Dosing Guidelines (dosing + guideline)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The usage of a simplified self-titration dosing guideline (303 Algorithm) for insulin detemir in patients with type 2 diabetes , results of the randomized, controlled PREDICTIVEÔ 303 study

L. Meneghini
The Predictable Results and Experience in Diabetes through Intensification and Control to Target: An International Variability Evaluation 303 (PREDICTIVEÔ 303) Study (n = 5604) evaluated the effectiveness of insulin detemir, a long-acting basal insulin analogue, using a simplified patient self-adjusted dosing algorithm (303 Algorithm group) compared with standard-of-care physician-driven adjustments (Standard-of-care group) in a predominantly primary care setting, over a period of 6 months. Insulin detemir was to be started once-daily as add-on therapy to any other glucose-lowering regimens or as a replacement of prestudy basal insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes. Investigator sites rather than individual patients were randomized to either the 303 Algorithm group or the Standard-of-care group. Patients from the 303 Algorithm group sites were instructed to adjust their insulin detemir dose every 3 days based on the mean of three ,adjusted' fasting plasma glucose (aFPG) values (capillary blood glucose calibrated to equivalent plasma glucose values) using a simple algorithm: mean aFPG < 80 mg/dl (<4.4 mmol/l), reduce dose by 3 U; aFPG between 80 and 110 mg/dl (4.4,6.1 mmol/l), no change; and aFPG > 110 mg/dl (>1.1 mmol/l), increase dose by 3 U. The insulin detemir dose for patients in the Standard-of-care group was adjusted by the investigator according to the standard of care. Mean A1C decreased from 8.5% at baseline to 7.9% at 26 weeks for the 303 Algorithm group and from 8.5 to 8.0% for the Standard-of-care group (p = 0.0106 for difference in A1C reduction between the two groups). Mean FPG values decreased from 175 mg/dl (9.7 mmol/l) at baseline to 141 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/l) for the 303 Algorithm group and decreased from 174 mg/dl (9.7 mmol/l) to 152 mg/dl (8.4 mmol/l) for the Standard-of-care group (p < 0.0001 for difference in FPG reduction between the two groups). Mean body weight remained the same at 26 weeks in both groups (change from baseline 0.1 and ,0.2 kg for the 303 Algorithm group and the Standard-of-care group respectively). At 26 weeks, 91% of the patients in the 303 Algorithm group and 85% of the patients in the Standard-of-care group remained on once-daily insulin detemir administration. The rates of overall hypoglycaemia (events/patient/year) decreased significantly from baseline in both groups [from 9.05 to 6.44 for the 303 Algorithm group (p = 0.0039) and from 9.53 to 4.95 for the Standard-of-care group (p < 0.0001)]. Major hypoglycaemic events were rare in both groups (0.26 events/patient/year for the 303 Algorithm group and 0.20 events/patient/year for the Standard-of-care group; p = 0.2395). In conclusion, patients in the 303 Algorithm group achieved comparable glycaemic control with higher rate of hypoglycaemia as compared with patients in the Standard-of-care group, possibly because of more aggressive insulin dose adjustments. The vast majority of the patients in both groups were effectively treated with once-daily insulin detemir therapy. The use of insulin detemir in this predominantly primary care setting achieved significant improvements in glycaemic control with minimal risk of hypoglycaemia and no weight gain. [source]

Lux vs. wavelength in light treatment of Seasonal Affective Disorder

J. L. Anderson
Objective:, Published dosing guidelines for treatment of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) refer to photopic lux, which is not appropriate for short-wavelength light. Short wavelengths are most potent for many non-visual responses to light. If SAD therapy were similarly mediated, standards utilizing lux risk overestimating necessary dose. We investigated antidepressant responses to light using two light-emitting diode (LED) sources, each emitting substantial short-wavelength light, but <2500 lux. Method:, A randomized, double-blind trial investigated 3-week 45 min/day out-patient treatment with blue-appearing (goLITE®) or blue-enriched white-appearing light in 18 moderately-depressed adults (12F, 49.1 ± 9.5 years). Equivalent numbers of photons within the short-wavelength range were emitted, but the white source emitted twice as many photons overall and seven-fold more lux. Results:, Depression ratings (SIGH-ADS; decrease averaged 82% (SD = 17%) from baseline (P < 0.0001) in both white- and blue-light groups. Both sources were well tolerated. Conclusion:, Short-wavelength LED light sources may be effective in SAD treatment at fewer lux than traditional fluorescent sources. [source]

FEIBA® safety profile in multiple modes of clinical and home-therapy application

H. Luu
Summary., The development of neutralizing antibodies to factor VIII or IX therapeutic concentrates remains the most serious and challenging complication in the management of patients with haemophilia A and B. FEIBA®, Anti-Inhibitor Coagulant Complex, is an activated prothrombin complex concentrate that has been used to treat patients with such complications for almost 30 years. The mechanism of action of FEIBA® has been proposed to involve simultaneous FVIII/FIX inhibitor bypassing action in the common, intrinsic and extrinsic coagulation pathways. FEIBA® is derived from human plasma that undergoes stringent viral screening followed by significant viral inactivation and removal. To date, there have been no confirmed reports of transmission of hepatitis A, B or C, or of human immunodeficiency viruses associated with the use of the current, vapour-heat-treated FEIBA® concentrate. The incidence of thrombotic adverse events recorded in the Baxter pharmacovigilance database for the 10-year postmarket period (1990,99) was approximately 4 : 100 000 infusions of FEIBA®. Almost all documented thrombotic events with FEIBA® occurred with doses that exceeded dosing recommendations, and known risk factors for cardiovascular disease were evident in more than 80% of the patients involved. Overall, clinical data have shown FEIBA® to be safe and well-tolerated for use in a wide variety of clinical settings, including treatment of bleeding episodes, management of surgical procedures, home therapy, long-term prophylaxis, and prophylaxis during immune tolerance induction, when used according to dosing guidelines. [source]

A pharmacodynamic assessment of the impact of antihypertensive non-adherence on blood pressure control

DrPh, Peter W. Choo MD
Abstract Objectives To evaluate if antihypertensive regimens that conform to present FDA guidelines by maintaining ,,50% of their peak effect at the end of the dosing interval protect patients during sporadic lapses in adherence. Methods 169 patients on monotherapy for high blood pressure underwent electronic adherence monitoring for 3 months. Blood pressures were measured during non-study office visits and were retrieved from automated medical records. Questionnaires were used to obtain other covariate information. The ratio of the dosing interval to the half-life of drug activity (I,) was used to capture conformity with FDA guidelines. Data analysis focused on the interaction between I, and the impact on blood pressure of delayed dosing. Results The average (,±,standard deviation) blood pressure during the study was 139.0 (,±,12.0)/85.0 (,±,6.9) mm Hg. Lisinopril followed by sustained-release verapamil, atenolol, and hydrochlorothiazide were the most frequently prescribed agents. The majority of regimens (99%) conformed to FDA dosing guidelines. Of the patients 23% missed a dose before their blood pressure check. Non-adherence, however, did not have a direct impact on blood pressure, and no interaction with I, of was detected. Conclusions Among patients with relatively mild hypertension on single-drug therapy, regimens that conform to current FDA dosing guidelines may prevent losses of blood pressure control during episodic lapses of adherence. These findings should be replicated in other patient populations with standardized blood pressure measurement to confirm their validity. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Population pharmacokinetics of mycophenolic acid in children and young people undergoing blood or marrow and solid organ transplantation

Lihua Zeng
WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS PROJECT? , Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is an immunosuppressant drug used for the treatment and prevention of graft vs. host disease in blood or marrow transplantation and acute graft rejection in solid organ transplantation. , Mycophenolic acid (MPA) pharmacokinetics have not been thoroughly studied in paediatric blood or marrow transplant recipients and guidance for optimal dosing of mycophenolic acid in children is lacking. , Mycophenolic acid exhibits considerable inter- and intra-patient pharmacokinetic variability in adults and paediatric transplant recipients. , The AUC of mycophenolic acid over a 12 h dose interval at steady-state is generally agreed to be the most reliable metric associated with the risk of acute rejection. , Population pharmacokinetic analysis can utilize concentration information from both intensive sampling and sparse sampling to provide pharmacokinetic parameter estimates, estimates of inter- individual and intra-individual variability in these parameters and allows patient characteristics explaining inter-individual variability to be quantified. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS , This study is one of the first investigations in which a population pharmacokinetic modelling approach was applied to assess the pharmacokinetics of both intravenous and oral MMF in children and young people undergoing blood or marrow and solid organ transplantation. , Bodyweight and concomitant ciclosporin were found to influence MPA pharmacokinetics. , This study evaluated current dosing strategies and found that they may be suboptimal for children weighing less than 10 kg. AIMS To characterize the population pharmacokinetics of mycophenolic acid (MPA) and evaluate dose regimens using a simulation approach and accepted therapeutic drug monitoring targets in children and young people undergoing blood or marrow, kidney and liver transplantation. METHODS MPA concentration,time data were collected using an age specific sampling protocol over 12 h. Some patients provided randomly timed but accurately recorded blood samples. Total and unbound MPA were measured by HPLC. NONMEM was employed to analyze MPA pharmacokinetic data. Simulations (n= 1000) were conducted to assess the suitability of the MPA dose regimens to maintain total MPA AUC(0,12 h) within the range 30 and 60 mg l,1 h associated with optimal outcome. RESULTS A two-compartment pharmacokinetic model with first-order elimination best described MPA concentration,time data. Population mean estimates of MPA clearance, inter-compartmental clearance, volumes of distribution in the central and peripheral compartments, absorption rate constant and bioavailability were 6.42 l h,1, 3.74 l h,1, 7.24 l, 16.8 l, 0.39 h,1 and 0.48, respectively. Inclusion of bodyweight and concomitant ciclosporin reduced the inter-individual variability in CL from 54.3% to 31.6%. Children with a bodyweight of 10 kg receiving standard MPA dose regimens achieve an MPA AUC below the target range suggesting they may be at a greater risk of acute rejection. CONCLUSIONS The population pharmacokinetic model for MPA can be used to explore dosing guidelines for safe and effective immunotherapy in children and young people undergoing transplantation. [source]

Treating cancer with PEG Intron

CANCER, Issue 2 2002
Pharmacokinetic profile, dosing guidelines for an improved interferon-alpha-2b formulation
Abstract BACKGROUND PEG Intron (pegylated interferon-alpha-2b [IFN-,-2b]; Schering-Plough, Kenilworth, NJ) has demonstrated delayed clearance and increased area under the curve compared with native IFN-,-2b. Studies in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection and malignancies have demonstrated both biologic and clinical activity of PEG Intron and have provided empiric data to compare the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics of PEG Intron and IFN-,-2b. METHODS The authors conducted a review of the available data comparing the PK and pharmacodynamic effects of PEG Intron and IFN-,-2b. Safety and efficacy data from Phase I/II studies of PEG Intron in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and solid tumors were also reviewed. RESULTS Data from patients with chronic hepatitis C infection suggest that exposure to IFN at a PEG Intron dose of 0.25 ,g/kg per week is similar to that observed after administration of IFN-,-2b at a dose of 3 million International Units, three times per week. PEG Intron at doses up to 6 ,g/kg per week was well tolerated and demonstrated clinical activity in patients with CML and solid tumors, including metastatic melanoma and renal cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS Dose intensification can be achieved safely in patients with CML and solid tumors using PEG Intron, which could improve efficacy. These results provide useful dosing guidelines to clinicians investigating the antitumor activity of PEG Intron in patients with malignancies. More data are needed to determine the optimal dose in various oncologic indications. However, these results provide a sound rationale for further investigation of PEG Intron. Cancer 2002;95:389,96. © 2002 American Cancer Society. DOI 10.1002/cncr.10663 [source]