Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Business, Economics, Finance and Accounting

Kinds of Adoption

  • IFR adoption
  • consumer adoption
  • innovation adoption
  • intercountry adoption
  • policy adoption
  • product adoption
  • rapid adoption
  • technology adoption
  • voluntary adoption
  • wider adoption
  • widespread adoption

  • Terms modified by Adoption

  • adoption decision
  • adoption rate

  • Selected Abstracts


    ADDICTION, Issue 4 2010
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 2 2008
    Mary Eschelbach Hansen
    Just as the courts must consider the trade-off between the best interest of the child and parental rights in involuntary termination of parental rights, policy on international adoption must consider the trade-offs between the best interest of the child and the long-term interests of the nation. We argue that countries that suspend international adoptions do not maximize social welfare. A consistent national policy to maximize the well-being of the children and society at large would be to devote resources today to the oversight of international adoption in accord with child protections under the Hague Convention, while at the same time developing a domestic system of care that provides for the physical and developmental needs of orphaned children in the context of permanent families. [source]


    Yew Ming Chia
    First page of article [source]


    Mahabub HOSSAIN
    O13; O33 Technological progress has helped Bangladesh to achieve self-sufficiency in rice production in 2001 from a heavy import-dependence, despite doubling of population and a reduction in arable land since its independence in 1971. As the adoption of modern varieties (MV) of rice is reaching a plateau, particularly for the irrigated ecosystem, an important issue is whether the research system will be able to sustain the growth of production. The present paper addresses the following questions: (i) to what extent farmers have been replacing the old MV with the new MV, and (ii) what has been the impact of the variety replacement on productivity and profitability. How crucial is the continuous research and release of improved rice varieties toward improving farm production and income for farmers comes out as a clear message to policymakers from the current paper. [source]


    This paper examines the impact of new technology on plant-level productivity in the Japanese steel industry during the 1950's and 1960's. We estimate the production function, considering the differences in technology between the refining furnaces owned by a plant. We find that a more productive plant was likely to adopt the new technology and that the adoption would be expected to occur immediately following the peak of the productivity level achieved with the old technology. The adoption of the new technology primarily accounted not only for the industry's productivity slowdown but also for the industry's remarkable growth. [source]


    This paper examines the adoption of state electricity regulation around the beginning of the 20th century. I model this decision as a hazard rate to determine what influenced the adoption of state regulation. I find that adoption is positively correlated with capacity shortages, greater wealth and lower residential electricity penetration rates. These results suggest that state regulation responded to regulatory inefficiencies and residential consumer interests. In addition, adoption rates were higher in states that had a strong industrial and coal mining presence. These results are consistent with the interest group and contracting theories of regulation. [source]


    BIOETHICS, Issue 7 2010
    ABSTRACT The goal of this paper is both modest and ambitious. The modest goal is to show that intercountry adoption should be considered by ethicists and healthcare providers. The more ambitious goal is to introduce the many ethical issues that intercountry adoption raises. Intercountry adoption is an alternative to medical, assisted reproduction option such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection, third party egg and sperm donation and surrogacy. Health care providers working with assisted reproduction are in a unique position to introduce their clients to intercountry adoption; however, providers should only do so if intercountry adoption is ethically equal or superior to the alternatives. This paper first presents a brief history of intercountry adoption. The second section compares intercountry adoption with medical alternatives. The third section examines the unique ethical challenges that are not shared by other medical alternatives. The final section concludes that it is simplistic for a healthcare provider to promote intercountry adoption unconditionally; however, in situation where intercountry adoption is practiced conscientiously it poses no greater ethical concern than several medical alternatives. This conclusion is preliminary and is intended as a start for further discussion. [source]


    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 1 2001
    First page of article [source]

    National Adoption of International Accounting Standards: An Institutional Perspective

    William Judge
    ABSTRACT Manuscript Type: Empirical Research Question/Issue: Effective corporate governance requires accurate and reliable financial information. Historically, each nation has developed and pursued its own financial standards; however, as financial markets consolidate into a global market, there is a need for a common set of financial standards. As a result, there is a movement towards harmonization of international financial reporting standards (IFRS) throughout the global economy. While there has been considerable research on the effects of IFRS adoption, there has been relatively little systematic study as to the antecedents of IFRS adoption. Consequently, this study seeks to understand why some economies have quickly embraced IFRS standards while others partially adopt IFRS and still others continue to resist. Research Findings/Results: After controlling for market capitalization and GDP growth, we find that foreign aid, import penetration, and level of education achieved within a national economy are all predictive of the degree to which IFRS standards are adopted across 132 developing, transitional and developed economies. Theoretical/Academic Implications: We found that all three forms of isomorphic pressures (i.e., coercive, mimetic, and normative) are predictive of IFRS adoption. Consequently, institutional theory with its emphasis on legitimacy-seeking by social actors was relatively well supported by our data. This suggests that the IFRS adoption process is driven more by social legitimization pressures, than it is by economic logic. Practitioner/Policy Implications: For policy makers, our findings suggest that the institutional pressures within an economy are the key drivers of IFRS adoption. Consequently, policy makers should seek to influence institutional pressures that thwart and/or enhance adoption of IFRS. For executives of multinational firms, our findings provide insights that can help to explain and predict future IFRS adoption within economies where their foreign subsidiaries operate. This ability could be useful for creating competitive advantages for foreign subsidiaries where IFRS adoption was resisted, or avoiding competitive disadvantages for foreign subsidiaries unfamiliar with IFRS standards. [source]

    Adoption of voluntary environmental tools for sustainable tourism: analysing the experience of Spanish hotels

    Silvia Ayuso
    Abstract Since the early 1990s, tourism companies, mostly hotel facilities, have undertaken different voluntary initiatives to show their commitment to sustainable tourism. Among the voluntary tools applied by the hotel industry, the most common are codes of conduct, best environmental practices, eco-labels, environmental management systems (EMSs) and environmental performance indicators. This article presents the findings of empirical research conducted with Spanish hotels that have adopted one or more of the existing environmental tools. Based on a qualitative exploration of perceptions and experiences of hotel managers applying these instruments, the general understanding of the concept of sustainable tourism is examined, and the practical application of different voluntary environmental instruments is analysed. In an attempt to interpret the facilitators and barriers reported by hotel companies, three interpretative approaches are combined to explain the selective adoption of environmental tools: the perspective of competitive advantages, the perspective of stakeholders' influence and the perspective of the human cognitive process. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]

    Strategic Decisions of New Technology Adoption under Asymmetric Information: A Game-Theoretic Model*

    DECISION SCIENCES, Issue 4 2003
    Kevin Zhu
    ABSTRACT In this paper we explore strategic decision making in new technology adoption by using economic analysis. We show how asymmetric information affects firms' decisions to adopt the technology. We do so in a two-stage game-theoretic model where the first-stage investment results in the acquisition of a new technology that, in the second stage, may give the firm a competitive advantage in the product market. We compare two information structures under which two competing firms have asymmetric information about the future performance (i.e., postadoption costs) of the new technology. We find that equilibrium strategies under asymmetric information are quite different from those under symmetric information. Information asymmetry leads to different incentives and strategic behaviors in the technology adoption game. In contrast to conventional wisdom, our model shows that market uncertainty may actually induce firms to act more aggressively under certain conditions. We also show that having better information is not always a good thing. These results illustrate a key departure from established decision theory. [source]

    Learning How and Learning What: Effects of Tacit and Codified Knowledge on Performance Improvement Following Technology Adoption

    DECISION SCIENCES, Issue 2 2003
    Amy C. Edmondson
    ABSTRACT This paper examines effects of tacit and codified knowledge on performance improvement as organizations gain experience with a new technology. We draw from knowledge management and learning curve research to predict improvement rate heterogeneity across organizations. We first note that the same technology can present opportunities for improvement along more than one dimension, such as efficiency and breadth of use. We compare improvement for two dimensions: one in which the acquisition of codified knowledge leads to improvement and another in which improvement requires tacit knowledge. We hypothesize that improvement rates across organizations will be more heterogeneous for dimensions of performance that rely on tacit knowledge than for those that rely on codified knowledge (H1), and that group membership stability predicts improvement rates for dimensions relying on tacit knowledge (H2). We further hypothesize that when performance relies on codified knowledge, later adopters should improve more quickly than earlier adopters (H3). All three hypotheses are supported in a study of 15 hospitals learning to use a new surgical technology. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. [source]

    The Impact of Advanced Technology Adoption on Wage Structures: Evidence from Taiwan Manufacturing Firms

    ECONOMICA, Issue 271 2001
    Jin-Tan Liu
    We examine the impact of advanced technology adoption on wage and employment structures in Taiwan. Using a survey of manufacturing firms that provides direct information on the use of advanced technologies, we find that firms using more advanced technologies pay higher wages to both non-production and production workers and employ higher fractions of non-production workers. Controlling for the possible endogeneity of technology adoption suggests that the estimated impact of new technologies on wages is downward-biased and that the effect on production workers' wages may be minimal. [source]

    Incomplete Adoption of a Superior Innovation

    ECONOMICA, Issue 268 2000
    Harvey E. Lapan
    We consider a model in which an innovating monopolist of a technologically superior intermediate input must sell this product to final output producers. Prior research shows that, with complete information, the monopolist's optimal strategy will lead to complete adoption of this technologically superior innovation. In this article we show that, when the price of some competitively supplied input used in the final product market is endogenous and is altered by adoption of the innovation, then the optimal pricing strategy of the monopolist may lead to incomplete innovation. Thus, the standard result of complete adoption of the superior technology is partly attributable to the partial equilibrium nature of prior models. [source]

    Emergency Department Information System Adoption in the United States

    Adam B. Landman MD
    Abstract Objectives:, The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 incentivizes adoption of health care information technology (HIT) based on support for specific standards, policies, and features. Limited data have been published on national emergency department information systems (EDIS) adoption, and to our knowledge, no prior studies have considered functionality measures. This study determined current national estimates of EDIS adoption using both single-response rates of EDIS adoption and a novel feature-based definition and also identified emergency department (ED) characteristics associated with EDIS use. Methods:, The 2006 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, a nationally representative sample of ED visits that also surveyed participating EDs on EDIS, was used to estimate EDIS adoption. EDIS adoption rates were calculated using two definitions: 1) single-response,response to a single survey question as to whether the EDIS was complete, partial, or none; and 2) feature-based,based on the reported features supported by the EDIS, systems were categorized as fully functional, basic, other, or none. The relationship of EDIS adoption to specific ED characteristics such as facility type and location was also examined. Results:, Using the single-response classification, 16.1% of EDs had a complete EDIS, while 30.4% had a partial EDIS, and 53.5% had none. In contrast, using a feature-based categorization, 1.7% EDs had a fully functional EDIS, 12.3% had basic, 32.1% had other, and 53.9% had none. In multivariable analysis, urban EDs were significantly more likely to have a fully functional or basic EDIS than were rural EDs. Pediatric EDs were significantly more likely than general EDs to have other EDIS. Conclusions:, Despite more optimistic single-response estimates, fewer than 2% of our nation's EDs have a fully functional EDIS. EDs in urban areas and those specializing in the care of pediatric patients are more likely to support EDIS. Accurate and consistent EDIS adoption estimates are dependent on whether there are standardized EDIS definitions and classifications of features. To realize the potential value of EDIS for improved emergency care, we need to better understand the extent and correlates of the diffusion of this technology and increase emergency medicine engagement in national HIT policy-making. Academic Emergency Medicine 2010; 17:536,544 © 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine [source]

    Forecasting the Adoption of Genetically Modified Oilseed Rape Prognosen hinsichtlich der Einführung von gentechnisch verändertem Raps Prévisions sur l'adoption de colza transgénique

    EUROCHOICES, Issue 2 2009
    Gunnar Breustedt
    Summary Forecasting the Adoption of Genetically Modified Oilseed Rape We explore farmers' willingness to adopt genetically modified oilseed rape prior to its commercial release and estimate the ,demand' for the new technology. The analysis is based upon experiments with arable farmers in Germany who were asked to choose among conventional and GM rapeseed varieties with different characteristics. Our analysis has shown that ex ante GM adoption decisions are driven by profit expectations and personal as well as farm characteristics. Monetary and technological determinants such as the gross margin advantage of GM oilseed rape varieties, expected liability from cross pollination and restricted flexibility in returning to conventional oilseed rape growing affect the willingness to adopt GM rape in the expected directions. The results further indicate that neighbourhood effects and public attitudes matter a lot, such that individual farmers may not feel entirely free in their technology choice. Our demand simulations suggest that monopolistic seed prices would be set at between ,50 and ,100 per hectare, leaving farmers with a small share of the GM rent. This raises the question as to whether the farmers surveyed would actually benefit from the approval of GM rape varieties if the technology were to be provided by a single firm. Nous explorons le consentement des agriculteurs à utiliser du colza transgénique avant sa mise en marché et estimons la demande de cette nouvelle technologie. L'analyse se fonde sur des expériences menées auprès de cultivateurs allemands à qui l'on a demandé de choisir entre des variétés de colza conventionnelles et transgéniques aux caractéristiques différentes. Notre analyse a montré que les décisions a priori concernant l'adoption de variétés transgéniques sont fonction des profits attendus et des caractéristiques de l'agriculteur et de l'exploitation. Les facteurs financiers et technologiques comme les avantages des variétés de colza transgénique en termes de marge brute, ainsi que les risques possibles de fertilisation croisée et les contraintes relatives au retour vers des cultures de colza conventionnelles ont les effets attendus sur le consentement à adopter des variétés transgéniques. Les résultats montrent également que les effets de voisinage et l'attitude du public comptent beaucoup, de sorte que les agriculteurs individuels pourraient ne pas se sentir complètement libres de choisir leur technologie. Nos simulations sur la demande semblent indiquer que les prix des semences en situation de monopole seraient fixés entre 50 et 100 , par hectare, ce qui laisserait aux agriculteurs une faible part de la rente transgénique. Cela soulève la question de savoir si les agriculteurs de l'enquête tireraient vraiment avantage de l'approbation de variétés de colza transgéniques si la technologie n'était fournie que par une seule compagnie. Wir untersuchen die Bereitschaft von Landwirten, gentechnisch veränderten Raps einzuführen, bevor dieser auf den Markt gebracht wird, und schätzen die ,Nachfrage' nach dieser neuen Technologie ein. Unsere Analyse stützt sich auf Versuche mit Ackerbauern in Deutschland, bei denen sich die Landwirte zwischen herkömmlichen und gentechnisch veränderten Rapssorten mit verschiedenen Eigenschaften entscheiden mussten. Unsere Analyse zeigt, dass ex ante die Entscheidungen über die Einführung von gentechnisch verändertem Raps aufgrund von Gewinnerwartungen sowie von persönlichen und betrieblichen Charakteristika getroffen werden. Monetäre und technologische Bestimmungsgrößen wie z.B. der Vorsprung des gentechnisch veränderten Raps beim Deckungsbeitrag, die erwartete Haftbarkeit bei Fremdbestäubung sowie die nur eingeschränkte Flexibilität, zum herkömmlichen Rapsanbau zurückkehren zu können, beeinflussen erwartungsgemäß die Bereitschaft, gentechnisch veränderten Raps anzubauen. Desweiteren zeigen die Ergebnisse, dass Nachbarschaftseffekte und öffentliche Meinungen eine große Rolle spielen, so dass sich einige Landwirte womöglich bei der Wahl der Technologie in ihrer Entscheidungsfreiheit eingeschränkt fühlen. Unsere Nachfragesimulationen deuten darauf hin, dass sich monopolistische Saatgutpreise zwischen EUR 50 und EUR 100 pro Hektar bewegen würden, so dass den Landwirten ein kleiner Teil der ökonomischen Rente der GV-Technologie verbliebe. Dies wirft die Frage auf, ob die betrachteten Landwirte überhaupt von der Zulassung der gentechnisch veränderten Rapssorten profitieren würden, wenn die Technologie nur von einem einzigen Unternehmen angeboten würde. [source]

    Development of the web-based type 2diabetes education programme: DIEP

    E Heinrich MSc PhD student
    Abstract Background: Education is an essential part of diabetes care. However, in The Netherlands, no education programme was available for everyone at any time and adaptive to users' specific needs. Aim: To describe the structured development and final content of a type 2 diabetes web-based education programme. Methods: A web-based education programme,the Diabetes Interactive Education Programme (DIEP),was developed using intervention mapping and involved collaboration between programme planners, Dutch diabetes organisations and potential users (patients and healthcare providers). DIEP incorporates information, multimedia and tools to support self-reflection, goal setting, problem solving and active patient participation. consists of seven chapters with basic and additional information, a dictionary, self-management checklists and a workbook for goal setting and preparation for consultations. The information included is mostly spoken text supported by headlines, images, video and patient experiences. Adoption, implementation and evaluation plans have been made. Outcomes of the process and effect evaluation will be reported in the future. Conclusions: DIEP is a unique education programme, based on theory and planned development, which is supported by diabetes organisations. By using multimedia and incorporating different functionalities, DIEP attempts to meet the current practice requirements. DIEP aims to meet the needs of multiple, specific patient groups in the future, and has already been adapted for use in different countries (eg Belgium). Copyright © 2009 FEND [source]

    Adoption, Family Ideology, and Social Stigma: Bias in Community Attitudes, Adoption Research, and Practice

    FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 4 2000
    Katarina Wegar
    This article explores the impact of the dominant North American genetic family ideal on community attitudes toward adoption, on adoption research, and on the beliefs and attitudes of adoption case workers. It examines how the failure to recognize the stigmatized social position of adoptive families has shaped not only current public opinion about adoption, but adoption research and practice as well. In conclusion, the article offers suggestions for erasing negative bias from adoption research and practice. [source]

    Deterrents to Intercountry Adoption in Britain

    FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 4 2000
    Peter Hayes
    Some local authority social workers in Britain have used their responsibility to make parental assessments to deter parents from adopting abroad. Prospective parents of foreign children may respond to these deterrents by making unauthorized adoptions. Central government officials have condemned both unauthorized adoptions and the obstructive policies towards intercountry adoption found in some local authorities. Prospects for reform depend partly on changing attitudes, and partly on expanding the role of independent intercountry adoption agencies. [source]

    Is Financial Stress an Incentive for the Adoption of Businesslike Planning and Control in Local Government?

    A Comparative Study of Eight Dutch Municipalities
    Hood has formulated the hypothesis that financial stress is a motive for the adoption of New Public Management (NPM), and particularly of businesslike instruments and styles in government. He has illustrated this hypothesis on a macro-level by comparing different OECD countries. The aim of this paper is to make a start with a micro-level test of this hypothesis by studying individual governmental organization, i.e. eight municipalities in the Netherlands. The financial stress hypothesis has been operationalised by assuming a negative relationship between the financial position of a municipality and the existence of businesslike planning and control instruments. The research shows that there is no evidence for the existence of this relationship. However, a conclusive judgement about the financial stress hypothesis seems to be impossible due to the fact that non-technical aspects of NPM were not taken into account, and also because of an , on average , upward bias in the financial position of the municipalities in the empirical investigation. [source]

    Principles and approaches to abate seabird by-catch in longline fisheries

    FISH AND FISHERIES, Issue 1 2005
    Eric Gilman
    Abstract Mortality in longline fisheries is a critical global threat to most albatross and large petrel species. Here we identify key principles and approaches to identify and achieve broad use of effective seabird by-catch avoidance methods. Despite the availability of highly effective and cost-saving seabird avoidance methods, few longline fleets employ them. Given the political context and capacity of management authorities of the majority of longline fisheries, it is critical to identify seabird avoidance strategies that are not only highly effective, but are also economically viable and commercially practical. Adoption of an international performance standard for longline baited hook,sink rate, and prescribing minimum gear weighting designs that meet this standard that are achievable by all longline fisheries, would be an important step forward towards resolving low use of seabird avoidance methods by vessels, including those in illegal, unregulated and unreported fisheries. Due to differences between fleets, no single seabird avoidance measure is likely to be effective and practical in all longline fisheries. Therefore, testing of seabird avoidance methods in individual fleets is needed to determine efficacy and economic viability. Longline fishers should directly participate in these trials as they have a large repository of knowledge and skills to effectively develop and improve seabird by-catch avoidance techniques, and this provides industry with a sense of ownership for uptake of effective by-catch reduction methods. Establishing protected areas containing seabird colonies and adjacent waters within a nation's EEZ can be an expedient method to address seabird by-catch. However, establishing high seas marine protected areas to restrict longline fishing in seabird foraging areas, which would require extensive and dynamic boundaries and large buffer zones, may not be a viable short-term solution because of the extensive time anticipated to resolve legal complications with international treaties, to achieve international consensus and political will, and to acquire requisite extensive resources for surveillance and enforcement. Analysis of results of research on seabird avoidance methods reveals that the most reliable comparisons of the efficacy of alternative strategies are from comparing the effectiveness of methods tested in a single experiment. Benefits from standardizing the reporting of seabird by-catch rates to account for seabird abundance are described. To provide the most precise inputs for seabird population models, estimates of seabird mortality in longline fisheries should account for seabird falloff from hooks before hauling, delayed mortality of seabirds caught but freed from gear, and mortality caused by hooks discarded in offal. [source]

    Mother, Child, Race, Nation: The Visual Iconography of Rescue and the Politics of Transnational and Transracial Adoption

    GENDER & HISTORY, Issue 2 2003
    Laura Briggs
    ,Third World' poverty and hunger conjures up certain conventionalised images: thin children, with or without their mothers. This paper explores the genealogy of such images in the mid-twentieth century, and shows how they mobilise ideologies of ,rescue' while pointing away from structural (political, military and economic) explanations for poverty, famine and other disasters. These images had a counterpart in practices of transnational and transracial adoption, which became the subject of debate in the USA during the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s, and were at least as much about symbolic debates over race as the fate of particular children. Together, these visual and familial practices made US foreign and domestic poverty policy intelligible as a debate over whether to save women and children. When they cast the USA as rescuer, they made it all but impossible to understand what US political, military or economic power had to do with creating the problem. [source]

    International Organizations in Transfer of Infectious Diseases: Iterative Loops of Adoption, Adaptation, and Marketing

    GOVERNANCE, Issue 2 2004
    Gill Walt
    Over the past few years increasing attention has been given to the role of international organizations in the diffusion of policy ideas and promotion of particular macro-level policies. Much of the attention has been on the ideological driving forces behind such policies, and on the extent to which the policies are externally imposed. There has been limited discussion on the bread-and-butter, technical policies of international organizations, and how they devise, adopt, adapt, and then promote what come to be seen as policies of global "best practice." This paper seeks to redress this gap by looking at the process of transfer of two infectious disease policies between international and national levels. It demonstrates that international organizations play different roles in policy transfer at particular stages in the process. The paper suggests that health policy transfer is a long adaptive process, made up of several iterative loops, as research and clinical practices developed in one or more countries are adopted, adapted, and taken up by international organizations which then mobilize support for particular policies, market, and promote them. Assumptions that new ideas about policies flow "rationally" into existing decision making are challenged by the processes analyzed here. Policy transfer, given the experience of these infectious diseases policies, goes through separate, "bottom-up," research-oriented, and "top-down" marketing-oriented loops. Individuals and different configurations of networks play key roles linking these loops. In the process, complex, context-specific policies are repackaged into simplified guidelines for global best practice, leading to considerable contestation within the policy networks. [source]

    Spatial Effects in Website Adoption by Firms in European Regions

    GROWTH AND CHANGE, Issue 1 2009
    ABSTRACT The purpose of this paper is to provide empirical evidence on the neighboring effects of Internet adoption as measured by the percentage of firms with their own website in the European regions. This is the first study that explicitly analyzes the role played by spatial effects to explain website adoption for the European case. A set of instruments and techniques commonly used in the spatial econometrics framework is employed to test the hypothesis that proximity matters when explaining Internet adoption by firms. Results show that firms in physically adjacent regions register a similar degree of Internet adoption, confirming the presence in this context of positive spatial dependence. Nevertheless, the spatial effects detected are mainly constrained by national borders. Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, population density, sectoral composition, and education are positively related to geographic distribution of Internet adoption in the enlarged European Union. In addition, regional disparities in Internet adoption were found to be less important than territorial inequalities in GDP per capita. [source]

    The Effect of Three-Tier Formulary Adoption on Medication Continuation and Spending among Elderly Retirees

    Haiden A. Huskamp
    Objective. To assess the effect of three-tier formulary adoption on medication continuation and spending among elderly members of retiree health plans. Data Sources. Pharmacy claims and enrollment data on elderly members of four retiree plans that adopted a three-tier formulary over the period July 1999 through December 2002 and two comparison plans that maintained a two-tier formulary during this period. Study Design. We used a quasi-experimental design to compare the experience of enrollees in intervention and comparison plans. We used propensity score methods to match intervention and comparison users of each drug class and plan. We estimated repeated measures regression models for each class/plan combination for medication continuation and monthly plan, enrollee, and total spending. We estimated logit models of the probability of nonpersistent use, medication discontinuation, and medication changes. Data Collection/Extraction Methods. We used pharmacy claims to create person-level drug utilization and spending files for the year before and year after three-tier adoption. Principal Findings. Three-tier formulary adoption resulted in shifting of costs from plan to enrollee, with relatively small effects on medication continuation. Although implementation had little effect on continuation on average, a small minority of patients were more likely to have gaps in use and discontinue use relative to comparison patients. Conclusions. Moderate cost sharing increases from three-tier formulary adoption had little effect on medication continuation among elderly enrolled in retiree health plans with relatively generous drug coverage. [source]

    Internal Audit Departments: Adoption and Characteristics in Italian Companies

    Marika Arena
    This article analyses the adoption and characteristics of internal audit departments in Italian companies, in the light of recent changes in the economic and political environment following the big financial scandals which occurred both in Italy and abroad. The research framework is informed by new institutional theory, driving the definition of a conceptual model. The research approach comprises two steps: first, a preliminary in-depth case study to support the research design (assessment of relevant variables and questionnaire's construction); second, an extensive survey involving 364 Italian companies, with a response rate of 63%. The article highlights an actual diffusion of internal audit structures among Italian companies. Data collected show increasing attention towards internal audit activities, resources and competencies and highlight the relevance of isomorphic pressures in influencing companies' support of internal auditing. [source]

    Adoption of promising practices: a systematic review of the evidence

    Michel J. Leseure
    This paper presents the results of a systematic literature review about the adoption of promising practices by organizations. The objective of the study was to gather empirical evidence to explain why the UK rate of promising practices adoption is poor compared with that of its competitors. The paper illustrates how a vastly dispersed collection of empirical data results can be integrated through a rigorous review process. The conclusion is that, although there is evidence to suggest that an adoption gap exists, the root causes of this gap cannot at present be diagnosed from the available evidence. Directions for future research are discussed. [source]

    Home Bias, Foreign Mutual Fund Holdings, and the Voluntary Adoption of International Accounting Standards

    ABSTRACT We test the assertion that a consequence of voluntarily adopting International Accounting Standards (IAS) is the enhanced ability to attract foreign capital. Using a unique database that reports firm-level holdings of over 25,000 mutual funds from around the world, our multivariate tests find that average foreign mutual fund ownership is significantly higher among IAS adopters. We also find that IAS adopters in poorer information environments and with lower visibility have higher levels of foreign investment, consistent with firms using IAS adoption to provide more information and/or information in a more familiar form to foreign investors. Taken together, our findings are consistent with voluntary IAS adoption reducing home bias among foreign investors and thereby improving capital allocation efficiency. [source]

    Critical appraisal of rigour in interpretive phenomenological nursing research

    Lorna De Witt BScN RN
    Aim., This paper reports a critical review of published nursing research for expressions of rigour in interpretive phenomenology, and a new framework of rigour specific to this methodology is proposed. Background., The rigour of interpretive phenomenology is an important nursing research methods issue that has direct implications for the legitimacy of nursing science. The use of a generic set of qualitative criteria of rigour for interpretive phenomenological studies is problematic because it is philosophically inconsistent with the methodology and creates obstacles to full expression of rigour in such studies. Methods., A critical review was conducted of the published theoretical interpretive phenomenological nursing literature from 1994 to 2004 and the expressions of rigour in this literature identified. We used three sources to inform the derivation of a proposed framework of expressions of rigour for interpretive phenomenology: the phenomenological scholar van Manen, the theoretical interpretive phenomenological nursing literature, and Madison's criteria of rigour for hermeneutic phenomenology. Findings., The nursing literature reveals a broad range of criteria for judging the rigour of interpretive phenomenological research. The proposed framework for evaluating rigour in this kind of research contains the following five expressions: balanced integration, openness, concreteness, resonance, and actualization. Balanced integration refers to the intertwining of philosophical concepts in the study methods and findings and a balance between the voices of study participants and the philosophical explanation. Openness is related to a systematic, explicit process of accounting for the multiple decisions made throughout the study process. Concreteness relates to usefulness for practice of study findings. Resonance encompasses the experiential or felt effect of reading study findings upon the reader. Finally, actualization refers to the future realization of the resonance of study findings. Conclusion., Adoption of this or similar frameworks of expressions of rigour could help to preserve the integrity and legitimacy of interpretive phenomenological nursing research. [source]

    Adoption and Abandonment of Organic Farming: An Empirical Investigation of the Irish Drystock Sector

    Doris Läpple
    Q12; C41; Q16 Abstract There is a considerable literature about the adoption of organic farming. However, possible abandonment of organic farming has received scant attention. Thus, relatively little is known about the exit decisions of farmers. In addition, most studies are based on a static framework where it is not possible to account for changes in farmer decisions over time. This article attempts to fill this gap in the literature by investigating the determinants that affect both adoption and abandonment of organic drystock farming over time. The use of duration analysis allows for the consideration of cross-sectional and time-varying factors over the study period from 1981 to 2008. Using this dynamic econometric framework revealed a significant time effect on entry and exit decisions. Overall, the results highlight that where no attempt is made to account for exit decisions and time effects, important information about sustainable farmer decisions may not be taken into consideration. [source]