibility to a wider range of drugs in a state capital city and greater levels of injecting risk-taking behaviour outside the capital city environment; and (iii) there was a significant increase in level of amphetamine use and percentage of alcohol users, a trend for a higher level of amphetamine dependence and a significant reduction in the percentage of people using heroin and benzodiazepines among the 2002 Newcastle cohort compared to the 1998 cohort. Conclusions Further longitudinal research is needed to elucidate transitions from one drug type to another and from recreational to injecting and regular use and the relationship between drug use and mental health in prospective studies among users. Implications Intervention research should evaluate the effectiveness of interventions aimed at: preventing transition to injecting and regular use of amphetamines; toward reducing levels of depression among amphetamine users and interventions among people with severe psychopathology and personality disorders; and toward reducing the prevalence of tobacco dependence among amphetamine users. [source]

    Short-term outcomes after brief ambulatory opioid detoxification with buprenorphine in young heroin users

    ADDICTION, Issue 4 2003
    Devang H. Gandhi
    Abstract Aims, This study examines the outcomes at 1, 3 and 6 months after a very brief outpatient detoxification with buprenorphine in 18,25-year-old heroin users. Design, Prospective follow-up study. Setting, Outpatient drug treatment clinic, providing brief detoxification in downtown Baltimore, Maryland, USA. Participants, One hundred and twenty-three subjects between 18 and 25 years old; 56% male; 95% Caucasian; seeking detoxification; living in Baltimore City and five surrounding counties. Intervention, Detoxification with buprenorphine over 3 days. Follow-up at 1, 3 and 6 months. Measurements, Drug use history, the Addiction Severity Index at baseline and follow-up, urine drug screens, evaluation of the detoxification experience. Findings, By self-report, 37% of the total sample were not currently using heroin at 1 month, 32% at 3 months and 29% at 6 months, and 6.7%, 10.1% and 11.8% had an opioid negative urine test at 1, 3 and 6 months, respectively. There was a significant reduction from the baseline in mean Addiction Severity Index drug use composite score, as well as the mean number of days of heroin and cocaine use during past 30 days, that was sustained over the three follow-up points. Engagement in aftercare was generally poor. Conclusions, The findings show a reduced frequency and intensity of drug use, suggesting a possible role for brief outpatient detoxification in reducing the severity of dependence for some younger heroin users who may not yet be ready to engage in long-term abstinence-oriented or opioid substitution treatments. [source]

    Supply control and harm reduction: lessons from the Australian heroin ,drought'

    ADDICTION, Issue 1 2003
    Don Weatherburn
    ABSTRACT Aims, To examine the effects of supply-side drug law enforcement on the dynamics of the Australian heroin market and the harms associated with heroin. Setting, Around Christmas 2000, heroin users in Sydney and other large capital cities in Australia began reporting sudden and significant reductions in the availability of heroin. The changes, which appear to have been caused at least in part by drug law enforcement, provided a rare opportunity to examine the potential impact of such enforcement on the harm associated with heroin. Design, Data were drawn from a survey of 165 heroin users in South-Western Sydney, Australia; from the Drug Use Monitoring in Australia (DUMA) project; from NSW Health records of heroin overdoses; and from the Computerized Operational Policing System (COPS) database. Findings, Heroin price increased, while purity, consumption and expenditure on the drug decreased as a result of the shortage. The fall in overall heroin use was accompanied by a significant reduction in the rate of overdose in NSW. However, the health benefits associated with the fall in overdose may have been offset by an increase in the use of other drugs (mainly cocaine) since the onset of the heroin shortage. There does not appear to have been any enduring impact on crime rates as a result of the heroin ,drought'. Conclusion, Supply control has an important part to play in harm reduction; however, proponents of supply-side drug law enforcement need to be mindful of the unintended adverse consequences that might flow from successfully disrupting the market for a particular illegal drug. [source]

    Drug misuse and suicide: a tale of two services

    ADDICTION, Issue 2 2000
    Louis Appleby
    First page of article [source]

    Drug Induced Movement Disorders, 2nd edition

    K. A. Jellinger
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Charge-Reversal Drug Conjugate for Targeted Cancer Cell Nuclear Drug Delivery

    Zhuxian Zhou
    Abstract DNA-toxin anticancer drugs target nuclear DNA or its associated enzymes to elicit their pharmaceutical effects, but cancer cells have not only membrane-associated but also many intracellular drug-resistance mechanisms that limit their nuclear localization. Thus, delivering such drugs directly to the nucleus would bypass the drug-resistance barriers. The cationic polymer poly(L -lysine) (PLL) is capable of nuclear localization and may be used as a drug carrier for nuclear drug delivery, but its cationic charges make it toxic and cause problems in in-vivo applications. Herein, PLL is used to demonstrate a pH-triggered charge-reversal carrier to solve this problem. PLL's primary amines are amidized as acid-labile , -carboxylic amides (PLL/amide). The negatively charged PLL/amide has a very low toxicity and low interaction with cells and, therefore, may be used in vivo. But once in cancer cells' acidic lysosomes, the acid-labile amides hydrolyze into primary amines. The regenerated PLL escapes from the lysosomes and traverses into the nucleus. A cancer-cell targeted nuclear-localization polymer,drug conjugate has, thereby, been developed by introducing folic-acid targeting groups and an anticancer drug camptothecin (CPT) to PLL/amide (FA-PLL/amide-CPT). The conjugate efficiently enters folate-receptor overexpressing cancer cells and traverses to their nuclei. The CPT conjugated to the carrier by intracellular cleavable disulfide bonds shows much improved cytotoxicity. [source]

    The Effects of Health Sector Market Factors and Vulnerable Group Membership on Access to Alcohol, Drug, and Mental Health Care

    Susan E. Stockdale
    Objective. This study adapts Andersen's Behavioral Model to determine if health sector market conditions affect vulnerable subgroups' use of alcohol, drug, and mental health services (ADM) differently than the general population, focusing specifically on community-level predisposing and enabling characteristics. Data Sources. Wave 2 data (2000,2001) from the Health Care for Communities study, supplemented with cases from wave 1 (1997,1998), were merged with area characteristics taken from Census, Area Resource File (ARF), and other data sources. Study Design. The study used four-level hierarchical logistic regression to examine access to ADM care from any provider and specialty ADM access. Interactions between community-level predisposing and enabling vulnerability characteristics with individual race/ethnicity, age, income category, and insurance type were explored. Principal Findings. Nonwhites, the poor, uninsured, and elderly had lower likelihoods of service use, but interactions between race/ethnicity, income, age and insurance status with community-level vulnerability factors were not statistically significant for any service use. For ADM specialty care, those with Medicare, Medicaid, private fully managed, and private partially managed insurance, the likelihood of utilization was higher in areas with higher HMO penetration. However, for those with other insurance or no insurance plan, the likelihood of utilization was lower in areas with higher HMO penetration. Conclusions. Community-level enabling factors explain part of the effect of disadvantaged status but, with the exception of the effect of HMO penetration on the relationship between insurance and specialty care use, do not modify any of the residual individual-level effects of disadvantage. Interventions targeting both structural and individual levels may be necessary to address the problem of health disparities. More research with longitudinal data is necessary to sort out the causal direction of social context and ADM access outcomes, and whether policy interventions to change health sector market conditions can shift ADM treatment utilization. [source]

    Drug,Membrane Interaction on Immobilized Liposome Chromatography Compared to Immobilized Artificial Membrane (IAM), Liposome/Water, and Octan-1-ol/Water Systems

    Xiangli Liu
    Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate drug,membrane interaction by immobilized liposome chromatography (ILC; expressed as lipophilicity index log,Ks) and the comparison with lipophilicity indices obtained by liposome/H2O, octan-1-ol/H2O, and immobilized artificial membrane (IAM) systems. A set of structurally diverse monofunctional compounds and drugs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and , -blockers) were selected in this study. This set of solutes consists of basic or acidic functionalities which are positively or negatively charged at physiological pH,7.4. No correlation was found between log,Ks from ILC and lipophilicity indices from any of the other membrane model systems for the whole set of compounds. For structurally related compounds, significant correlations could be established between log,Ks from ILC and lipophilicity indices from IAM chromatography and octan-1-ol/H2O. However, ILC and liposome/H2O systems only yield parallel partitioning information for structurally related large molecules. For hydrophilic compounds, the balance between electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions dominating drug partitioning is different in these two systems. [source]