Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Chemistry

Kinds of Domain

  • ATP-bind domain
  • DNA-bind domain
  • PA domain
  • RNA-bind domain
  • academic domain
  • achievement domain
  • actin-binding domain
  • activation domain
  • activity domain
  • additional domain
  • adenylation domain
  • administrative domain
  • affective domain
  • amino-terminal domain
  • amorphous domain
  • and frequency domain
  • apical domain
  • applicability domain
  • application domain
  • atpase domain
  • auto-inhibitory domain
  • b domain
  • b3 domain
  • behavioral domain
  • bh4 domain
  • bhlh domain
  • binding domain
  • bir domain
  • bounded domain
  • broad domain
  • c domain
  • c-terminal domain
  • c1 domain
  • c2 domain
  • c2b domain
  • calcium-binding domain
  • cap domain
  • carbohydrate recognition domain
  • carbohydrate-recognition domain
  • carboxyl-terminal domain
  • caspase recruitment domain
  • catalytic domain
  • ccp domain
  • central domain
  • certain domain
  • chromatin domain
  • clinical domain
  • cognitive domain
  • coiled-coil domain
  • cold shock domain
  • competency domain
  • complex domain
  • compositional domain
  • computational domain
  • conceptual domain
  • connected domain
  • conserved c-terminal domain
  • conserved domain
  • content domain
  • convex domain
  • copper-binding domain
  • core domain
  • crystal domain
  • crystallin domain
  • crystalline domain
  • cultural domain
  • cytoplasmic domain
  • cytosolic domain
  • death domain
  • difference time domain
  • different domain
  • dimerization domain
  • distinct domain
  • dna binding domain
  • eal domain
  • effector domain
  • element domain
  • entire domain
  • environmental domain
  • epidermal growth factor-like domain
  • erectile function domain
  • evh1 domain
  • experimental domain
  • expression domain
  • exterior domain
  • external domain
  • extracellular domain
  • extracellular n-terminal domain
  • factor-like domain
  • fad domain
  • ferm domain
  • finger domain
  • finite difference time domain
  • finite domain
  • first domain
  • fixed domain
  • flow domain
  • fluid domain
  • frequency domain
  • function domain
  • functional domain
  • functioning domain
  • gaf domain
  • general health domain
  • ggdef domain
  • gk domain
  • globular domain
  • growth factor-like domain
  • head domain
  • health domain
  • helical domain
  • helicase domain
  • helix domain
  • hinge domain
  • homologous domain
  • homology domain
  • hrqol domain
  • hydrophilic domain
  • hydrophobic domain
  • ig domain
  • ig-like domain
  • iii domain
  • immunoglobulin domain
  • immunoglobulin-like domain
  • important domain
  • individual domain
  • infinite domain
  • inhibitory domain
  • interaction domain
  • intracellular domain
  • irregular domain
  • isolated domain
  • juxtamembrane domain
  • kda domain
  • key domain
  • kh domain
  • kinase domain
  • kinase-inducible domain
  • knowledge domain
  • laplace domain
  • large domain
  • lectin domain
  • leucine-rich repeat domain
  • lid domain
  • life domain
  • ligand binding domain
  • ligand-binding domain
  • like domain
  • lim domain
  • lipschitz domain
  • loop domain
  • lov domain
  • lrr domain
  • many domain
  • medical domain
  • membrane domain
  • membrane-spanning domain
  • metalloprotease domain
  • metalloproteinase domain
  • methyltransferase domain
  • middle domain
  • model domain
  • motif domain
  • motor domain
  • moving domain
  • multiple domain
  • myonuclear domain
  • n-terminal domain
  • new domain
  • novel domain
  • nucleotide-binding domain
  • nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain
  • oligomerization domain
  • one domain
  • ordered domain
  • other cognitive domain
  • other domain
  • outcome domain
  • participation domain
  • passenger domain
  • pdz domain
  • peptide domain
  • personality domain
  • ph domain
  • phase domain
  • phosphatase domain
  • physical domain
  • planar domain
  • plasma membrane domain
  • pleckstrin homology domain
  • pmma domain
  • policy domain
  • polygonal domain
  • problem domain
  • propeller domain
  • protease domain
  • protein domain
  • protein transduction domain
  • protein-binding domain
  • psychological domain
  • psychosocial domain
  • public domain
  • qol domain
  • receiver domain
  • recognition domain
  • recruitment domain
  • rectangular domain
  • regulatory domain
  • repeat domain
  • repression domain
  • rich domain
  • ring domain
  • rod domain
  • s1 domain
  • same domain
  • second transmembrane domain
  • selected domain
  • separate domain
  • several domain
  • sf-36 domain
  • sh2 domain
  • sh3 domain
  • sheet domain
  • shock domain
  • single domain
  • small domain
  • social domain
  • solid domain
  • solution domain
  • space domain
  • spatial domain
  • specific domain
  • spectral domain
  • spiritual domain
  • structural domain
  • subcellular domain
  • substrate-binding domain
  • symptom domain
  • tail domain
  • target domain
  • terminal domain
  • tetramerization domain
  • thioredoxin-like domain
  • third domain
  • third transmembrane domain
  • three-dimensional domain
  • time and frequency domain
  • time domain
  • traditional domain
  • transactivation domain
  • transcriptional activation domain
  • transduction domain
  • transform domain
  • transmembrane domain
  • two-dimensional domain
  • uba domain
  • unbounded domain
  • unique domain
  • variable domain
  • various domain
  • wavelet domain
  • ww domain
  • zinc finger domain
  • zinc-finger domain

  • Terms modified by Domain

  • domain alone
  • domain analysis
  • domain approach
  • domain architecture
  • domain b
  • domain bound
  • domain boundary
  • domain characteristic
  • domain common
  • domain composition
  • domain consisting
  • domain containing
  • domain containing protein
  • domain decomposition
  • domain decomposition approach
  • domain decomposition method
  • domain decomposition methods
  • domain decomposition technique
  • domain decomposition techniques
  • domain expert
  • domain family
  • domain fused
  • domain gene
  • domain homologous
  • domain i
  • domain ii
  • domain iii
  • domain important
  • domain information
  • domain integral
  • domain interaction
  • domain interface
  • domain knowledge
  • domain measure
  • domain method
  • domain motion
  • domain movement
  • domain mutant
  • domain mutation
  • domain optical coherence tomography
  • domain organization
  • domain parameter
  • domain protein
  • domain receptor
  • domain region
  • domain rich
  • domain scale
  • domain score
  • domain sequence
  • domain shows
  • domain simulation
  • domain size
  • domain solution
  • domain specific
  • domain structure
  • domain superfamily
  • domain technique
  • domain v
  • domain wall

  • Selected Abstracts


    Jeffrey M. Samuels
    First page of article [source]

    Ecological biogeography of species of Gelonus, Acantholybas and Amorbus in Australia

    AUSTRAL ECOLOGY, Issue 1 2002
    Martin J. Steinbauer
    Abstract Geographic ranges and host plants of 10 species of Australian coreid, Gelonus tasmanicus, Acantholybas brunneus, Amorbus alternatus, Am. atomarius, Am. biguttatus, Am. bispinus, Am. obscuricornis, Am. rhombifer, Am. robustus and Am. rubiginosus, were summarized using data from specimen collection labels and sampling. One process (CLIMEX) and two correlative range-modelling programs (BIOCLIM and DOMAIN) were used to infer the bioclimatic profiles of each species. By inference from the maximum range predictions made by CLIMEX, the suggestion that G. tasmanicus, Am. atomarius and Am. obscuricornis are temperate species was supported. Similarly, the suggestions that Ac. brunneus was a subtropical species and Am. biguttatus and Am. rhombifer are predominantly tropical species were supported. That Am. alternatus, Am. robustus and Am. rubiginosus are apparently ubiquitous species was supported. Comparison of the bioclimatic profiles of the habitats of G. tasmanicus and Am. obscuricornis within Tasmania using BIOCLIM supported information available in the published literature, that is, that G. tasmanicus is better suited to sites at higher elevations than Am. obscuricornis. In addition, the suggestion that the regions of high Amorbus species endemism should overlap with regions of high eucalypt species endemism was also supported. This finding is taken as evidence that the evolutionary radiation of Amorbus has followed that of the eucalypts. Using these models we have obtained preliminary insights into the biology of each species and the environmental characteristics of their preferred climatic envelope. This is an achievement that might never have been attained through concentrated study given that these insects can vary from being rare to, at best, locally common in occurrence. [source]

    The Allantoic Core Domain: New insights into development of the murine allantois and its relation to the primitive streak

    Karen M. Downs
    Abstract The whereabouts and properties of the posterior end of the primitive streak have not been identified in any species. In the mouse, the streak's posterior terminus is assumed to be confined to the embryonic compartment, and to give rise to the allantois, which links the embryo to its mother during pregnancy. In this study, we have refined our understanding of the biology of the murine posterior primitive streak and its relation to the allantois. Through a combination of immunostaining and morphology, we demonstrate that the primitive streak spans the posterior extraembryonic and embryonic regions at the onset of the neural plate stage (,7.0 days postcoitum, dpc). Several hours later, the allantoic bud emerges from the extraembryonic component of the primitive streak (XPS). Then, possibly in collaboration with overlying allantois-associated extraembryonic visceral endoderm, the XPS establishes a germinal center within the allantois, named here the Allantoic Core Domain (ACD). Microsurgical removal of the ACD beyond headfold (HF) stages resulted in the formation of allantoic regenerates that lacked the ACD and failed to elongate; nevertheless, vasculogenesis and vascular patterning proceeded. In situ and transplantation fate mapping demonstrated that, from HF stages onward, the ACD's progenitor pool contributed to the allantois exclusive of the proximal flanks. By contrast, the posterior intraembryonic primitive streak (IPS) provided the flanks. Grafting the ACD into TC/TC hosts, whose allantoises are significantly foreshortened, restored allantoic elongation. These results revealed that the ACD is essential for allantoic elongation, but the cues required for vascularization lie outside of it. On the basis of these and previous findings, we conclude that the posterior primitive streak of the mouse conceptus is far more complex than was previously believed. Our results provide new directives for addressing the origin and development of the umbilical cord, and establish a novel paradigm for investigating the fetal/placental relationship. Developmental Dynamics 238:532,553, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The effect of sample size and species characteristics on performance of different species distribution modeling methods

    ECOGRAPHY, Issue 5 2006
    Pilar A. Hernandez
    Species distribution models should provide conservation practioners with estimates of the spatial distributions of species requiring attention. These species are often rare and have limited known occurrences, posing challenges for creating accurate species distribution models. We tested four modeling methods (Bioclim, Domain, GARP, and Maxent) across 18 species with different levels of ecological specialization using six different sample size treatments and three different evaluation measures. Our assessment revealed that Maxent was the most capable of the four modeling methods in producing useful results with sample sizes as small as 5, 10 and 25 occurrences. The other methods compensated reasonably well (Domain and GARP) to poorly (Bioclim) when presented with datasets of small sample sizes. We show that multiple evaluation measures are necessary to determine accuracy of models produced with presence-only data. Further, we found that accuracy of models is greater for species with small geographic ranges and limited environmental tolerance, ecological characteristics of many rare species. Our results indicate that reasonable models can be made for some rare species, a result that should encourage conservationists to add distribution modeling to their toolbox. [source]

    The Distinctive and Inclusive Domain of Entrepreneurial Cognition Research

    Ronald K. Mitchell
    Through mapping both distinctive and inclusive elements within the domain of entrepreneurial cognition research, we accomplish our task in this introductory article to Volume 2 of the Special Issue on Information Processing and Entrepreneurial Cognition: to provide a fitting backdrop that will enhance the articles you will find within. We develop and utilize a "boundaries and exchange" concept to provide a lens through which both distinctive and inclusive aspects of the entrepreneurship domain are employed to frame this special issue. [source]

    Differing body size between the autumn and the winter,spring cohorts of neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii) related to the oceanographic regime in the North Pacific: a hypothesis

    Taro Ichii
    Abstract The neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii), which is the target of an important North Pacific fishery, is comprised of an autumn and winter,spring cohort. During summer, there is a clear separation of mantle length (ML) between the autumn (ML range: 38,46 cm) and the winter,spring cohorts (ML range: 16,28 cm) despite their apparently contiguous hatching periods. We examined oceanic conditions associated with spawning/nursery and northward migration habitats of the two different-sized cohorts. The seasonal meridional movement of the sea surface temperature (SST) range at which spawning is thought to occur (21,25°C) indicates that the spawning ground occurs farther north during autumn (28,34°N) than winter,spring (20,28°N). The autumn spawning ground coincides with the Subtropical Frontal Zone (STFZ), characterized by enhanced productivity in winter because of its close proximity to the Transition Zone Chlorophyll Front (TZCF), which move south to the STFZ from the Subarctic Boundary. Hence this area is thought to become a food-rich nursery ground in winter. The winter,spring spawning ground, on the other hand, coincides with the Subtropical Domain, which is less productive throughout the year. Furthermore, as the TZCF and SST front migrate northward in spring and summer, the autumn cohort has the advantage of being in the SST front and productive area north of the chlorophyll front, whereas the winter,spring cohort remains to the south in a less productive area. Thus, the autumn cohort can utilize a food-rich habitat from winter through summer, which, we hypothesize, causes its members to grow larger than those in the winter,spring cohort in summer. [source]

    A synthesis of biological and physical processes affecting the feeding environment of larval walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) in the eastern Bering Sea

    Biological and physical phenomena that affect conditions for larval survival and eventual recruitment differ in the oceanic and shelf regions. In the oceanic region, eddies are a common feature. While their genesis is not well known, eddies have unique biophysical characteristics and occur with such regularity that they likely affect larval survival. High concentrations of larval pollock often are associated with eddies. Some eddies are transported onto the shelf, thereby providing larvae to the Outer Shelf Domain. Advection, rather than local production, dominated the observed springtime increase in chlorophyll (often a correlate of larval food) in the oceanic region. Over two-thirds of the south-eastern shelf, eddies are absent and other phenomena are important. Sea ice is a feature of the shelf region: its interannual variability (time of arrival, persistence, and areal extent) affects developmental rate of larvae, timing of the phytoplankton bloom (and potentially the match/mismatch of larvae and prey), and abundance and distribution of juvenile pollock. In the oceanic region, interannual variation in food for first-feeding pollock larvae is determined by advection; in the shelf region, it is the coupled dynamics of the atmosphere,ice,ocean system. [source]

    Reliability Analysis of Technical Systems/Structures by means of Polyhedral Approximation of the Safe/Unsafe Domain

    GAMM - MITTEILUNGEN, Issue 2 2007
    K. Marti
    Abstract Reliability analysis of technical structures and systems is based on an appropriate (limit) state function separating the safe and unsafe/states in the space of random parameters. Starting with the survival conditions, hence, the state equation and the condition for the admissibility of states, an optimizational representation of the state function can be given in terms of the minimum function of a certainminimization problem. Selecting a certain number of boundary points of the safe/unsafe domain, hence, on the limit state surface, the safe/unsafe domain is approximated by a convex polyhedron defined by the intersection of the half spaces in the parameter space generated by the tangent hyperplanes to the safe/unsafe domain at the selected boundary points on the limit state surface. The resulting approximative probability functions are then defined by means of probabilistic linear constraints in the parameter space, where, after an appropriate transformation, the probability distribution of the parameter vector can be assumed to be normal with zero mean vector and unit covariance matrix. Working with separate linear constraints, approximation formulas for the probability of survival of the structure are obtained immediately. More exact approximations are obtained by considering joint probability constraints, which, in a second approximation step, can be evaluated by using probability inequalities and/or discretization of the underlying probability distribution. (© 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Funnel-and-Gate Performance in a Moderately Heterogeneous Flow Domain

    Lacrecia C. Bilbrey
    The funnel-and-gate ground water remediation technology (Starr and Cherry 1994) has received increased attention and application as an in situ alternative to the typical pump-and-treat system. Understanding the effects of heterogeneity on system performance can mean the difference between a successful remediation project and one that fails to meet its cleanup goals. In an attempt to characterize and quantify the effects of heterogeneity on funnel-and-gate system performance, a numerical modeling study of 15 simulated heterogeneous flow domains was conducted. Each realization was tested to determine if the predicted capture width met the capture width expected for a homogeneous flow domain with the same hulk properties. This study revealed that the capture width of the funnel-and-gate system varied significantly with the level of heterogeneity of the aquifer. Two possible remedies were investigated for bringing systems with less than acceptable capture widths to acceptable levels of performance. First, it was determined that enlarging the funnel and gate via a factor of safety applied to the design capture width could compensate for the capture width variation in the heterogeneous flow domains. In addition, it was shown that the use of a pumping well downstream of the funnel and gate could compensate for the effects of aquifer heterogeneity on the funnel-and-gate capture width. However, if a pumping well is placed downstream of the funnel and gate to control the hydraulic gradient through the gate, consideration should be given to the gate residence time in relation to the geochemistry of the contaminant removal or destruction process in the gate. [source]

    Structure,Activity Relationship in the Domain of Odorants Having Marine Notes

    Jean-Marc Gaudin
    Abstract We synthesized or re-synthesized a large series of 2H -1,5-benzodioxepin-3(4H)-ones 9 (Scheme,1), 4,5-dihydro-1-benzoxepin-3(2H)-ones 10 (Schemes 3 and 4) and 5,6,8,9-tetrahydro-7H -benzocyclohepten-7-ones 11 (Schemes 5 and 6), since the lead compound for the olfactory note of perfumes based on marine accords is a well-known benzodioxepinone named Calone 1951® (9b). We meticulously described the odor profile of each synthesized compound and discussed relevant structure,odor relationships (Tables,1,3). In particular, we revealed a correlation between the conformation of the seven-membered ring and the activities of these compounds (Table,4 and Fig.,3). We also clarified the effect of the position and the size of the alkyl substituent at the aromatic ring. [source]

    Victims of Domestic Violence: A Proposal for a Community Diagnosis Based on One of Two Domains of NANDA Taxonomy II

    Patricia Serpa de Souza Batista
    PURPOSE To explore and identify diagnostic components to amplify NANDA nursing diagnoses by modifying the root violence. Whereas violence is nondebatable as a diagnostic concept in nursing, other alternatives have not been identified in the two existing diagnoses. METHODS Using the case study method, this qualitative study sought to identify commonalties in a population of women who were "donnas da casa" (homemakers) in a small rural community of approximately 100 families, typical of the Brazilian northeast. The sample of 7 women was identified through a larger study that had been based on health needs of the community. Data were obtained through observation during a home visit and a semistructured interview based on NANDA Taxonomy II. Observations were focused on hygiene, manner of dress, home environment, and physical and emotional state. Data were analyzed by content and clustered into major categories. From these a profile of the women and another of the partners emerged. FINDINGS Subjects ranged in age from 33 to 43 years, and number of children between 3 and 7. One of the 7 women was literate; 5 were underweight; all were slovenly attired. They appeared sad and older than their age. The majority seemed relieved to unburden themselves to the interviewers as they went through a gamut of emotions such as sadness, anguish, and irritability expressed through crying, restlessness, changes in body language, and tone of voice. The shortage of beds was supplemented by hammocks and mats or cardboard. The women spoke of being confined to their home and of male partners who drank on weekends, thus leaving them with little money for necessities of life. There were accounts of beatings when the partner returned home after drinking, overt nonacceptance of children from previous marriages, and general destruction of the family environment. New children were regarded as just another mouth to feed. DISCUSSION The profiles pointed to the necessity of identifying a new nursing diagnosis that would be linked, only tangentially, by the root violence to the two diagnoses in NANDA Taxonomies I and II. This insight led us to consider that a new method of listing NANDA diagnoses, by root only, is imperative in the evolution of Taxonomy II. Proposed descriptors, Victims of (Axis 3) and Domestic (Axis 6) would be identified by Axes, thereby facilitating the process of classifying in the Domains and Classes. The two existing NANDA diagnoses, risk for other-directed violence and risk for self-directed violence, are proposed for classification in Class 3, Violence, in Domain 11 of Taxonomy II. Safety/Protection could, by virtue of their modification power, find anchor in another domain such as Domain 6, Self-Perception. CONCLUSIONS Although Safety/Protection seems the most logical domain for classification by root, the axes, dimensions of human responses, could pull the diagnosis in another direction, thereby dictating other nursing interventions and nursing outcomes [source]

    Design of irrigation water supply systems using the Q,C feasibility domain concept: I. Introduction and theory,

    Gideon Sinai
    irrigation; alimentation en eau; qualité de l'eau; systèmes d'irrigation; analyse de la contamination des réseaux; débit de l'eau Abstract The Q,C Feasibility Domain (QCFD) was defined and proposed as a tool for design of multiquality irrigation water supply systems. It determines all feasible combinations of water discharge and water quality, and can be represented by a point, a line, or an area in a diagram of water discharge versus solute flow rate (a Q,J diagram). The shape of the QCFD is the result of dilution of two or more flows from sources of different water quality. (assuming conservative substances) Several types of QCFDs were analyzed at sources, inner nodes of a network, and of consumer outlets. The effect of water discharge constraints (due to flow limitations in the network) on the QCFDs was formulated and analyzed. Computation of QCFDs of dilution junctions by vector addition of their inflows was described. The method was extended numerically to nonlinear mixing due to dependence of water salinity. Use of this method enables computation of QCFDs for inner nodes in networks, including dilution junctions. The effect of network topology and flow direction was discussed. Application and demonstration will follow in the next paper in this series. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Le domaine de faisabilité Q,C (QCFD) a été défini et proposé comme un outil pour la conception des systèmes d'alimentation en eau d'irrigation de qualités multiples. Il détermine toutes les combinaisons faisables de débit et de qualité de l'eau, et peut être représenté par un point, une ligne, ou un secteur dans un diagramme débit-concentration (un diagramme de Q,J). La forme du QCFD est le résultat de la dilution de deux écoulements ou plus provenant de sources de qualité différente (en supposant la conservation des quantités). Plusieurs types de QCFD ont été analysés aux sources, n,uds, et sorties du réseau. L'effet des contraintes de débit (dues aux limitations dans le réseau) sur le QCFD a été formulé et analysé. On décrit le calcul de QCFD aux jonctions par l'addition des vecteurs d'apports. La méthode a été étendues numériquement aux mélanges non linéaires du fait de la liaison avec la salinité de l'eau. L'utilisation de cette méthode permet le calcul de QCFD aux n,uds intérieurs des réseaux, y compris les jonctions de dilution. L'effet de la topologie de réseau et du sens d'écoulement a été discuté. L'application et la démonstration suivront dans le prochain papier de cette série. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Finite sample improvements in statistical inference with I(1) processes

    D. Marinucci
    Robinson and Marinucci (1998) investigated the asymptotic behaviour of a narrow-band semiparametric procedure termed Frequency Domain Least Squares (FDLS) in the broad context of fractional cointegration analysis. Here we restrict discussion to the standard case when the data are I(1) and the cointegrating errors are I(0), proving that modifications of the Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares (FM-OLS) procedure of Phillips and Hansen (1990) which use the FDLS idea have the same asymptotically desirable properties as FM-OLS, and, on the basis of a Monte Carlo study, find evidence that they have superior finite-sample properties. The new procedures are also shown to compare satisfactorily with parametric estimates. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Tryptophan Missense Mutation in the Ligand-Binding Domain of the Vitamin D Receptor Causes Severe Resistance to 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D,,

    T. M. Nguyen Ph.D.
    Abstract In this study, two related young children, brother and sister, exhibited severe vitamin D-resistant rickets without alopecia. Sequence analysis of the total vitamin D receptor (VDR) cDNA from skin fibroblasts revealed a substitution of the unique tryptophan of the VDR by arginine at amino acid 286 (W286R). Cultured skin fibroblasts of the two patients expressed normal-size VDR protein (immunocytochemistry and Western blotting) and normal length VDR mRNA (Northern blotting). But, these fibroblasts, as well as COS-7 cells transfected with the W286R mutant, failed to bind 3H 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3]. The tryptophan substitution did not affect VDR trafficking toward the nucleus but abolished the 24-hydroxylase gene response to 1,25(OH)2D3, even at 10,6 M concentrations. In conclusion, this case report of a new family with hereditary vitamin D- resistant rickets (HVDRR) emphasizes the crucial role of the VDR tryptophan for ligand binding and for transactivation of 1,25(OH)2D3 target genes. It clearly shows the clinical significance of this VDR amino acid for calcium homeostasis and bone mineralization. This observation suggests further that the presence of a stable VDR-bound ligand may not be obligatory for normal hair follicle development. [source]

    Politically Motivated Reinforcement Seeking: Reframing the Selective Exposure Debate

    R. Kelly Garrett
    This article seeks to reframe the selective exposure debate by demonstrating that people exhibit a preference for opinion-reinforcing political information without systematically avoiding opinion challenges. The results are based on data collected in a national random-digit-dial telephone survey (n = 1,510) conducted prior to the 2004 U.S. presidential election. Analyses show that Americans use the control afforded by online information sources to increase their exposure to opinions consistent with their own views without sacrificing contact with other opinions. This observation contradicts the common assumption that reinforcement seeking and challenge avoidance are intrinsically linked aspects of the selective exposure phenomenon. This distinction is important because the consequences of challenge avoidance are significantly more harmful to democratic deliberation than those of reinforcement seeking. Politically Motivated Reinforcement Seeking: Reframing the Debate Over Selective Exposure in the Political Domain This article seeks to reframe the selective exposure debate by demonstrating that people exhibit a preference for opinion-reinforcing political information without systematically avoiding opinion challenges. The results are based on data collected in a national randomdigit-dial telephone survey (n = 1,510) conducted prior to the 2004 U.S. presidential election. Analyses show that Americans use the control afforded by online information sources to increase their exposure to opinions consistent with their own views without sacrificing contactwith other opinions. This observation contradicts the common assumption that reinforcement seeking and challenge avoidance are intrinsically linked aspects of the selective exposure phenomenon. This distinction is important because the consequences of challenge avoidance are significantly more harmful to democratic deliberation than those of reinforcement seeking. Politisch motivierte Suche nach Verstärkung: Eine Umdeutung der Debatte zur selektiven Wahrnehmung in der Politik Dieser Artikel versucht, die Debatte zur selektiven Wahrnehmung umzudeuten, indem er aufzeigt, dass Menschen eine Präferenz für meinungsverstärkende politische Informationen zeigen, ohne systematisch zu vermeiden, dass ihre Meinung hinterfragt wird. Diese Ergebnisse basieren auf Daten einer nationalen zufallsgesteuerten Telefonumfrage (n=1.510) die vor den U.S. Präsidentschaftswahlen 2004 durchgeführt wurde. Die Analysen zeigen, dass Amerikaner die Möglichkeiten von Online-Informationsquellen nutzen, um die Exposition zu konsistenten Meinungen herzustellen, ohne dafür andere Meinungen aufzugeben. Diese Beobachtung widerspricht der allgemeinen Annahme, dass Verstärkersuche und Herausforderungsvermeidung intrinsisch verbundene Aspekte des selektiven Wahrnehmungsphänomens sind. Diese Unterscheidung ist wichtig, weil die Konsequenzen der Vermeidung von Herausforderung für die demokratische Teilhabe wesentlich problematischer sind als die des Suchens nach Verstärkung. La Búsqueda del Reforzamiento Motivado Políticamente: Re-encuadrando el Debate sobre la Exposición Selectiva en el Dominio Político R. Kelly Garrett Resumen Este artículo busca re-encuadrar el debate sobre la exposición selectiva demostrando que la gente exhibe una preferencia por la opinión que refuerza la información política sin evadir sistemáticamente los desafíos de la opinión. Los resultados están basados en los datos colectados en una entrevista aleatoria de discado telefónico a nivel nacional (n = 1,510) conducida antes de la elección presidencial del 2004 de los EE.UU. Los análisis demuestran que los Estadounidenses usaron el control proporcionado por recursos de información online para incrementar la exposición a las opiniones consistentes con sus propios puntos de vista sin sacrificar el contacto con otras opiniones. Esta observación contradice la asunción común que la búsqueda del reforzamiento y la evasión del desafío están intrínsecamente unidos con los aspectos de la exposición selectiva del fenómeno. Esta distinción es importante porque las consecuencias de la evasión del desafío son significativamente más perjudiciales en la deliberación democrática que aquellas de la búsqueda del reforzamiento. [source]

    Validation of Group Domain Score Estimates Using a Test of Domain

    Mary Pommerich
    Domain scores have been proposed as a user-friendly way of providing instructional feedback about examinees' skills. Domain performance typically cannot be measured directly; instead, scores must be estimated using available information. Simulation studies suggest that IRT-based methods yield accurate group domain score estimates. Because simulations can represent best-case scenarios for methodology, it is important to verify results with a real data application. This study administered a domain of elementary algebra (EA) items created from operational test forms. An IRT-based group-level domain score was estimated from responses to a subset of taken items (comprised of EA items from a single operational form) and compared to the actual observed domain score. Domain item parameters were calibrated both using item responses from the special study and from national operational administrations of the items. The accuracy of the domain score estimates were evaluated within schools and across school sizes for each set of parameters. The IRT-based domain score estimates typically were closer to the actual domain score than observed performance on the EA items from the single form. Previously simulated findings for the IRT-based domain score estimation procedure were supported by the results of the real data application. [source]

    Eminent Domain and the Psychology of Property Rights: Proposed Use, Subjective Attachment, and Taker Identity

    Janice Nadler
    The U.S. Supreme Court's decision in Kelo v. City of New London, allowing governments to force the sale of private property to promote economic development, provoked bipartisan and widespread public outrage. Given that the decision in Kelo was rendered virtually inevitable by the Court's earlier public use decisions, what accounts for the dread and dismay that the decision provoked among ordinary citizens? We conducted two experiments that represent an early effort at addressing a few of the many possible causes underlying the Kelo backlash. Together, these studies suggest that the constitutional focus on public purpose in Kelo does not fully, or even principally, explain the public outrage that followed it. Our experiments suggest that subjective attachment to property looms far larger in determining the perceived justice of a taking. We have only begun to map the contours of this response, but these initial findings show promise in helping to build a more democratic model for the law and policies dealing with takings. [source]

    Parenting stress in mothers of children with an intellectual disability: the effects of parental cognitions in relation to child characteristics and family support

    R. Hassall
    Abstract Background Recent theories of stress and coping in parents of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) emphasize the importance of cognitive appraisals in influencing parents' levels of stress and their adaptations to difficulties presented by the children. This study investigated the relationships between parental cognitions, child characteristics, family support and parenting stress. The aspects of cognitions studied were: parenting self-esteem (including efficacy and satisfaction) and parental locus of control. Methods The group studied consisted of 46 mothers of children with ID. The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and Maladaptive Behavior Domain were administered by interview. Mothers also completed four questionnaires: the Family Support Scale, the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale, a shortened form of the Parental Locus of Control Scale and the Parenting Stress Index (Short Form). Results Data were analysed using Pearson's correlation coefficients, partial correlations and a regression analysis. The results indicated that most of the variance in parenting stress was explained by parental locus of control, parenting satisfaction and child behaviour difficulties. Whilst there was also a strong correlation between family support and parenting stress, this was mediated by parental locus of control. Conclusions The results demonstrate the potential importance of parental cognitions in influencing parental stress levels. It is argued that these results have implications for clinical interventions for promoting parents' coping strategies in managing children with ID and behavioural difficulties. [source]

    Thermal structure of the Alboran Domain in the Rif (northern Morocco) and the Western Betics (southern Spain).

    Constraints from Raman spectroscopy of carbonaceous material
    Abstract In the Rif (northern Morocco) and the Western Betics (southern Spain), the Alboran Domain forms a complex stack of metamorphic nappes including mantle peridotites (Beni Bousera and Ronda). We present in this paper new temperature data obtained in the Alboran Domain based on Raman spectroscopy of carbonaceous material (RSCM thermometry). In the lower metamorphic nappes of the Alboran Domain (lower Sebtides,Alpujárrides) temperature ranges from > 640 °C at the base of the metapelitic sequence to 500 °C at the top. The relationships between field isotherms and nappe structure show that peak temperatures were reached during strong ductile thinning of these nappes whereas they partly postdate this main episode in the Rif. In the upper nappes of the Alboran Domain (Ghomarides,Maláguides), generally supposed to be only weakly metamorphosed, temperatures range from ,500 °C at their base down to < 330 °C at the top. This temperature gradient is consistent with progressive Cenozoic resetting of K,Ar and 40Ar,39Ar ages. These nappes were thus affected by a significant thermal metamorphism, and the available age data in the underlying Sebtides,Alpujárrides show that this metamorphism is related to the metamorphic evolution of the whole Alboran Domain during the Late Oligocene,Early Miocene. Such thermal structure and metamorphic evolution can be explained by generalized extension in the whole Alboran Domain crustal sequence. At a larger scale, the present thermal structure of the Alboran Domain is roughly spatially consistent around the Beni Bousera peridotites in the Rif, but much more affected by late brittle tectonics around the Ronda peridotites in the Western Betics. Therefore, on the basis of the observed thermal structure, the metamorphic evolution of the Alboran Domain can be interpreted as the result of the ascent of hot mantle units contemporaneous with thinning of the whole lithosphere during an Oligo-Miocene extensional event. The resulting structure has however been dismembered by late brittle tectonics in the Western Betics. [source]

    Timing and nature of fluid flow and alteration during Mesoproterozoic shear zone formation, Olary Domain, South Australia

    C. CLARK
    Abstract The development of shear zones at mid-crustal levels in the Proterozoic Willyama Supergroup was synchronous with widespread fluid flow resulting in albitization and calcsilicate alteration. Monazite dating of shear zone fabrics reveal that they formed at 1582 ± 22 Ma, at the end of the Olarian D3 deformational event and immediately prior to the emplacement of regional S-type granites. Two stages of fluid flow are identified in the area: first an albitizing event which involved the addition of Na and loss of Si, K and Fe; and a second phase of calcsilicate alteration with additions of Ca, Fe, Mg and Si and removal of Na. Fluid fluxes calculated for albitization and calcsilicate alteration were 5.56 × 109 to 1.02 × 1010 mol m,2 and 2.57 × 108,5.20 × 109 mol m,2 respectively. These fluxes are consistent with estimates for fluid flow through mid-crustal shear zones in other terranes. The fluids associated with shearing and alteration are calculated to have ,18O and ,D values ranging between +8 and +11,, and ,33 and ,42,, respectively, and ,Nd values between ,2.24 and ,8.11. Our results indicate that fluids were derived from metamorphic dehydration of the Willyama Supergroup metasediments. Fluid generation occurred during prograde metamorphism of deeper crustal rocks at or near peak pressure conditions. Shear zones acted as conduits for major crustal fluid flow to shallow levels where peak metamorphic conditions had been attained earlier leading to the apparent ,retrograde' fluid-flow event. Thus, the peak metamorphism conditions at upper and lower crustal levels were achieved at differing times, prior to regional granite formation, during the same orogenic cycle leading to the formation of retrograde mineral assemblages during shearing. [source]

    Domain,ligand mapping for enzymes

    Matthew Bashton
    Abstract In this paper we provide an overview of our current knowledge of the mapping between small molecule ligands and protein domains. We give an overview of the present data resources available on the Web, which provide information about protein,ligand interactions, as well as discussing our own PROCOGNATE database. We present an update of ligand binding in large protein superfamilies and identify those ligands most frequently utilized by nature. Finally we discuss potential uses for this type of data. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Enhancement of Diphtheria Toxin Potency by Replacement of the Receptor Binding Domain with Tetanus Toxin C-Fragment

    A Potential Vector for Delivering Heterologous Proteins to Neurons
    Abstract: This study describes the expression, purification, and characterization of a recombinant fusion toxin, DAB389TTC, composed of the catalytic and membrane translocation domains of diphtheria toxin (DAB389) linked to the receptor binding fragment of tetanus toxin (C-fragment). As determined by its ability to inhibit cellular protein synthesis in primary neuron cultures, DAB389TTC was , 1,000-fold more cytotoxic than native diphtheria toxin or the previously described fusion toxin, DAB389MSH. The cytotoxic effect of DAB389TTC on cultured cells was specific toward neuronal-type cells and was blocked by coincubation of the chimeric toxin with tetanus antitoxin. The toxicity of DAB389TTC, like that of diphtheria toxin, was dependent on passage through an acidic compartment and ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of the DAB389 catalytic fragment. These results suggest that a catalytically inactive form of DAB389TTC may be useful as a nonviral vehicle to deliver exogenous proteins to the cytosolic compartment of neurons. [source]

    Dejerine-Sottas Neuropathy with Multiple Nerve Roots Enlargement and Hypomyelination Associated with a Missense Mutation of the Transmembrane Domain of MPZ/P0

    A Simonati
    In a patient affected with a slowly progressive, severe form of Dejerine-Sottas syndrome, symmetric enlargement of cranial nerves and focal hypertrophy of cervical and caudal roots were detected following MRI. Neuropathological features of the sural nerve disclosed a dramatic loss of myelinated fibres, with skewed-to-the-left, unimodal distribution of the few residual fibres, consistent with the diagnosis of congenital hypomyelination neuropathy. Genetic analysis revealed this condition to be associated with a heterozygous G to A transition at codon 167 in the exon 4 of the MPZ/P0 gene causing a Gly138Arg substitution in the transmembrane domain of the mature MPZ/P0 protein. Focal enlargement of the nerve trunks in demyelinating, hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies (HMSN) was previously reported in both asymptomatic and symptomatic cases with root compression, but peculiar to this case is the diffuse involvement of both cranial and spinal nerves. We believe that the relevance of nerve trunk hypertrophy in HMSN is probably underevaluated: therefore MRI investigation of the head and spine should be included in the diagnostic study of selected HMSN patients. Molecular analysis of peripheral myelin genes will help to rule out misdiagnosed cases. [source]

    General and Specific Issues for Researchers' Consideration in Applying the Risk and Resilience Framework to the Social Domain of Learning Disabilities

    Bernice Y. L. Wong
    In this article, I discuss several general and specific issues that pertain to the risk and resilience framework. I propose that these issues deserve consideration by researchers using or interested in using the risk and resilience framework to guide their research in the social domain of learning disabilities. General issues discussed include: (1) integrating current research findings with those from prior longitudinal research by Emmy Werner and her associates, and from research in the 1980s and 1990s on problems in social perception and communication in children with learning disabilities; (2) measurement problems; and (3) the need for more differentiation in research regarding gender and the severity of learning disabilities. The specific issues discussed include: the need to continue to search for potential risk and protective factors; the need to research mediating processes or mechanisms that render a factor a risk or a protection; and the nature of intervention research. [source]

    A neural network-based approach to determine FDTD eigenfunctions in quantum devices

    Antonio Soriano
    Abstract This article combines a Neural Network (NN) algorithm with the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) technique to estimate the eigenfunctions in quantum devices. A NN based on the Least Mean Squares (LMS) algorithm is combined with the FDTD technique to provide a first approach to the confined states in quantum wires. The proposed technique is in good agreement with analytical results and is more efficient than FDTD combined with the Fourier Transform. This technique is used to calculate a numerical approximation to the eigenfunctions associated to quantum wire potentials. The performance and convergence of the proposed technique are also presented in this article. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 51: 2017,2022, 2009; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/mop.24562 [source]

    Are Mechanistic and Statistical QSAR Approaches Really Different?

    MLR Studies on 158 Cycloalkyl-Pyranones
    Abstract Two parallel approaches for quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) are predominant in literature, one guided by mechanistic methods (including read-across) and another by the use of statistical methods. To bridge the gap between these two approaches and to verify their main differences, a comparative study of mechanistically relevant and statistically relevant QSAR models, developed on a case study of 158 cycloalkyl-pyranones, biologically active on inhibition (Ki) of HIV protease, was performed. Firstly, Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) based models were developed starting from a limited amount of molecular descriptors which were widely proven to have mechanistic interpretation. Then robust and predictive MLR models were developed on the same set using two different statistical approaches unbiased of input descriptors. Development of models based on Statistical I method was guided by stepwise addition of descriptors while Genetic Algorithm based selection of descriptors was used for the Statistical II. Internal validation, the standard error of the estimate, and Fisher's significance test were performed for both the statistical models. In addition, external validation was performed for Statistical II model, and Applicability Domain was verified as normally practiced in this approach. The relationships between the activity and the important descriptors selected in all the models were analyzed and compared. It is concluded that, despite the different type and number of input descriptors, and the applied descriptor selection tools or the algorithms used for developing the final model, the mechanistical and statistical approach are comparable to each other in terms of quality and also for mechanistic interpretability of modelling descriptors. Agreement can be observed between these two approaches and the better result could be a consensus prediction from both the models. [source]

    Principles of QSAR models validation: internal and external

    Paola Gramatica
    Abstract The recent REACH Policy of the European Union has led to scientists and regulators to focus their attention on establishing general validation principles for QSAR models in the context of chemical regulation (previously known as the Setubal, nowadays, the OECD principles). This paper gives a brief analysis of some principles: unambiguous algorithm, Applicability Domain (AD), and statistical validation. Some concerns related to QSAR algorithm reproducibility and an example of a fast check of the applicability domain for MLR models are presented. Common myths and misconceptions related to popular techniques for verifying internal predictivity, particularly for MLR models (for instance cross-validation, bootstrap), are commented on and compared with commonly used statistical techniques for external validation. The differences in the two validating approaches are highlighted, and evidence is presented that only models that have been validated externally, after their internal validation, can be considered reliable and applicable for both external prediction and regulatory purposes. [source]

    Improving Opportunities for Regulatory Acceptance of QSARs: The Importance of Model Domain, Uncertainty, Validity and Predictability


    Abstract For Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSARs) to be accepted by the regulated and regulatory communities, their scope for use needs to be agreed upon by government and industry. This paper discusses the importance of model domain, uncertainty, validity and predictability assessment in promoting the regulatory acceptance of QSARs. [source]

    Structural insights into the molecular organization of the S-layer from Clostridium difficile

    Robert P. Fagan
    Summary Clostridium difficile expresses a surface layer (S-layer) which coats the surface of the bacterium and acts as an adhesin facilitating interaction of the bacterium with host enteric cells. The S-layer contains a high-molecular-weight S-layer protein (HMW SLP) and its low-molecular-weight partner protein (LMW SLP). We show that these proteins form a tightly associated non-covalent complex, the H/L complex, and we identify the regions of both proteins responsible for complex formation. The 2.4 Å X-ray crystal structure of a truncated derivative of the LMW SLP reveals two domains. Domain 1 has a two-layer sandwich architecture while domain 2, predicted to orientate towards the external environment, contains a novel fold. Small-angle X-ray scattering analysis of the H/L complex shows an elongated molecule, with the two SLPs arranged ,end-to-end' interacting with each other through a small contact area. Alignment of LMW SLPs, which exhibit high sequence diversity, reveals a core of conserved residues that could reflect functional conservation, while allowing for immune evasion through sequence variation. These structures are the first described for the S-layer of a bacterial pathogen, and provide insights into the assembly and biogenesis of the S-layer. [source]


    PALAEONTOLOGY, Issue 3 2005

    Abstract:, Twenty species of bivalves (14 new) and 14 genera (six new) are described from two localities in the Silurian, upper Telychian, Oktavites spiralis Biozone of Spain: Cardavia cathleenae gen. et sp. nov., C. hafi sp. nov., C. stefani sp. nov.; Copenychia franta gen. et sp. nov., C. pristina sp. nov.; Stolidotus marco sp. nov.; Telycardia malinka gen. et sp. nov.; Silurinka vetula gen. et sp. nov.; Bolsopteria lentilka gen. et sp. nov.; Nennapteria ibericola gen. et sp. nov., N. ollicula sp. nov.; Actinopteria dakryodes sp. nov., A. isabelae sp. nov. and Dceruska hispanica sp. nov. They comprise two closely related communities, the Copenychia-Cardavia-Actinopteria Community and the Dceruska-Copenychia-Stolidotus Community, which belong to the Snoopyia Community Group. The occurrence of Dceruska Barrande, 1881, Dualina Barrande, 1881, Patrocardia Barrande, 1881, Silurinka, gen. nov., Slava Barrande, 1881 and Stolidotus Hede, 1915 in the Telychian of the Central Iberian Domain, Spain, supports palaeogeographical relationships with other Lower Silurian regions of north Gondwanan and Perunican Europe: the Carnic Alps (Austria), the Montagne Noire (France), Sardinia (Italy) and the Prague Basin (Bohemia), and also to Avalonia: the Welsh Borderland (Great Britain) and Baltica,Skåne (Sweden). These genera together with the new genera Cardavia, Copenychia (the earliest known representatives of the Silurian family Cardiolidae), Telycardia (the oldest known representative of the family Praecardiidae) and Silurinka belong to a Bohemian type of bivalve. Bolsopteria lentilka is closely related to Bolsopteria elliptica (Hind, 1910) from the Aeronian (middle Llandovery) of Scotland. [source]