Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Disturbance

  • abiotic disturbance
  • affective disturbance
  • agricultural disturbance
  • anthropogenic disturbance
  • artificial disturbance
  • autonomic disturbance
  • behavioral disturbance
  • behavioural disturbance
  • biochemical disturbance
  • biological disturbance
  • body image disturbance
  • bounded disturbance
  • circadian rhythm disturbance
  • cognitive disturbance
  • conduction disturbance
  • eating disturbance
  • ecosystem disturbance
  • electrolyte disturbance
  • emotional disturbance
  • environmental disturbance
  • exogenous disturbance
  • external disturbance
  • fire disturbance
  • flood disturbance
  • forest disturbance
  • frequent disturbance
  • functional disturbance
  • gait disturbance
  • gastrointestinal disturbance
  • growth disturbance
  • habitat disturbance
  • human disturbance
  • human-induced disturbance
  • hurricane disturbance
  • hydrological disturbance
  • image disturbance
  • initial disturbance
  • intermediate disturbance
  • large-scale disturbance
  • load disturbance
  • major disturbance
  • memory disturbance
  • menstrual disturbance
  • metabolic disturbance
  • metabolism disturbance
  • mineral metabolism disturbance
  • mood disturbance
  • motility disturbance
  • motor disturbance
  • natural disturbance
  • nonlinear disturbance
  • other disturbance
  • pattern disturbance
  • periodic disturbance
  • physical disturbance
  • psychiatric disturbance
  • psychological disturbance
  • random disturbance
  • recent disturbance
  • rhythm disturbance
  • sensory disturbance
  • severe disturbance
  • significant disturbance
  • sleep disturbance
  • sleep pattern disturbance
  • small disturbance
  • small-scale disturbance
  • soil disturbance
  • surface disturbance
  • system disturbance
  • taste disturbance
  • total mood disturbance
  • unknown disturbance
  • visual disturbance

  • Terms modified by Disturbance

  • disturbance agent
  • disturbance attenuation
  • disturbance attenuation level
  • disturbance dynamics
  • disturbance ecology
  • disturbance effects
  • disturbance event
  • disturbance frequency
  • disturbance gradient
  • disturbance history
  • disturbance hypothesis
  • disturbance index
  • disturbance input
  • disturbance intensity
  • disturbance level
  • disturbance observer
  • disturbance pattern
  • disturbance process
  • disturbance regime
  • disturbance rejection
  • disturbance severity
  • disturbance signal
  • disturbance type

  • Selected Abstracts


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 3 2008
    Euan D. Reavie
    Because diatom communities are subject to the prevailing water quality in the Great Lakes coastal environment, diatom-based indices can be used to support coastal-monitoring programs and paleoecological studies. Diatom samples were collected from Great Lakes coastal wetlands, embayments, and high-energy sites (155 sites), and assemblages were characterized to the species level. We defined 42 metrics on the basis of autecological and functional properties of species assemblages, including species diversity, motile species, planktonic species, proportion dominant taxon, taxonomic metrics (e.g., proportion Stephanodiscoid taxa), and diatom-inferred (DI) water quality (e.g., DI chloride [Cl]). Redundant metrics were eliminated, and a diatom-based multimetric index (MMDI) to infer coastline disturbance was developed. Anthropogenic stresses in adjacent coastal watersheds were characterized using geographic information system (GIS) data related to agricultural and urban land cover and atmospheric deposition. Fourteen independent diatom metrics had significant regressions with watershed stressor data; these metrics were selected for inclusion in the MMDI. The final MMDI was developed as the weighted sum of the selected metric scores with weights based on a metric's ability to reflect anthropogenic stressors in the adjacent watersheds. Despite careful development of the multimetric approach, verification using a test set of sites indicated that the MMDI was not able to predict watershed stressors better than some of the component metrics. From this investigation, it was determined that simpler, more traditional diatom-based metrics (e.g., DI Cl, proportion Cl-tolerant species, and DI total phosphorus [TP]) provide superior prediction of overall stressor influence at coastal locales. [source]


    Huijun Gao
    ABSTRACT This paper investigates the problem of robust filtering for a class of uncertain nonlinear discrete-time systems with multiple state delays. It is assumed that the parameter uncertainties appearing in all the system matrices reside in a polytope, and that the nonlinearities entering into both the state and measurement equations satisfy global Lipschitz conditions. Attention is focused on the design of robust full-order and reduced-order filters guaranteeing a prescribed noise attenuation level in an H, or l2 - l, sense with respect to all energy-bounded noise disturbances for all admissible uncertainties and time delays. Both delay-dependent and independent approaches are developed by using linear matrix inequality (LMI) techniques, which are applicable to systems either with or without a priori information on the size of delays. [source]


    BRAIN PATHOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
    Stephan Frank
    First page of article [source]

    Patch-Occupancy Modeling as a Method for Monitoring Changes in Forest Floristics: a Case Study in Southeastern Australia

    fuego prescrito; manejo adaptativo; modelo Bayesiamo; silvicultura; tala Abstract:,The ability to monitor changes in biodiversity is fundamental to demonstrating sustainable management practices of natural resources. Disturbance studies generally focus on responses at the plot scale, whereas landscape-scale responses are directly relevant to the development of sustainable forest management. Modeling changes in occupancy is one way to monitor landscape-scale responses. We used understory vegetation data collected over 16 years from a long-term study site in southeastern Australia. The site was subject to timber harvesting and frequent prescribed burning. We used occupancy models to examine the impacts of these disturbances on the distribution of 50 species of plants during the study. Timber harvesting influenced the distribution of 9 species, but these effects of harvesting were generally lost within 14 years. Repeated prescribed fire affected 22 species, but the heterogeneity of the burns reduced the predicted negative effects. Twenty-two species decreased over time independent of treatment, and only 5 species increased over time. These changes probably represent a natural response to a wildfire that occurred in 1973, 13 years before the study began. Occupancy modeling is a useful and flexible technique for analyzing monitoring data and it may also be suitable for inclusion within an adaptive-management framework for forest management. Resumen:,La habilidad para monitorear cambios en la biodiversidad es fundamental para demostrar el manejo sustentable de los recursos naturales. Los estudios de perturbación generalmente enfocan las respuestas a escala de parcela, mientras que las respuestas a escala de paisaje son directamente relevantes para el desarrollo del manejo sustentable de bosques. El modelado de cambios en la ocupación es una forma de monitorear respuestas a escala de paisaje. Utilizamos datos de la vegetación de sotobosque colectados a los largo de 16 años en un sitio de estudio a largo plazo en el sureste de Australia. El sitio fue sujeto a la cosecha de madera y a quemas prescritas frecuentes. Utilizamos modelos de ocupación para examinar los impactos de estas perturbaciones sobre la distribución de 50 especies de plantas. La cosecha de madera influyó en la distribución de nueve especies, pero los efectos de la cosecha generalmente se perdieron al cabo de 14 años. El fuego prescrito repetido afectó a 22 especies, pero la heterogeneidad de las quemas redujo los efectos negativos pronosticados. Veintidós especies decrecieron en el tiempo independientemente del tratamiento, y solo cinco especies incrementaron en el tiempo. Estos cambios probablemente representan una respuesta natural al incendio no controlado que ocurrió en 1973, 13 años antes de que comenzara el estudio. El modelado de la ocupación es una técnica útil y flexible para analizar datos de monitoreo y también puede ser adecuado para su inclusión en un marco de manejo adaptativo para la gestión de bosques. [source]

    Consumer Control of Salt Marshes Driven by Human Disturbance

    control de consumidor; impactos humanos; conservación de pantano de sal; cascadas de trophic Abstract:,Salt marsh ecosystems are widely considered to be controlled exclusively by bottom,up forces, but there is mounting evidence that human disturbances are triggering consumer control in western Atlantic salt marshes, often with catastrophic consequences. In other marine ecosystems, human disturbances routinely dampen (e.g., coral reefs, sea grass beds) and strengthen (e.g., kelps) consumer control, but current marsh theory predicts little potential interaction between humans and marsh consumers. Thus, human modification of top,down control in salt marshes was not anticipated and was even discounted in current marsh theory, despite loud warnings about the potential for cascading human impacts from work in other marine ecosystems. In spite of recent experiments that have challenged established marsh dogma and demonstrated consumer-driven die-off of salt marsh ecosystems, government agencies and nongovernmental organizations continue to manage marsh die-offs under the old theoretical framework and only consider bottom,up forces as causal agents. This intellectual dependency of many coastal ecologists and managers on system-specific theory (i.e., marsh bottom,up theory) has the potential to have grave repercussions for coastal ecosystem management and conservation in the face of increasing human threats. We stress that marine vascular plant communities (salt marshes, sea grass beds, mangroves) are likely more vulnerable to runaway grazing and consumer-driven collapse than is currently recognized by theory, particularly in low-diversity ecosystems like Atlantic salt marshes. Resumen:,Se ha considerado extensamente que los ecosistemas de marismas son controlados exclusivamente por dinámicas abajo-arriba, pero se ha acumulado evidencia de que las perturbaciones humanas están provocando el control por consumidores en marismas del Atlántico occidental, a menudo con consecuencias catastróficas. En otros ecosistemas marinos, las perturbaciones humanas rutinariamente disminuyen (e.g., arrecifes de coral, pastos marinos) y refuerzan (e.g., varec) el control por consumidores, pero la teoría de marismas actual predice una leve interacción potencial entre humanos y consumidores en las marismas. Por lo tanto, las modificaciones humanas al control arriba-abajo en las marismas no estaba anticipada y aun era descontada en la teoría de marismas actual, a pesar de advertencias sobre el potencial de impactos humanos en cascada en trabajos en otros ecosistemas marinos. No obstante los experimentos recientes que han desafiado el dogma de marismas establecido y que han demostrado la desaparición gradual de marismas conducida por consumidores, las agencias gubernamentales y las organizaciones no gubernamentales continúan manejando la disminución de marismas en el marco de la teoría vieja y sólo consideran como agentes causales a factores abajo-arriba. Esta dependencia intelectual en la teoría sistema-específico (i.e., teoría de marismas abajo-arriba) de muchos ecólogos y manejadores costeros tiene el potencial de tener repercusiones graves para el manejo y conservación de ecosistemas costeros frente a las crecientes amenazas humanas. Enfatizamos que las comunidades plantas vasculares marinas (marismas, pastos marinos, manglares) son potencialmente más vulnerables al pastoreo descontrolado y al colapso conducido por consumidores que lo que reconoce la teoría actualmente, particularmente en ecosistemas con baja diversidad como las marismas del Atlántico. [source]

    Metapopulation Extinction Risk under Spatially Autocorrelated Disturbance

    patrón espacial de perturbación; simulaciones espacialmente explícitas; SLOSS; umbral de extinción Abstract:,Recent extinction models generally show that spatial aggregation of habitat reduces overall extinction risk because sites emptied by local extinction are more rapidly recolonized. We extended such an investigation to include spatial structure in the disturbance regime. A spatially explicit metapopulation model was developed with a wide range of dispersal distances. The degree of aggregation of both habitat and disturbance pattern could be varied from a random distribution, through the intermediate case of a fractal distribution, all the way to complete aggregation (single block). Increasing spatial aggregation of disturbance generally increased extinction risk. The relative risk faced by populations in different landscapes varied greatly, depending on the disturbance regime. With random disturbance, the spatial aggregation of habitat reduced extinction risk, as in earlier studies. Where disturbance was spatially autocorrelated, however, this advantage was eliminated or reversed because populations in aggregated habitats are at risk of mass extinction from coarse-scale disturbance events. The effects of spatial patterns on extinction risk tended to be reduced by long-distance dispersal. Given the high levels of spatial correlation in natural and anthropogenic disturbance processes, population vulnerability may be greatly underestimated both by classical (nonspatial) models and by those that consider spatial structure in habitat alone. Resumen:,Los modelos recientes de extinción generalmente muestran que la agregación espacial de hábitat reduce el riesgo de extinción debido a una recolonización más rápida de sitios vacíos por extinción local. Extendimos la investigación para incluir la estructura espacial en el régimen de perturbación. Desarrollamos un modelo metapoblacional espacialmente explícito en el que el patrón espacial tanto del hábitat como de los regímenes de perturbación podía variar aleatoriamente de fractal a completamente agregado (bloque) y con una amplia gama de distancias de dispersión. El incremento de la agregación espacial de la perturbación generalmente incrementó el riesgo de extinción. El riesgo relativo que enfrentan poblaciones en paisajes diferentes fue muy variable, dependiendo del régimen de perturbación. Con perturbación aleatoria, la agregación espacial de hábitat redujo el riesgo de extinción, como en estudios anteriores. Sin embargo, cuando la perturbación estaba autocorrelacionada espacialmente, esta ventaja se eliminaba o invertía debido a que las poblaciones en hábitats agregados están en riesgo de extinción masiva por eventos perturbadores a escala gruesa. Los efectos de patrones espaciales sobre el riesgo de extinción tendieron a reducirse por la dispersión de larga distancia. Debido a los altos niveles de correlación espacial en los procesos naturales y humanos de perturbación, la vulnerabilidad puede estar enormemente subestimada tanto por modelos clásicos (no espaciales) como por los que sólo consideran la estructura espacial del habitat. Los modelos que consideran la estructura espacial del hábitat solo subestiman el riesgo en comparación con modelos que consideran la estructura especial de la perturbación. [source]

    Effects of Habitat Disturbance on Stream Salamanders: Implications for Buffer Zones and Watershed Management

    John D. Willson
    To minimize the impacts of development on aquatic habitats, numerous conservation measures have been implemented, including the use of riparian buffer zones along streams and rivers. We examined the effectiveness of current buffer-zone systems for management of small watersheds in conserving stream-dwelling salamander populations in 10 small streams ( draining <40.5 ha ) in the western Piedmont of North Carolina. We captured salamanders by means of funnel traps and systematic dipnetting and used a geographic information system to calculate the percentage of disturbed habitat within the watershed of each stream and within 10.7-, 30.5-, and 61.0 -m buffer zones around each stream, upstream from our sampling locations. Although the relative abundance of salamanders was strongly inversely proportional to the percentage of disturbed habitat in the entire watersheds ( R2 = 0.71 for Desmognathus fuscus and 0.48 for Eurycea cirrigera ), we found little to no correlation between the relative abundance of salamanders and the percentage of disturbed habitat present within buffer zones ( R2 = 0.06,0.27 for D. fuscus and 0.01,0.07 for E. cirrigera ). Thus, conservation efforts aimed at preserving salamander populations in headwater streams must consider land use throughout entire watersheds, rather than just preserving small riparian buffer zones. Resumen: La destrucción y degradación del hábitat se encuentra entre la mayores amenazas a la vida silvestre, junto con el aumento global de la población humana. Para minimizar los impactos del desarrollo sobre hábitats acuáticos, se han instrumentado numerosas medidas de conservación, incluyendo el uso de zonas de amortiguamiento riparias a lo largo de arroyos y ríos. Examinamos la efectividad de los actuales sistemas de zonas de amortiguamiento usados en el manejo de cuencas pequeñas para la conservación de poblaciones de salamandras de arroyo en 10 arroyos pequeños ( que drenan <40.5 ha ) al pie de monte del occidente de Carolina del Norte. Capturamos salamandras con trampas de embudo y mediante el uso sistemático de redes y utilizamos un sistema de información geográfica para calcular el porcentaje de hábitat perturbado dentro de la cuenca de cada arroyo y dentro de zonas de amortiguamiento de 10.7-, 30.5- y 61.0-m alrededor de cada arroyo, río arriba de nuestros sitios de muestreo. Aunque los valores de abundancia relativa de salamandras fueron inversamente proporcionales al porcentaje de hábitat perturbado en el total de las cuencas ( R2 = 0.71 para Desmognathus fuscus y 0.48 para Eurycea cirrigera ), encontramos una correlación débil o inexistente entre las abundancias relativas de salamandras y el porcentaje de hábitat perturbado en las zonas de amortiguamiento R2 = 0.06,0.27 para D. fuscus y 0.01,0.07 para E. cirrigera ). Por lo tanto, los esfuerzos de conservación dirigidos a preservar poblaciones de salamandras de arroyos de cabecera deben tomar en cuenta el uso de la tierra en la superficie entera de las cuencas, en lugar de preservar pequeñas zonas de amortiguamiento riparias. [source]

    Necrotizing Vasculitis: A Cause of Aortic Insufficiency and Conduction System Disturbance

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 7 2003
    Miquel Gómez Pérez M.D.
    Cardiac involvement in vasculitis syndromes is uncommon. We describe a 50-year-old male who presented with progressive dyspnea and myalgies. Echocardiogram revealed significant thickening of aortic root, aortic cusps, and anterior mitral valve leaflet, with severe aortic regurgitation that required aortic valve replacement. Furthermore, this patient suffered progressive atrioventricular block that needed implantation of a pacemaker. The study performed disclosed the presence of necrotizing vasculitis positive for perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody. (ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Volume 20, October 2003) [source]

    Disturbance and recovery of microbial community structure and function following Hurricane Frances

    Anthony C. Yannarell
    Summary Disturbance and recovery influence microbial community structure and ecosystem functions in most natural environments. This study from a hypersaline Bahamian lagoon details the response of a benthic cyanobacterial mat to disturbance by Hurricane Frances, a category-4 storm. Clone libraries of cyanobacterial small subunit r-RNA genes and nitrogenase genes revealed significant shifts in cyanobacterial and diazotroph community composition following the hurricane. Post-hurricane clone libraries were dominated by sequences that had been rare in pre-hurricane communities. In spite of this dominance shift, re-colonizing mat communities performed nitrogen fixation and photosynthesis at rates within the normal range of variation measured in the mat at similar salinities. There was a tendency for nitrogen fixation rates from mats re-colonizing sites with hurricane-related sand deposition to be higher than those from mats re-colonizing sites without significant sand deposition. This suggests that the altered communities responded to a carbon : nitrogen imbalance that was particularly pronounced in areas subjected to disturbance by sand burial. The post-hurricane dominance of organisms that had been previously rare suggests that pre-hurricane diversity and functional redundancy contributed to the rapid recovery of ecosystem function in the post-disturbance environment. [source]

    Impact of Environmental Disturbance on the Stability and Benefits of Individual Status within Dominance Hierarchies

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 5 2006
    Lynne U. Sneddon
    Changes in environmental conditions affect social interactions and thus may modify an individual's competitive ability within a social group. We subjected three-spined sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus, housed in groups of four individuals, to environmental perturbations to assess the impact on dominance hierarchy stability. Hierarchy stability decreased during increased turbulence or lowered water levels (,simulated drought') whereas control hierarchies became more stable in a constant environment. The dominant individual either became more aggressive and remained dominant during the environmental manipulation or was usurped by a lower rank member. Only simulated drought affected rates of aggression where levels of aggression were higher after the water level was dropped which may be the result of an increased encounter rate in these conditions. When there were large size differences between the group members, the dominant individual performed the greatest amount of aggression and ate the largest proportion of food and there was little aggressive behaviour from the lower ranks. In groups of similar-sized individuals, aggression was much higher. The benefit of being dominant was to gain weight over the experimental period whereas ranks 2 and 3 lost weight. The lowest rank, 4, actually gained weight over the experimental period. This study suggests that it would benefit an individual to be dominant, highly aggressive and gain weight or be submissive, avoid aggressive interactions and, by sneakily obtaining access to food, also gain weight. Altering environmental conditions has a profound effect on social behaviour in this study. [source]

    Evolutionary origins of invasive populations

    Carol Eunmi Lee
    Abstract What factors shape the evolution of invasive populations? Recent theoretical and empirical studies suggest that an evolutionary history of disturbance might be an important factor. This perspective presents hypotheses regarding the impact of disturbance on the evolution of invasive populations, based on a synthesis of the existing literature. Disturbance might select for life-history traits that are favorable for colonizing novel habitats, such as rapid population growth and persistence. Theoretical results suggest that disturbance in the form of fluctuating environments might select for organismal flexibility, or alternatively, the evolution of evolvability. Rapidly fluctuating environments might favor organismal flexibility, such as broad tolerance or plasticity. Alternatively, longer fluctuations or environmental stress might lead to the evolution of evolvability by acting on features of the mutation matrix. Once genetic variance is generated via mutations, temporally fluctuating selection across generations might promote the accumulation and maintenance of genetic variation. Deeper insights into how disturbance in native habitats affects evolutionary and physiological responses of populations would give us greater capacity to predict the populations that are most likely to tolerate or adapt to novel environments during habitat invasions. Moreover, we would gain fundamental insights into the evolutionary origins of invasive populations. [source]

    Applying climatically associated species pools to the modelling of compositional change in tropical montane forests

    GLOBAL ECOLOGY, Issue 2 2008
    Duncan J. Golicher
    ABSTRACT Aim, Predictive species distribution modelling is a useful tool for extracting the maximum amount of information from biological collections and floristic inventories. However, in many tropical regions records are only available from a small number of sites. This can limit the application of predictive modelling, particularly in the case of rare and endangered species. We aim to address this problem by developing a methodology for defining and mapping species pools associated with climatic variables in order to investigate potential species turnover and regional species loss under climate change scenarios combined with anthropogenic disturbance. Location, The study covered an area of 6800 km2 in the highlands of Chiapas, southern Mexico. Methods, We derived climatically associated species pools from floristic inventory data using multivariate analysis combined with spatially explicit discriminant analysis. We then produced predictive maps of the distribution of tree species pools using data derived from 451 inventory plots. After validating the predictive power of potential distributions against an independent historical data set consisting of 3105 botanical collections, we investigated potential changes in the distribution of tree species resulting from forest disturbance and climate change. Results, Two species pools, associated with moist and cool climatic conditions, were identified as being particularly threatened by both climate change and ongoing anthropogenic disturbance. A change in climate consistent with low-emission scenarios of general circulation models was shown to be sufficient to cause major changes in equilibrium forest composition within 50 years. The same species pools were also found to be suffering the fastest current rates of deforestation and internal forest disturbance. Disturbance and deforestation, in combination with climate change, threaten the regional distributions of five tree species listed as endangered by the IUCN. These include the endemic species Magnolia sharpii Miranda and Wimmeria montana Lundell. Eleven vulnerable species and 34 species requiring late successional conditions for their regeneration could also be threatened. Main conclusions, Climatically associated species pools can be derived from floristic inventory data available for tropical regions using methods based on multivariate analysis even when data limitations prevent effective application of individual species modelling. Potential consequences of climate change and anthropogenic disturbance on the species diversity of montane tropical forests in our study region are clearly demonstrated by the method. [source]

    "Without Hysteria or Unnecessary Disturbance": Desegregation at Spring Hill College, Mobile, Alabama, 1948,1954

    Charles S. Padgett
    First page of article [source]

    Impact of the novel antidepressant agomelatine on disturbed sleep,wake cycles in depressed patients,

    Maria-Antonia Quera-Salva
    Abstract Background Disturbance of sleep,wake cycles is common in major depressive disorder (MDD), usually as insomnia, but also as hypersomnia or reduced daytime alertness. Agomelatine, an MT1 and MT2 receptor agonist and 5-HT2C receptor antagonist, represents a novel approach in MDD, with proven antidepressant efficacy and a positive impact on the sleep,wake cycle. We review the effects of agomelatine 25/50,mg/day on objective and subjective measures of the sleep,wake cycle in MDD. Subjective measures Agomelatine improved all aspects of the sleep,wake cycle from as early as 1 week in randomized trials versus selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and venlafaxine, particularly getting off to sleep and quality of sleep, with an improvement in daytime alertness. Objective measures Agomelatine's effect on sleep architecture in MDD has been measured by polysomnography (PSG). There were significant improvements in sleep efficiency, slow-wave sleep (SWS), and the distribution of delta activity throughout the night, but no change in amount or latency of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Furthermore, the slow-wave sleep was resynchronized to the first sleep cycle of the night. Conclusion Agomelatine, a novel antidepressant, improves disturbed sleep,wake cycles in MDD. The improvement of both nighttime sleep and daytime functioning with agomelatine are promising features of this antidepressant regarding the management of MDD. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Enhancing diversity of species-poor grasslands: an experimental assessment of multiple constraints

    Summary 1Many grasslands in north-west Europe are productive but species-poor communities resulting from intensive agriculture. Reducing the intensity of management under agri-environment schemes has often failed to increase botanical diversity. We investigated biotic and abiotic constraints on diversification by manipulating seed and microsite availability, soil fertility, resource competition, herbivory and deficiencies in the soil microbial community. 2The effectiveness of 13 restoration treatments was investigated over 4 years in a randomized block experiment established in two productive grasslands in central-east and south-west England. 3Severe disturbance involving turf removal followed by seed addition was the most effective and reliable means of increasing grassland diversity. Disturbance by multiple harrowing was moderately effective but was enhanced by molluscicide application to reduce seedling herbivory and by sowing the hemiparasite Rhinanthus to reduce competition from grasses. 4Low-level disturbance by grazing or slot-seeding was ineffective in increasing diversity. Inoculation with soil microbial communities from species-rich grasslands had no effect on botanical diversity. Nitrogen and potassium fertilizer addition accelerated off-take of phosphorus in cut herbage but did not cause a reduction in soil phosphorus or increase botanical diversity. 5Different grazing management regimes had little impact on diversity. This may reflect the constraining effect of the July hay cut on species dispersal and colonization. 6Synthesis and applications. Three alternative approaches to grassland diversification, with different outcomes, are recommended. (i) High intervention deturfing, which would create patches with low competitive conditions for rapid and reliable establishment of the target community. For reasons of cost and practicality this can only be done over small areas but will form source populations for subsequent spread. (ii) Moderate intervention (harrowing or slot-seeding) over large areas, which would establish a limited number of desirable, generalist species that perform well in restoration. This method is low cost and rapid but the increases in biodiversity are less predictable. (iii) Phased restoration, which would complement the above approaches. Productivity and competition are reduced over 3,5 years using Rhinanthus or fertilizers to accelerate phosphorus off-take. After this time harrowing and seeding should allow a wide range of more specialist species to establish. However, further research is required to determine the long-term effectiveness of these approaches. [source]

    Cellular effects of monohydrochloride of l -arginine, N, -lauroyl ethylester (LAE) on exposure to Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus

    E. Rodríguez
    Abstract Aims:, Here we study the effect of monohydrochloride of l -arginine, N, -lauroyl ethylester (LAE), a cationic preservative derived from lauric acid and arginine, on the cell envelopes of Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus at sub-lethal concentration such as their respective minimal inhibitory concentrations, 32 and 8 ,g ml,1, respectively. Methods and Results:, Bacterial populations were studied by using transmission electron and fluorescence microscopy (TEM and FM), flow cytometry (FC) and ion-flux across the cellular membrane. Cell integrity was altered mainly in the outer membrane of S. typhimurium, but there was no significant change in the cytoplasm. However, in Staph. aureus, clear zones, abnormal septation and mesosome-like structures were observed in the cytoplasm. Bacterial populations were double-stained with propidium iodide (PI) and SYTO-13 for FC analysis. In S. typhimurium the proportion of damaged cells after 24 h was 97% and in Staph. aureus 56·3%. LAE induced transmembrane ion flux, the increase of potassium leakage after 30 min of contact was 7·7 and 3·34 ,g ml,1 for Staph. aureus and S. typhimurium, respectively. Membrane disruption was detected by measuring the proton flow across the membrane. Conclusions:, Disturbance in membrane potential and structural changes was caused by LAE, although cells were not disrupted. Significance and Impact of the Study:, This is the first time the cellular effects of LAE on bacterial cells were studied. [source]

    Disturbance facilitates rapid range expansion of aspen into higher elevations of the Rocky Mountains under a warming climate

    Simon M. Landhäusser
    Abstract Aim, Trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) is absent in the upper foothills region of west-central Alberta because of the cold conditions and short growing season at this high elevation. However, in recent years it appears that aspen has been establishing from seed in this zone and that it has been doing so mainly as a result of forest harvesting. The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency of and types of microsite required for the successful establishment of aspen seedlings at these higher elevations. Location, Rocky Mountains Upper Foothills Natural Subregion of west-central Alberta, Canada. Methods, The current distribution of mature aspen and the presence and absence of aspen seedlings in harvested areas were determined in an area c. 300 km2 in size, using ground and aerial surveys. In an intensive study, 12 belt transects (180 m long and 5 m wide) were established in areas disturbed by forest harvesting at high elevations where no aspen was present prior to harvesting. Transects were surveyed seven growing seasons after disturbance and the microsites occupied by aspen seedlings were characterized according to their substrate and microtopography. Similarly, the availability of different substrates and microtopographic positions were assessed by systematic point sampling on these sites. Results, On level surfaces, aspen seedling regeneration was found up to 200 m higher in elevation than the mature aspen in the original undisturbed forests. Overall, there were 428 seedlings ha,1 established on these transects, and the age distribution indicates that aspen seedlings had established in each of the seven growing seasons since the disturbance. Nearly all of the seedlings (93%) were established on mineral soil microsites and virtually no seedlings were established on undisturbed forest floor layers. Significantly more seedlings were found in concave microtopographic positions. Main conclusions, This study indicates that aspen establishment from seed is currently not a stochastic event and demonstrates that aspen is rapidly expanding its range upslope in the Canadian Rocky Mountain region as a result of forest management practices that expose mineral soil substrates in conjunction with a warming climate. The change in canopy composition from conifer to deciduous forests at these higher elevations will have far-reaching implications for ecosystem processes and functions. [source]

    Marine nematode deep-sea biodiversity , hyperdiverse or hype?

    P. John D. Lambshead
    Abstract Nematodes have been identified as a potentially hyperdiverse group and the deep sea as a potentially hyperdiverse environment (i.e. > 1 million species). A large-scale data set from the equatorial central Pacific is used to estimate regional diversity with results that challenge this view; regional diversity is higher in some coastal waters despite lower sample diversity in coastal waters than in the deep sea. The data suggests a paradigm where the deep sea has modest regional diversity, despite high local diversity through patch dynamics, because similar patches in a similar habitat are repeated for considerable distances. Disturbance in shallow water dominates over patch-dynamic mechanisms reducing local diversity but regional diversity is high because of the close packing of multiple habitats within a single region. The Pacific data are also used to demonstrate the pitfalls of extrapolating from local to global diversity. There is no reason to conclude that nematodes are less diverse than other benthic groups, indeed where direct comparison is possible the Nematoda appear to be as diverse as the Polychaeta, the most diverse macrofaunal taxon. This analysis is not consistent with the hypothesis that either marine nematodes or the deep-sea benthos are hyperdiverse raising the question whether any environment or metazoan taxon has more than a million species. [source]

    X-linked mental retardation and epigenetics

    Guy Froyen
    Abstract The search for the genetic defects in constitutional diseases has so far been restricted to direct methods for the identification of genetic mutations in the patients' genome. Traditional methods such as karyotyping, FISH, mutation screening, positional cloning and CGH, have been complemented with newer methods including array-CGH and PCR-based approaches (MLPA, qPCR). These methods have revealed a high number of genetic or genomic aberrations that result in an altered expression or reduced functional activity of key proteins. For a significant percentage of patients with congenital disease however, the underlying cause has not been resolved strongly suggesting that yet other mechanisms could play important roles in their etiology. Alterations of the ,native' epigenetic imprint might constitute such a novel mechanism. Epigenetics, heritable changes that do not rely on the nucleotide sequence, has already been shown to play a determining role in embryonic development, X-inactivation, and cell differentiation in mammals. Recent progress in the development of techniques to study these processes on full genome scale has stimulated researchers to investigate the role of epigenetic modifications in cancer as well as in constitutional diseases. We will focus on mental impairment because of the growing evidence for the contribution of epigenetics in memory formation and cognition. Disturbance of the epigenetic profile due to direct alterations at genomic regions, or failure of the epigenetic machinery due to genetic mutations in one of its components, has been demonstrated in cognitive derangements in a number of neurological disorders now. It is therefore tempting to speculate that the cognitive deficit in a significant percentage of patients with unexplained mental retardation results from epigenetic modifications. [source]

    Impact of habitat disturbance in the wetland forests of East Usambara, Tanzania

    Ramadhani Senzota
    Abstract We evaluated habitat characteristics of East Usambara wetland forests. The abundance and species composition in the tree, shrub and herbaceous layers were enumerated in two sets of nested plots, one set in a natural wetland forest and the second in a wetland forest that had been disturbed by small-scale gold mining activities. Each set had thirty-six 1 m × 1 m plots for herbs, inside nine 5 m × 5 m plots for shrubs, in three 20 m × 20 m plots for trees. The habitat profile of herbaceous , shrub , tree layers was found to be sharply different from one obtained in previous studies at the surrounding nonwetland forests as were species composition and abundance. Unlike in the nonwetland forests, the herbaceous layer was thick, the shrub layer very thin and the woody species density and richness much lower. Disturbance significantly reduced woody cover and changed species composition in the herbaceous layer. Recovery of the woody vegetation was low. Wetland forests in the East Usambaras form a small fraction of the total area, but they are a unique biodiversity repository, they appear to be an important carbon dioxide sink and to reserve and purify water. They are sensitive to disturbance and need protection. Résumé Nous avons évalué les caractéristiques de l'habitat des forêts humides d'East Usambara. L'abondance et la composition des espèces dans les étages d'arbres, d'arbustes et d'herbes furent dénombrées dans deux ensembles de parcelles emboitées, un situé dans une forêt humide naturelle, l'autre dans une forêt humide qui avait été perturbée par les activités d'orpaillage à petite échelle. Chaque ensemble se composait de 36 carrés de 1 m² pour les herbes, situés dans neuf carrés de 5 m × 5 m pour les buissons, eux-mêmes situés à l'intérieur de trois carrés de 20 m × 20 m pour les arbres. Le profil des habitats pour les trois couches d'herbes , d'arbustes , d'arbres s'est révélé très différent de celui qui avait été obtenu lors d'études précédentes réalisées dans des forêts environnantes non humides; il en était de même pour la composition et l'abondance des espèces. Contrairement aux forêts non humides, la couche herbeuse était épaisse, la couche des arbustes très claire et la densité et la richesse des espèces ligneuses étaient beaucoup plus faibles. La perturbation avait significativement réduit le couvert ligneux et changé la composition des espèces de l'étage herbacé. La restauration de la végétation ligneuse était faible. Les forêts humides des East Usambara ne constituent qu'une petite fraction de la superficie totale, mais elles sont un sanctuaire unique pour sa biodiversité, elles semblent être un puits de carbone important et aussi retenir et purifier l'eau. Elles sont sensibles à toute perturbation et doivent être protégées. [source]

    The Effect of Repeated Physical Disturbance on Soft Tissue Decomposition,Are Taphonomic Studies an Accurate Reflection of Decomposition?,

    Rachel E. Adlam M.Sc.
    Abstract:, Although the relationship between decomposition and postmortem interval has been well studied, almost no studies examined the potential effects of physical disturbance occurring as a result of data collection procedures. This study compares physically disturbed rabbit carcasses with a series of undisturbed carcasses to assess the presence and magnitude of any effects resulting from repetitive disturbance. Decomposition was scored using visual assessment of soft tissue changes, and numerical data such as weight loss and carcass temperature were recorded. The effects of disturbance over time on weight loss, carcass temperature, soil pH and decomposition were studied. In addition, this study aimed to validate some of the anecdotal evidence regarding decomposition. Results indicate disturbance significantly inversely affects both weight loss and carcass temperature. No differences were apparent between groups for soil pH change or overall decomposition stage. An insect-mediated mechanism for the disturbance effect is suggested, along with indications as to why this effect may be cancelled when scoring overall decomposition. [source]

    Understorey plant and soil responses to disturbance and increased nitrogen in boreal forests

    O.H. Manninen
    Abstract Question: How do N fertilization and disturbance affect the understorey vegetation, microbial properties and soil nutrient concentration in boreal forests? Location: Kuusamo (66°22,N; 29°18,E) and Oulu (65°02,N; 25°47,E) in northern Finland. Methods: We conducted a fully factorial experiment with three factors: site (two levels), N fertilization (four levels) and disturbance (two levels). We measured treatment effects on understorey biomass, vegetation structure, and plant, soil and microbial N and C concentrations. Results: The understorey biomass was not affected by fertilization either in the control or in the disturbance treatment. Fertilization reduced the biomass of deciduous Vaccinium myrtillus. Disturbance had a negative effect on the biomass of V. myrtillus and evergreen Vaccinium vitis-idaea and decreased the relative proportion of evergreen species. Fertilization and disturbance increased the biomass of grass Deschampsia flexuosa and the relative proportion of graminoids. The amount of NH4+ increased in soil after fertilization, and microbial C decreased after disturbance. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the growth of slow-growing Vaccinium species and soil microbes in boreal forests are not limited by N availability. However, significant changes in the proportion of dwarf shrubs to graminoids and a decrease in the biomass of V. myrtillus demonstrate the susceptibility of understorey vegetation to N enrichment. N enrichment and disturbance seem to have similar effects on understorey vegetation. Consequently, increasing N does not affect the rate or the direction of recovery after disturbance. Moreover, our study demonstrates the importance of understorey vegetation as a C source for soil microbes in boreal forests. [source]

    Tree growth in an African woodland savanna affected by disturbance

    R.M. Holdo
    Abstract: Questions: How does tree growth in a tropical woodland savanna vary as a function of size, and how is it affected by competition from neighbours, site attributes, and damage caused by disturbance? Location: western Zimbabwe. Methods: Trees of common species were tagged, mapped, and measured annually between 2001 and 2003 in a Kalahari sand woodland savanna. Diameter increments were analysed with mixed model regressions for the largest ramet in each genet. Stem diameter and damage, soil texture, and indices of competition at multiple spatial scales were used as covariates. Results: Stem diameter increased initially and then declined as a function of size in undamaged trees, which grew faster than damaged trees. Growth in damaged trees declined with size. No site differences were detected, and there was evidence for between-tree competition on growth only in the fastest-growing species, Brachystegia spiciformis. In several species the growth rate of the largest ramet increased as a function of the basal area of secondary ramets, contrary to expectations. For many species, the growth models showed poor explanatory power. Conclusions: Growth in Kalahari sand savanna trees varies as a function of size and changes in tree architecture caused by disturbance agents such as fire, frost, and elephant browsing. Disturbance may thus play an important role on vegetation dynamics through its effects on growth in the post-disturbance phase. Growth is highly stochastic for some species in this system, and more deterministic in others. It is hypothesized that this dichotomy may be driven by differences in rooting depth among species. [source]

    Validation of plant functional types across two contrasting landscapes

    Michael Kleyer
    Disturbance; Fertility; Logistic regression; Trait; Urban landscape Abstract. The validation of plant functional type models across contrasting landscapes is seen as a step towards the claim that plant functional types should recur regionally or even globally. I sampled the vegetation of an urban landscape on a range of sites representing gradients of resource supply and disturbance intensity. A group of plants with similar attributes was considered a ,functional type', if the species significantly co-occurred in a certain segment of the gradient plane of resource supply and disturbance intensity. Vegetative and regeneration traits were considered. A similar study was performed in a nearby agricultural landscape (Kleyer 1999). The logistic regression models from the urban landscape were applied to the data set of the agricultural landscape and vice versa. Although the overall environment of the two landscapes was very different, recurrent patterns of several functional types were found. At high fertility and high disturbance levels, annual species predominated with a persistent seed bank, high seed output, and short vertical expansion. When disturbances changed from below-ground to above-ground, the sexual regeneration mode was replaced by the vegetative mode, while vertical expansion remained low. At medium disturbance intensities, the vertical expansion and vegetative regeneration increased with fertility, while the seed bank remained mostly transient to short-term persistent and lateral expansion and sexual regeneration was intermediate. At low disturbances and low resource supplies, seed bank longevity, and vertical and lateral expansion tended to be long. Diversity of groups of plants with similar attributes was highest at intermediate disturbance levels and low fertility. These results correspond with Grime's humped-back model and Connell's intermediate disturbance hypothesis. [source]

    Effects of disturbance intensity and frequency on early old-field succession

    B. Collins
    Radford et al. (1968) Abstract. Early old-field succession provides a model system for examining vegetation response to disturbance frequency and intensity within a manageable time scale. Disturbance frequency and intensity can interact with colonization and competition to influence relative abundance of earlier and later successional species and determine, respectively, how often and how far succession can be reset. We tested the joint effects of disturbance frequency and intensity on vegetation response (species richness, abundance, canopy structure) during the first six years of succession by clipping the dominant species (D) or all species (T) in spring and fall of each year (S), once per year in summer (Y1), each two years in summer (Y2), or each four years in summer (Y4). Vegetation response reflected disturbance effects on expansion of a later monospecific dominant perennial herb, Solidago altissima, and persistence of the early, richer flora of annuals. A more abundant and taller top Solidago canopy developed on plots clipped each 2 yr or less frequently. Plots clipped yearly or seasonally were richer, but had less abundant, shorter, and differently stratified canopy. Disturbance mediated the relative abundance of early and later successional species; however, frequency and intensity effects were not completely congruent. Persistence of a richer early successional flora increased through the most frequent disturbance (S), and was magnified by disturbance intensity. Disturbance as extreme as clipping all vegetation twice yearly did not cause a drop in species richness, but maintained the early successional community over the first six years of succession. We conclude that clipping disturbance influenced the rate of succession, but the early community could rebound through the range of disturbance frequency and intensity tested. [source]

    Disturbance of measurement probe for exposure assessment of a base station antenna near a ground plane

    Wout Joseph
    Abstract The disturbance caused by a measurement probe close to a ground plane is characterized. A trade-off must be made between disturbance and sensitivity. An optimal probe for electromagnetic exposure measurements above a ground plane in the neighborhood of a base station antenna is selected. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 48: 1610,1613, 2006; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/mop.21694 [source]

    Disturbance of circadian gene expression in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Yueh-Min Lin
    Abstract Circadian rhythm plays an important role in the regulation of digestive system. The human circadian rhythm is controlled by at least nine circadian genes. The aims of this study are to understand the expression of the circadian genes between hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and nontumor tissues, and to explore the possible mechanism(s) contributing to the difference. We analyzed differential expression of the 9 circadian genes in 46 hepatocellular carcinoma and paired noncancerous tissues by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemical detection. We also tested the possible regulatory mechanism(s) by direct sequencing and methylation PCR analysis. Our results showed that decreased expression levels of PER1, PER2, PER3, CRY2, and TIM in hepatocellular carcinomas were observed. Decreased-expression of these genes was not caused by genetic mutations, but by several factors, such as promoter methylation, overexpression of EZH2 or other factors. The downexpression of more circadian genes may result in disturbance of cell cycle, and it is correlated with the tumor size. Downregulation of circadian genes results in disturbance of circadian rhythm in hepatocellular carcinoma which may disrupt the control of the central pacemaker and benefit selective survival of cancerous cells and promote carcinogenesis. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Biodiversity in microbial communities: system scale patterns and mechanisms

    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 7 2009
    Abstract The relationship between anthropogenic impact and the maintenance of biodiversity is a fundamental question in ecology. The emphasis on the organizational level of biodiversity responsible for ecosystem processes is shifting from a species-centred focus to include genotypic diversity. The relationship between biodiversity measures at these two scales remains largely unknown. By stratifying anthropogenic effects between scales of biodiversity of bacterial communities, we show a statistically significant difference in diversity based on taxonomic scale. Communities with intermediate species richness show high genotypic diversity while speciose and species-poor communities do not. We propose that in species-poor communities, generally comprising stable yet harsh conditions, physiological tolerance and competitive trade-offs limit both the number of species that occur and the loss of genotypes due to decreases in already constrained fitness. In species-rich communities, natural environmental conditions result in well-defined community structure and resource partitioning. Disturbance of these communities disrupts niche space, resulting in lower genotypic diversity despite the maintenance of species diversity. Our work provides a model to inform future research about relationships between species and genotypic biodiversity based on determining the biodiversity consequences of changing environmental context. [source]

    Disturbance influences the outcome of plant,soil biota interactions in the invasive Acacia longifolia and in native species

    OIKOS, Issue 7 2010
    Luís M. Carvalho
    Interrelated causes of plant invasion have been gaining increasing recognition. However, research on this subject has mainly focused around conceptual models. Here we explore whether plant,soil biota feedbacks and disturbance, two major factors capable of facilitating invasive plants in introduced ranges, interact to preferentially benefit exotics compared to native plants. We investigated the influence of fire disturbance on plant,soil biota interactions for the invasive Acacia longifolia and two dominant natives (Cytisus striatus and Pinus pinaster) in Portuguese dune systems. In the first experiment, we grew exotic and native plants in soil inoculated with soil biota from unburned or recently burned soils collected in an area with small invasion intensity by A. longifolia. Soil biota effects on the exotic legume A. longifolia changed from neutral to positive after fire, whereas the opposite outcome was observed in the native legume C. striatus, and a change from negative to neutral effects after fire occurred in the native P. pinaster. Fire reduced mycorrhizal colonization in all species and rhizobial colonization in C. striatus but not in A. longifolia. In the second experiment, we grew the exotic and native plants with conspecific and heterospecific soil biota from undisturbed soils (area with low invasion intensity by A. longifolia), and from post-fire soils (area affected by a fire ,12 years ago and currently heavily invaded by A. longifolia). The exotic benefited more from post-fire than from undisturbed soil biota, particularly from those associated with natives. Natives did not experience detrimental effects with invasive-associated soil biota. Our results show that fire disturbance affected the functional interactions between soil biota and plants that may benefit more the exotic than some native species. Disturbance may open a window of opportunity that promotes invader success by altering soil enemy and mutualistic impacts. [source]

    Disturbance and reef topography maintain high local diversity in Ecklonia radiata kelp forests

    OIKOS, Issue 10 2007
    Benjamin D. Toohey
    Disturbance of competitive-dominant plant and algae canopies often lead to increased diversity of the assemblage. Kelp forests, particularly those of temperate Western Australia, are habitats with high alpha diversity. This study investigated the roles of broad-scale canopy loss and local scale reef topography on structuring the kelp-dominated macroalgal forests in Western Australia. Eighteen 314,m2 circular areas were cleared of their Ecklonia radiata canopy and eighteen controls were established across three locations. The patterns of macroalgal recolonisation in replicate clearances were observed over a 34,month period. Macroalgal species richness initially increased after canopy removal with a turf of filamentous and foliose macroalgae dominating cleared areas for up to seven months. A dense Sargassum canopy dominated cleared areas from 11 to 22,months. By 34,months, partial recovery of the kelp canopy into cleared areas had occurred. Some cleared areas did not follow this trajectory but remained dominated by turfing, foliose and filamentous algae. As kelp canopies developed, the initial high species diversity declined but still remained elevated relative to undisturbed controls, even after 34 months. More complex reef topography was associated with greater variability in the algal assemblage between replicate quadrats suggesting colonising algae had a greater choice of microhabitats available to them on topographically complex reefs. Shading by canopies of either Sargassum spp. and E. radiata are proposed to highly influence the abundance of algae through competitive exclusion that is relaxed by disturbance of the canopy. Disturbance of the canopy in E. radiata kelp forests created a mosaic of different patch types (turf, Sargassum -dominated, kelp-dominated). These patch types were both transient and stable over the 34 months of this study, and are a potential contemporary process that maintains high species diversity in temperate kelp-dominated reefs. [source]