Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Adolescents

  • aboriginal adolescent
  • african american adolescent
  • american adolescent
  • american indian adolescent
  • australian adolescent
  • chinese adolescent
  • depressed adolescent
  • diabetic adolescent
  • dutch adolescent
  • early adolescent
  • european adolescent
  • european american adolescent
  • female adolescent
  • german adolescent
  • healthy adolescent
  • high-risk adolescent
  • immigrant adolescent
  • indian adolescent
  • israeli adolescent
  • italian adolescent
  • japanese adolescent
  • korean adolescent
  • korean american adolescent
  • late adolescent
  • male adolescent
  • many adolescent
  • middle adolescent
  • norwegian adolescent
  • obese adolescent
  • older adolescent
  • other adolescent
  • overweight adolescent
  • pregnant adolescent
  • rural adolescent
  • school adolescent
  • swedish adolescent
  • taiwanese adolescent
  • u.s. adolescent
  • urban adolescent
  • weight adolescent
  • white adolescent
  • young adolescent
  • younger adolescent

  • Terms modified by Adolescents

  • adolescent adjustment
  • adolescent age
  • adolescent alcohol consumption
  • adolescent alcohol use
  • adolescent animals
  • adolescent anorexia nervosa
  • adolescent antisocial behavior
  • adolescent attitude
  • adolescent behavior
  • adolescent boy
  • adolescent brain
  • adolescent child
  • adolescent dating violence
  • adolescent daughter
  • adolescent depression
  • adolescent depressive symptom
  • adolescent development
  • adolescent diabetes
  • adolescent drinking
  • adolescent dyad
  • adolescent experience
  • adolescent exposure
  • adolescent female
  • adolescent girl
  • adolescent group
  • adolescent health
  • adolescent health behavior
  • adolescent idiopathic scoliosis
  • adolescent male
  • adolescent mental health
  • adolescent mental health service
  • adolescent mental health services
  • adolescent mother
  • adolescent mouse
  • adolescent obesity
  • adolescent offender
  • adolescent offspring
  • adolescent onset
  • adolescent outcome
  • adolescent overweight
  • adolescent patient
  • adolescent perception
  • adolescent period
  • adolescent physical activity
  • adolescent population
  • adolescent pregnancy
  • adolescent problem behavior
  • adolescent psychiatry
  • adolescent psychopathology
  • adolescent rat
  • adolescent relationship
  • adolescent relationships
  • adolescent report
  • adolescent risk
  • adolescent risk behavior
  • adolescent sample
  • adolescent self-report
  • adolescent sexual activity
  • adolescent sexual behavior
  • adolescent smoker
  • adolescent smoking
  • adolescent student
  • adolescent subject
  • adolescent substance use
  • adolescent transition
  • adolescent use
  • adolescent version
  • adolescent well-being
  • adolescent woman
  • adolescent year

  • Selected Abstracts


    Research Summary: Current knowledge about violence among public housing residents is extremely limited. Much of what we know about violence in and around public housing is derived from analysis of Uniform Crime Report (UCR) data or victimization surveys of public housing residents. The results of these studies suggest that fear of crime among public housing residents is high and that violent offense rates may be higher in areas that contain public housing compared with similar areas without public housing. Yet, "[r]ecorded crime rates (and victimization rates) are an index not of the rate of participation in crime by residents of an area, but of the rate of crime (or victimization) that occurs in an area whether committed by residents or non-residents" (Weatherburn et al., 1999:259). Therefore, neither UCR nor victimization data measurement strategies address whether crime in and around public housing emanates from those who reside in public housing. Additionally, much of this research focuses on atypical public housing,large developments with high-rise buildings located in major metropolitan areas. To complement the existing literature, we compare rates of self-reported crime and violence among adolescents who reside in public housing in Rochester, N.Y., and Pittsburgh, Pa., with adolescents from the same cities who do not live in public housing. In Rochester, property crime and violence participation rates during adolescence and early adulthood among those in public housing are statistically equivalent to participation rates among those not in public housing. In Pittsburgh, living in public housing during late adolescence and early adulthood, particularly in large housing developments,increases the risk for violent offending, but not for property offending. The current study relies on a relatively small number of subjects in public housing at any single point in time and is based on cross-sectional analyses. Even so, there are several important policy implications that can be derived from this study, given that it moves down a path heretofore largely unexplored. Policy Implications: If replicated, our findings indicate that not all public housing is inhabited disproportionately by those involved in crime; that to develop appropriate responses, it is essential to discover if the perpetrators of violence are residents or trespassers; that policy should target reducing violence specifically and not crime in general; that a modification to housing allocation policies that limits, to the extent possible, placing families with children in late adolescence into large developments might reduce violence perpetrated by residents; that limited resources directed at reducing violence among residents should be targeted at those developments or buildings that actually have high rates of participation in violence among the residents; and that best practices may be derived from developments where violence is not a problem. [source]

    FROM INFANTS TO ADOLESCENTS A Developmental Approach to Parenting Plans

    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 2 2000
    Risa J. Garon
    Divorce and the resultant process of child custody decision making impact heavily on the lives of children. Increasingly, parents and professionals have realized the importance of encouraging shared responsibility in child rearing following separation and divorce. This shared responsibility must continue throughout a child's life and into young adulthood. This article introduces a comprehensive child-and family-focused model of decision making. The goal of this model is to assist professionals in their work with parents and to help parents formulate parenting plans that reflect the ever-changing developmental needs of each child and that specify how each parent will meet the particular needs of each child in the family. Through the use of educational parenting seminars and the completion of a Needs Assessment for each child, flexible parenting plans are created and positive co-parenting skills develop. [source]


    Kevin J. Donly DDS
    The popularity of vital tooth whitening has increased significantly over the past two decades. Professionally supervised "in-office" and "at-home" tooth whitening methods have been documented in the literature with evidence of safety and effectiveness. Although the literature includes considerable information about vital tooth whitening in adults, minimal information is available concerning vital tooth whitening in children and adolescents. The need to provide vital tooth whitening for children might be infrequent owing to the natural whiteness of children's teeth. However, there are circumstances when tooth whitening can be desirable for children, such as fluorosis discoloration, generalized tooth darkening, post-traumatic injury discoloration, and postorthodontic tooth discoloration. Few well-controlled clinical trials evaluating the safety and effectiveness of vital tooth whitening in children are available in the literature, Furthermore, these published clinical trials were carried out by the same principal investigator. This review examines these trials and offers recommendations accordingly. [source]


    K.J. Donly
    ABSTRACT Objective: This article reported the cumulative findings from three controlled, randomized clinical trials evaluating the efficacy and tolerability of tooth whitening in children and adolescents using disposable polyethylene strip systems. Materials and Methods: The study population included 132 children and adolescents, ages 10 to 18 years. (Please note that 71 of these subjects were identified in the previous review.) Fifty-three percent of the subjects were female and 47% were male, with a mean age of 14.4 years. Subjects were divided into experimental treatment groups by balancing groups with respect to demographic characteristics and baseline tooth colors. Subiects were treated with either 5.3% or 6.5% hydrogen peroxide gel polyethylene strips. All subjects had to have all permanent anterior teeth erupted, a baseline Vita shade (Vita Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Germany) score of A2 or darker, and a desire that their teeth be whitened. One study included subjects who had previously received comprehensive orthodontic treatment. Digital images were collected for all subjects at baseline, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks. Oral examinations and interviews were conducted at each appointment to evaluate adverse events. Color change was calculated from the digital images in the same manner previously described. Results: The 5.3% and 6.5% hydrogen peroxide strips used for 30 minutes twice a day yielded significant tooth whitening (p < .0001) after 14 days. For the primary whitening parameter, ,b*, continued treatment during the 14- to 28-day period resulted in significant additional reduction in yellowness (p < .0001). Subjects treated with 6.5% hydrogen peroxide strips experienced significantly (p < .03) greater reduction in yellowness (approximately 0.8 ,b* units) compared with those who used the 5.3 hydrogen peroxide strips. The hydrogen peroxide strips were tolerated well in all of these studies, with minor tooth sensitivity and oral irritation being the primary complaints. Eighteen subjects (14%) reported oral irritation, whereas 30 subjects (23%) reported tooth sensitivity. All adverse events were relieved upon discontinuance of product use. Conclusion: The 5.3% and 6.5% hydrogen peroxide gel strips used for 30 minutes twice a day effectively whitened teeth, and both regimens were well tolerated. [source]


    Natasha Slesnick
    There is a dearth of research that examines the impact of family systems therapy on problems among sexually and/or physically abused youth. Given this void, differential outcome and predictors of substance use change were evaluated for abused, as compared with nonabused, runaway adolescents who were randomly assigned to family therapy or treatment as usual. Abused adolescents reported lower family cohesion at baseline, although both abused and nonabused adolescents showed similar substance use reductions. Utilizing hierarchical linear modeling, we found that substance use changed with change in cohesion over time. These findings link change in family functioning to change in adolescent substance use, supporting family systems theory. Findings suggest that a potent target of intervention involves focus on increasing positive communication interactions. [source]


    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Björn Salomonsson
    First page of article [source]

    Books and Materials Reviews

    FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 4 2001
    Article first published online: 19 FEB 200
    Baumeister, R. F. (Ed.). (1999). The Self in Social Psychology. Carter, B., & McGoldrick, M. (1999). The Expanded Family Life Cycle: Individual, Family, and Social Perspectives. Dwyer, D. (2000). Interpersonal Relationships. Knauer, S. (2000). No Ordinary Life: Parenting the Sexually Abused Child and Adolescent. McNair-Blatt, S. (2000). A Guidebook for Raising Foster Children. Stafford-Upshaw, F., & Myers-Walls, J. A. (1999). Learning Centers in Child Care Settings. Seymour, S. C. (1999). Women, Family and Child Care in India: A World in Transition. Berger, R. (1998). Stepfamilies: A Multi-Dimensional Perspective. [source]

    Rate of inpatient weight restoration predicts outcome in anorexia nervosa

    Brian C. Lund PharmD
    Abstract Objective: To examine weight restoration parameters during inpatient treatment as predictors of outcome in anorexia nervosa (AN). Method: Adolescent and adult females admitted for inpatient eating disorder treatment were recruited for an ongoing longitudinal study. This analysis examined several weight restoration parameters as predictors of clinical deterioration after discharge among participants with AN. Results: Rate of weight gain was the only restoration parameter that predicted year 1 outcome. Clinical deterioration occurred significantly less often among participants who gained ,0.8 kg/week (12/41, 29%) than those below this threshold (20/38, 53%) (,2 = 4.37, df = 1, p = .037) and remained significant after adjustment for potential confounders. Discussion: Weight gain rate during inpatient treatment for AN was a significant predictor of short-term clinical outcome after discharge. It is unclear whether weight gain rate exerts a causal effect or is rather a marker for readiness to tolerate weight restoration and engage in the recovery process. © 2008 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2009 [source]

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: concordance of the adolescent version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0 (CIDI) with the K-SADS in the US National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent (NCS-A) supplement

    Jennifer Greif Green
    Abstract This paper evaluates the internal consistency reliability and concurrent validity of the assessment of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the adolescent version of the World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0 (CIDI). The CIDI is a lay-administered diagnostic interview that was carried out in conjunction with the US National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement, a US nationally representative survey of 10,148 adolescents and their parents. Internal consistency reliability was evaluated using factor and item response theory analyses. Concurrent validity was evaluated against diagnoses based on blinded clinician-administered interviews. Inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity items loaded on separate but correlated factors, with hyperactivity and impulsivity items forming a single factor in parent reports but separate factors in youth reports. We were able to differentiate hyperactivity and impulsivity factors for parents as well by eliminating a subset who endorsed zero ADHD items from the factor analysis. Although concurrent validity was relatively weak, decomposition showed that this was due to low validity of adolescent reports. A modified CIDI diagnosis based exclusively on parent reports generated a diagnosis that had good concordance with clinical diagnoses [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.78]. Implications for assessing ADHD using the CIDI and the effect of different informants on measurement are discussed. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The Interaction of Gestational and Postnatal Ethanol Experience on the Adolescent and Adult Odor-Mediated Responses to Ethanol in Observer and Demonstrator Rats

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 10 2010
    Amber M. Eade
    Background:, Gestational ethanol exposure enhances the adolescent reflexive sniffing response to ethanol odor. Postnatal exposures of naïve animals as either an observer (i.e., conspecific) or demonstrator (i.e., intoxicated peer) using a social transmission of food odor preference paradigm also yields enhanced odor-mediated responses. Studies on the interaction of fetal and postnatal exposures using the social transmission paradigm have been limited to the responses of observers. When combined, the enhanced response is greater than either form of exposure alone and, in observer females, yields adult persistence. The absence of a male effect is noteworthy, given that chemosensory mechanisms are suggested to be an important antecedent factor in the progression of ethanol preference. Observers gain odor information on the breath of the demonstrator through social interaction. Demonstrators experience the pharmacologic properties of ethanol along with retronasal and hematogenic olfaction. Thus, we tested whether augmentation of the fetal ethanol-induced behavioral response with postnatal exposure as a demonstrator differed from that as an observer. We also examined whether re-exposure as a demonstrator yields persistence in both sexes. Methods:, Pregnant dams were fed an ethanol containing or control liquid diet throughout gestation. Progeny received four ethanol or water exposures: one every 48 hours through either intragastric infusion or social interaction with the infused peer beginning on P29. The reflexive behavioral sniffing response to ethanol odor was tested at postnatal (P) day 37 or P90, using whole-body plethysmography. Results:, When tested in either adolescence or adulthood - fetal ethanol exposed adolescent ethanol observers and demonstrators significantly differed in their odor-mediated response to ethanol odor both between themselves and from their respective water controls. Nonetheless, adolescent ethanol re-exposure as a demonstrator, like an observer, enhanced the reflexive sniffing response to ethanol odor at both testing ages by augmenting the known effects of prior fetal ethanol experience. At each age, the magnitude of the enhanced odor response in demonstrators was similar to that of observers. Interestingly, only re-exposure as a demonstrator resulted in persistence of the behavioral response into adulthood in both sexes. Conclusions:, The method of ethanol re-exposure plays an important role in prolonging the odor-mediated effects of fetal exposure. While ethanol odor-specific exposure through social interaction is important, additional factors such as the pairing of retronasal and hematogenic olfaction with ethanol's intoxicating properties appear necessary to achieve persistence in both sexes. [source]

    Interactions of Stress and CRF in Ethanol-Withdrawal Induced Anxiety in Adolescent and Adult Rats

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 9 2010
    Tiffany A. Wills
    Background:, Repeated stress or administration of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) prior to ethanol exposure sensitizes anxiety-like behavior in adult rats. Current experiments determined whether adolescent rats were more sensitive to these challenges in sensitizing ethanol withdrawal-induced anxiety and altering CRF levels in brain during withdrawal. Methods:, Male adult and adolescent Sprague,Dawley rats were restraint stressed (1 hour) twice 1 week apart prior to a single 5-day cycle of ethanol diet (ED; stress/withdrawal paradigm). Other rats received control diet (CD) and three 1-hour restraint stress sessions. Rats were then tested 5, 24, or 48 hours after the final withdrawal for anxiety-like behavior in the social interaction (SI) test. In other experiments, adolescent rats were given two microinjections of CRF icv 1 week apart followed by 5 days of either CD or ED and tested in social interaction 5 hours into withdrawal. Finally, CRF immunoreactivity was measured in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) after rats experienced control diet, repeated ethanol withdrawals, or stress/withdrawal. Results:, Rats of both ages had reduced SI following the stress/withdrawal paradigm, and this effect recovered within 24 hours. Higher CRF doses were required to reduce SI in adolescents than previously reported in adults. CRF immunohistochemical levels were higher in the PVN and CeA of CD-exposed adolescents. In adolescent rats, repeated ethanol withdrawals decreased CRF in the CeA but was not associated with decreased CRF cell number. There was no change in CRF from adult treatments. Conclusions:, In the production of anxiety-like behavior, adolescent rats have equal sensitivity with stress and lower sensitivity with CRF compared to adults. Further, adolescents had higher basal levels of CRF within the PVN and CeA and reduced CRF levels following repeated ethanol withdrawals. This reduced CRF within the CeA could indicate increased release of CRF, and future work will determine how this change relates to behavior. [source]

    The Dimensionality of DSM-IV Alcohol Use Disorders Among Adolescent and Adult Drinkers and Symptom Patterns by Age, Gender, and Race/Ethnicity

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 5 2009
    Thomas C. Harford
    Background:, There is limited information on the validity of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) alcohol use disorders (AUD) symptom criteria among adolescents in the general population. The purpose of this study is to assess the DSM-IV AUD symptom criteria as reported by adolescent and adult drinkers in a single representative sample of the U.S. population aged 12 years and older. This design avoids potential confounding due to differences in survey methodology when comparing adolescents and adults from different surveys. Methods:, A total of 133,231 current drinkers (had at least 1 drink in the past year) aged 12 years and older were drawn from respondents to the 2002 to 2005 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. DSM-IV AUD criteria were assessed by questions related to specific symptoms occurring during the past 12 months. Factor analytic and item response theory models were applied to the 11 AUD symptom criteria to assess the probabilities of symptom item endorsements across different values of the underlying trait. Results:, A 1-factor model provided an adequate and parsimonious interpretation for the 11 AUD criteria for the total sample and for each of the gender,age groups. The MIMIC model exhibited significant indication for item bias among some criteria by gender, age, and race/ethnicity. Symptom criteria for "tolerance,""time spent," and "hazardous use" had lower item thresholds (i.e., lower severity) and low item discrimination, and they were well separated from the other symptoms, especially in the 2 younger age groups (12 to 17 and 18 to 25). "Larger amounts,""cut down,""withdrawal," and "legal problems" had higher item thresholds but generally lower item discrimination, and they tend to exhibit greater dispersion at higher AUD severity, particularly in the youngest age group (12 to 17). Conclusions:, Findings from the present study do not provide support for the 2 separate DSM-IV diagnoses of alcohol abuse and dependence among either adolescents or adults. Variations in criteria severity for both abuse and dependence offer support for a dimensional approach to diagnosis which should be considered in the ongoing development of DSM-V. [source]

    Patterns of Ethanol Intake in Preadolescent, Adolescent, and Adult Wistar Rats Under Acquisition, Maintenance, and Relapse-Like Conditions

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 4 2009
    David García-Burgos
    Background:, Animal behavioral models of voluntary ethanol consumption represent a valuable tool to investigate the relationship between age and propensity to consume alcohol using an experimental methodology. Although adolescence has been considered as a critical age, few are the studies that consider the preadolescence age. This study examines the ethanol consumption/preference and the propensity to show an alcohol deprivation effect (ADE) after a short voluntary ethanol exposure from a developmental perspective. Methods:, Three groups of heterogeneous Wistar rats of both sexes with ad libitum food and water were exposed for 10 days to 3 ethanol solutions at 3 different ontogenetic periods: preadolescence (PN19), adolescence (PN28), and adulthood (PN90). Ethanol intake (including circadian rhythm), ethanol preference, water and food consumption, and ADE were measured. Results:, During the exposure, the 3 groups differed in their ethanol intake; the greatest amount of alcohol (g/kg) was consumed by the preadolescent rats while the adolescents showed a progressive decrease in alcohol consumption as they approached the lowest adult levels by the end of the assessed period. The pattern of ethanol consumption was not fully explained in terms of hyperphagia and/or hyperdipsia at early ages, and showed a wholly circadian rhythm in adolescent rats. After an abstinence period of 7 days, adult rats showed an ADE measured both as an increment in ethanol consumption and preference, whereas adolescent rats only showed an increment in ethanol preference. Preadolescent rats decreased their consumption and their preference remained unchanged. Conclusions:, In summary, using a short period of ethanol exposure and a brief deprivation period the results revealed a direct relationship between chronological age and propensity to consume alcohol, being the adolescence a transition period from the infant to the adult pattern of alcohol consumption. Preadolescent animals showed the highest ethanol consumption level. The ADE was only found in adult animals for both alcohol consumption and preference, whereas adolescents showed an ADE only for preference. No effect of sex was detected in any phase of the experiment. [source]

    Sensitization, Duration, and Pharmacological Blockade of Anxiety-Like Behavior Following Repeated Ethanol Withdrawal in Adolescent and Adult Rats

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 3 2009
    Tiffany A. Wills
    Background:, Repeated ethanol withdrawal sensitizes anxiety-like behavior in adult rats and causes anxiety-like behavior and decreased seizure thresholds in adolescent rats. Current experiments determined if adolescent rats exhibit sensitized anxiety-like behavior, the duration of this effect, if drug pretreatments blocked these effects, and if these effects differed from those seen in adults. Methods:, Male adolescent rats received three 5-day cycles of 2.5% ethanol diet (ED) separated by two 2-day withdrawal periods, continuous 15 days of 2.5%ED, or a single 5-day cycle of 2.5%ED. Male adult rats received three 5-day cycles of either 2.5% or 3.5%ED. These groups were tested 5 hours into the final withdrawal for social interaction (SI) deficits (an index of anxiety-like behavior). Ethanol intake was monitored throughout and blood concentrations were obtained from separate groups of rats. Additionally, adolescent rats were tested for SI 1, 2, 7, 14, and 18 days and adults 1 and 2 days after the final withdrawal. Some adolescent rats were also pretreated with the CRF1 antagonist CP-154,526, the 5-HT1A agonist buspirone, or the benzodiazepine receptor antagonist flumazenil during the first 2 withdrawals. Results:, SI was reduced in adolescent rats following repeated withdrawals of 2.5%ED while neither a continuous or single cycle ED exposure caused this effect. Adult rats also had reduced SI following repeated withdrawals from both 2.5% and 3.5%ED. This effect was present up to 1 week following the final withdrawal in adolescents but returned to baseline by 1 day in adults. CP-154,526, buspirone, or flumazenil prevented this reduction in SI in adolescent rats. Conclusions:, Adolescent rats exhibit sensitized anxiety-like behavior following repeated withdrawals at ED concentrations similar to those used in adults. However, this effect is longer lasting in adolescent rats. Drugs modulating CRF, 5-HT, or GABA systems during initial withdrawals prevent the development of anxiety-like behavior otherwise manifest during a final withdrawal in adolescent rats. [source]

    Behavioral Consequences of Repeated Nicotine During Adolescence in Alcohol-Preferring AA and Alcohol-Avoiding ANA Rats

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 2 2009
    Heidi Kemppainen
    Background:, Epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to nicotine at adolescent age is associated with increased potential to use alcohol and that genetic predisposition may further increase the risk. The present study addressed adolescent vulnerability to repeated nicotine exposure and its influence on subsequent ethanol self-administration by investigating interactions between nicotine-induced behavioral sensitization and voluntary ethanol consumption in alcohol preferring AA (Alko Alcohol) and alcohol nonpreferring ANA (Alko Non-Alcohol) rat lines selected for differential ethanol intake. Methods:, Adolescent and adult rats received 10 injections of nicotine (0.5 mg/kg s.c.), given every second day from postnatal day (Pnd) 27 and 75, respectively. Nicotine-induced (0.5 mg/kg) locomotor activity was measured acutely after the first injection, and after the repeated treatment with nicotine on Pnds 52 and 86 in the adolescent groups and on Pnd 99 in the adult groups. After this, acquisition of voluntary ethanol (10% v/v) consumption as well as nicotine-induced (0.5 mg/kg) ethanol intake was measured in the AA rats. Results:, Adolescent AA rats were more sensitive than adolescent ANA rats to the locomotor effects of nicotine. They were also stimulated more than adult AA rats, but such a difference was not found among ANA rats. Adolescent and adult rats did not differ in their susceptibility to nicotine-induced behavioral sensitization. Genetic predisposition to ethanol self-administration did not interact with development of behavioral sensitization in either adolescents or adults. Acquisition of ethanol intake was enhanced in the adolescent groups relative to the adult groups in a manner that was independent of the nicotine treatment. An increase in ethanol intake was found after challenging animals with nicotine, and this effect was enhanced in the nicotine-treated adolescent group. Conclusions:, These findings provide no or little support for the views that adolescent animals are more sensitive to the neurobehavioral effects of repeated exposure to nicotine and that exposure to nicotine in adolescence may contribute to enhanced vulnerability to ethanol abuse. Furthermore, genetic predisposition to high or low ethanol self-administration does not seem to be a factor that influences individual vulnerability to the neurobehavioral effects of repeated administration of nicotine. [source]

    Proteomic Analysis Demonstrates Adolescent Vulnerability to Lasting Hippocampal Changes Following Chronic Alcohol Consumption

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 1 2009
    Garth A. Hargreaves
    Background:, Excessive teenage alcohol consumption is of great concern because alcohol may adversely alter the developmental trajectory of the brain. The aim of the present study was to assess whether chronic intermittent alcohol intake during the adolescent period alters hippocampal protein expression to a greater extent than during adulthood. Methods:, Adolescent [postnatal day (PND) 27] and adult (PND 55) male Wistar rats were given 8 hours daily access to beer (4.44% ethanol v/v) in addition to ad libitum food and water for 4 weeks. From a large subject pool, subgroups of adolescent and adult rats were selected that displayed equivalent alcohol intake (average of 6.1 g/kg/day ethanol). The 4 weeks of alcohol access were followed by a 2-week alcohol-free washout period after which the hippocampus was analyzed using 2-DE proteomics. Results:, Beer consumption by the adult group resulted in modest hippocampal changes relative to alcohol naïve adult controls. The only changes observed were an up-regulation of citrate synthase (a precursor to the Krebs cycle) and fatty acid binding protein (which facilitates fatty acid metabolism). In contrast, adolescent rats consuming alcohol showed more widespread hippocampal changes relative to adolescent controls. These included an increase in cytoskeletal protein T-complex protein 1 subunit epsilon (TCP-1) and a decrease in the expression of 10 other proteins, including glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), triose phosphate isomerise, alpha-enolase, and phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (all involved in glycolysis); glutamate dehydrogenase 1 (an important regulator of glutamate); methylmalonate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (involved in aldehyde detoxification); ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase isozyme L1 (a regulator of protein degradation); and synapsin 2 (involved in synaptogenesis and neurotransmitter release). Conclusions:, These results suggest the adolescent hippocampus is more vulnerable to lasting proteomic changes following repeated alcohol exposure. The proteins most affected include those related to glycolysis, glutamate metabolism, neurodegeneration, synaptic function, and cytoskeletal structure. [source]

    Differential Dietary Ethanol Intake and Blood Ethanol Levels in Adolescent and Adult Rats: Effects on Anxiety-Like Behavior and Seizure Thresholds

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 8 2008
    Tiffany A. Wills
    Background:, Adult rats exhibit increased anxiety-like behavior after exposure to repeated cycles of chronic ethanol and withdrawal. While adolescent rats have differential responses to both acute and chronic ethanol treatments, the potential differences in the effects of repeated withdrawals in this population have yet to be determined. Methods:, Male adult and adolescent rats received three 5-day cycles of either a 4.5% or 7% ethanol diet (ED) separated by two 2-day withdrawal periods. Five hours into the final withdrawal, rats were tested for social interaction (SI) deficits (an index of anxiety-like behavior) and then assessed for seizure thresholds (audiogenic and bicuculline-induced). Ethanol intake was monitored throughout, and blood ethanol concentrations (BEC) were obtained from a separate group of rats. Results:, Adolescent rats have reduced SI during the final withdrawal from either ED and exhibit a greater reduction in SI compared to adult rats when exposed to a 7%ED. Audiogenic seizures were not increased during withdrawal from either ED in adult rats, but adolescent rats that received 7%ED displayed increased seizures. The bicuculline seizure thresholds were decreased in both ages exposed to a 7%ED, but only adolescent rats showed this decreased threshold after 4.5%ED. Ethanol intakes and BECs were higher in adolescent rats compared to similarly treated adults. However, ethanol intakes and BECs were comparable between 4.5%ED-treated adolescent and 7%ED-treated adult rats. Conclusions:, Behavioral results from the 7%ED-treated groups suggested that adolescent rats may be more vulnerable to repeated withdrawals from ethanol than adults; however, differences in ethanol intake and BECs may be at least in part responsible. When ethanol intakes and BECs were similar between 4.5%ED-treated adolescent and 7%ED-treated adult rats, behavioral effects were not different. Importantly, these data illustrated that adolescent rats can exhibit anxiety and reduced seizure thresholds following this repeated withdrawal paradigm. [source]

    Time Course of Elevated Ethanol Intake in Adolescent Relative to Adult Rats Under Continuous, Voluntary-Access Conditions

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 7 2007
    Courtney S. Vetter
    Background: Adolescence is a period of elevated alcohol consumption in humans as well as in animal models. Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that adolescent Sprague,Dawley rats consume approximately 2 times more ethanol on a gram per kilogram basis than adult animals in a 2-bottle choice free-access situation. The purpose of the present study was to examine the time course and pattern of elevated ethanol intake during adolescence and the adolescent-to-adult transition, contrast this intake with ontogenetic patterns of food and water intake, and determine whether adolescent access to ethanol elevates voluntary consumption of ethanol in adulthood. Methods: Adolescent [postnatal day (P)27,28] and adult (P69,70) male Sprague,Dawley rats were singly housed with continuous access to both water and 1 of 3 experimental solutions in ball-bearing,containing sipper tubes: unsweetened ethanol (10% v/v), sweetened ethanol (10% v/v+0.1% w/v saccharin), and saccharin alone (0.1% w/v). Results: Ethanol consumption plateaued at approximately 7.5 g/kg/d during the first 2 weeks of measurement (i.e., P28,39) in early adolescence, before declining sharply at approximately P40 to levels that were only modestly elevated compared with adult-typical consumption patterns that were reached by approximately P70. In contrast, intake of food and total calories showed a more gradual decline into adulthood with no distinguishable plateaus in early adolescence. When adolescent-initiated and adult-initiated animals were tested at the same chronological age in adulthood, animals drank similar amounts regardless of the age at which they were first given voluntary access to ethanol. Conclusions: Taken together, these data suggest that the elevated ethanol intake characteristic of early-to-mid adolescence is not simply a function of adolescent-typical hyperphagia or hyperdipsia, but instead may reflect age-related differences in neural substrates contributing to the rewarding or aversive effects of ethanol, as well as possible modulatory influences of ontogenetic differences in sensitivity to novelty or in ethanol pharmacokinetics. Voluntary home cage consumption of ethanol during adolescence, however, was not found to subsequently elevate ethanol drinking in adulthood. [source]

    Strategies for Implementing School-Located Influenza Vaccination of Children: A Systematic Literature Review

    John Cawley PhD
    BACKGROUND: The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends influenza vaccinations for all children 6 months to 18 years of age, which includes school-aged children. Influenza immunization programs may benefit schools by reducing absenteeism. METHODS: A systematic literature review of PubMed, PsychLit, and Dissertation Abstracts available as of January 7, 2008, was conducted for school-located vaccinations, using search words "School Health Services" and "Immunization Programs"; limited to "Child" (6-12 years) and "Adolescent" (13-18 years) for PubMed and "mass or universal" and (immuniz* or immunis* or vaccin*) and (school or Child or Adolescen*) for PsychLit and Dissertation Abstracts. Fifty-nine studies met the criteria for review. RESULTS: Strategies such as incentives, education, the design of the consent form, and follow-up can increase parental consent and number of returned forms. Minimizing out-of-pocket cost, offering both the intramuscular (shot) and intranasal (nasal spray) vaccination, and using reminders can increase vaccination coverage among those whose parents consented. Finally, organization, communication, and planning can minimize the logistical challenges. CONCLUSIONS: Schools-based vaccination programs are a promising option for achieving the expanded ACIP recommendation; school-located vaccination programs are feasible and effective. Adhering to lessons from the peer-reviewed scientific literature may help public health officials and schools implement the expanded recommendation to provide the greatest benefit for the lowest cost. Given the potential benefits of the expanded recommendation, both directly to the vaccinated children and indirectly to the community, prospective, well-controlled trials to establish the cost-effectiveness of specific vaccination strategies should be high priorities for future research. [source]


    ABSTRACT The aims of this study were to formulate biscuits with 50% more fiber and 50% less added salt than classic formulations, to describe their sensory characteristics, to measure expectation/sensory acceptability, and to investigate if sensory acceptability for these biscuits was related to the interest in consuming food products with less salt and/or more fiber content. A 2 × 2 factorial design was used to develop four formulations: conventional fiber/conventional salt; conventional fiber/reduced salt; increased fiber/conventional salt; and increased fiber/reduced salt. Differences in the sensory profiles measured by a trained panel were of low magnitude, except for presence and taste of bran. Adolescent and adult consumers evaluated acceptability in three stages: blind with three-digit codes; expectation of the label only; and biscuit + label. The low salt formulations received the lowest scores in the expectation stage, but in the blind and biscuit + label stages acceptability of all formulations was similar. The variables that explained overall acceptance were: measurement stage; formulation salt level; interest in reducing consumption of high salt foods; and interest in consuming bakery products with fiber. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Increasing fiber content of biscuits by 40 to 50% helps achieve recommendations to increase fiber intake in daily diets. Also, as biscuits currently on the Argentine and other world markets present two extreme varieties , with or without added salt , formulating a biscuit with 50% less added salt facilitate sodium reduction. In our research we have found that these goals can be achieved without seriously affecting sensory acceptability. We propose the articulation of the necessary strategies with the food industry to market biscuits with less added salt and more fiber for the general population; and the use of these healthier biscuits by institutional food services. [source]

    Serotonin, Impulsivity, and Alcohol Use Disorders in the Older Adolescent: A Psychobiological Study

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 11 2000
    Paul H. Soloff
    Background: Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) among adolescents are associated with a high prevalence of conduct disorder (CD), much as type II alcoholism in adults is associated with impulsive-aggressive behavior and antisocial personality traits. Adults with impulsive personality disorders and AUD demonstrate diminished central serotonergic responsiveness to serotonergic agonists. Dysregulation of central serotonergic function may contribute to a vulnerability to impulsive-aggressive behavior, CD, and AUD. We studied older adolescents, both male and female, to examine the relationships between sex, dispositional impulsivity, aggressivity, CD, and responsiveness to serotonergic challenge with d,l fenfluramine (FEN) early in the development of AUD. Methods: Thirty-six adolescents between the ages of 16 and 21 years were assessed for DSM-IV AUD and other Axis I disorders by using the Psychoactive Substance Use Disorders section of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM III-R, the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children,Present and Lifetime Version, and CD interviews. Impulsivity and aggressivity were assessed by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, Lifetime History of Aggression, Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory, Eysenck Impulsiveness Questionnaire, Youth Self Report, and Multidimensional Personality Questionnaires. FEN was administered as 0.8 mg/kg to a maximum of 60 mg, and blood was sampled at fixed intervals for prolactin, cortisol, fenfluramine, and norfenfluramine levels. Results: Eighteen adolescents (12 male, 6 female) with AUD scored significantly higher on all measures of impulsivity and aggressivity compared with 18 healthy controls (12 male, 6 female). There were no significant differences between groups in peak prolactin or cortisol responses (minus baseline), or area-under-the-curve determinations (AUC); however, 9 subjects with AUD and comorbid CD had significantly elevated cortisol AUC levels compared with subjects with AUD and no CD or with normal controls. In the total sample, cortisol AUC was associated positively with measures of aggression. Conclusions: Adolescents with early-onset AUD are characterized by impulsivity and aggressivity compared with healthy peers but do not demonstrate the diminished prolactin or cortisol responses to FEN characteristic of adult alcoholics with impulsive-aggression. [source]

    Binge Pattern Ethanol Exposure in Adolescent and Adult Rats: Differential Impact on Subsequent Responsiveness to Ethanol

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 8 2000
    Aaron M. White
    Background: Recent evidence indicates that adolescent animals are more sensitive than adults to the disruptive effects of acute ethanol exposure on spatial learning. It is not yet known whether adolescent animals are also more sensitive than adults to the enduring neurobehavioral effects of repeated ethanol exposure. In this study, animals were exposed to ethanol in a binge-pattern during either adolescence or adulthood. At a time when all subjects were adults, spatial working memory was examined in the absence and presence of an acute ethanol challenge. Methods: Rats were exposed to ethanol (5.0 g/kg intraperitoneally) or isovolumetric saline at 48 hr intervals over 20 days. Exposure began on either postnatal day 30 (adolescent group) or 70 (adult group). Twenty days after the final injection, a time at which all animals were adults, the subjects were tested on an elevated plus maze and then were trained to perform a spatial working memory task on an eight-arm radial maze. At the beginning of each session of training on the working memory task, subjects retrieved food rewards on four of the eight arms. After a delay, subjects were placed on the maze and allowed to retrieve food from the remaining four arms. Results: Prior exposure to ethanol did not influence behavior on the plus maze. Performance of the groups did not differ during acquisition of the spatial working memory task with a 5 min delay or during subsequent testing with a 1 hr delay. However, animals treated with ethanol during adolescence exhibited larger working memory impairments during an ethanol challenge (1.5 g/kg intraperitoneally) than subjects in the other three groups. Conclusions: The findings indicate that binge pattern exposure to ethanol during adolescence enhances responsiveness to the memory-impairing effects of ethanol in adulthood. [source]

    Severity of health conditions identified in a pediatric cancer survivor program,

    PEDIATRIC BLOOD & CANCER, Issue 7 2010
    Karen Wasilewski-Masker MD
    Abstract Background The Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 (CTCAE) was designed for reporting acute and late effects of cancer treatment. To date, no study of pediatric-aged cancer survivors has graded health conditions using CTCAE, for patients in active follow-up in a cancer survivor program. Procedure Medical records were reviewed on 519 survivors of non-central nervous system childhood malignancies seen in the Cancer Survivor Program between January 1, 2001 and December 15, 2005. Health problems identified through histories, physicals, and recommended evaluation using the Children's Oncology Group (COG) Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines for Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer were graded using the CTCAE. Results Overall, 1,625 adverse health conditions were reported or detected in 519 pediatric-age cancer survivors (mean age at diagnosis 4.8 years; mean age at first survivor visit 12.1 years). The majority of conditions were mild (47.4% Grade 1) or moderate (35.2% Grade 2); however, 17.4% of conditions were severe (Grade 3) or life-threatening/disabling (Grade 4). Only 12.1% of survivors had no adverse condition, and 36.2% of survivors had a Grade 3 or 4 condition. In a Cox multivariate analysis risk factors for a Grade 3 or 4 condition included minority race, diagnosis of other malignancy, older age, and a history of a hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Conclusions The majority of adverse health conditions in pediatric-aged cancer survivors are mild; however, a significant percentage will have a serious condition. Long-term follow-up with a multidisciplinary approach is essential to detect and intervene in health problems early. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2010;54:976,982 © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Registration and classification of adolescent and young adult cancer cases

    Brad H. Pollock MPH
    Abstract Cancer registries are an important research resource that facilitate the study of etiology, tumor biology, patterns of delayed diagnosis and health planning needs. When outcome data are included, registries can track secular changes in survival related to improvements in early detection or treatment. The surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) registry has been used to identify major gaps in survival for older adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients compared with younger children and older adults. In order to determine the reasons for this gap, the complete registration and accurate classification of AYA malignancies is necessary. There are inconsistencies in defining the age limits for AYAs although the Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology Progress Review Group proposed a definition of ages 15 through 39 years. The central registration and classification issues for AYAs are case-finding, defining common data elements (CDE) collected across different registries and the diagnostic classification of these malignancies. Goals to achieve by 2010 include extending and validating current diagnostic classification schemes and expanding the CDE to support AYA oncology research, including the collection of tracking information to assess long-term outcomes. These efforts will advance preventive, etiologic, therapeutic, and health services-related research for this understudied age group. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2008:50:1090,1093. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Nipple Adenoma in an Adolescent

    We describe a 15-year-old female diagnosed with nipple adenoma. Nipple adenoma is a benign neoplasia which should be recognized to avoid confusion with breast cancer. [source]

    Primary Cutaneous CD30 Positive Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma in an Adolescent

    Reena Vaid M.D.
    MRI, bone marrow biopsy, and laboratory data demonstrated no other systemic involvement. He was treated with radiation and low-dose oral methotrexate, with improvement of the lesion and lymphadenopathy. Very few cases of primary cutaneous CD30-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma in the pediatric population have been reported, and our case represents one of the first pediatric patients with local lymph node involvement. [source]

    Adolescent with Henoch,Schönlein purpura glomerulonephritis and intracranial hemorrhage possibly secondary to the reactivation of latent CMV

    Hitohiko Murakami
    First page of article [source]

    Adolescent with variant angina

    m Karaaslan
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Comparison of the General Ability Measure for Adults and the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test with college students

    Kerry S. Lassiter
    Ninety-four college students were administered the GAMA and KAIT. GAMA IQs were significantly and moderately correlated with KAIT Fluid, Crystallized and Composite IQs, supporting the convergent validity of this instrument. Although significant correlations between measures emerged and nonsignificant differences were found between mean scores across these instruments, GAMA IQ scores did not accurately predict KAIT Composite IQ scores when GAMA IQ scores were compared to KAIT Composite IQs. Similarly, when the sample was divided into two groups by ability level, GAMA IQs accurately estimated the intelligence for individuals of Average and Below Average intelligence, but underestimated the KAIT Composite IQ scores by 4 points for the Above Average group. Implications of the findings are discussed and suggestions for future research are provided. © 2002, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]