Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Dispersal

  • adult dispersal
  • breeding dispersal
  • conidial dispersal
  • delayed dispersal
  • density-dependent dispersal
  • distance dispersal
  • effective dispersal
  • female dispersal
  • gene dispersal
  • individual dispersal
  • juvenile dispersal
  • larval dispersal
  • limited dispersal
  • local dispersal
  • long distance dispersal
  • long-distance dispersal
  • long-distance seed dispersal
  • long-range dispersal
  • male dispersal
  • male-biased dispersal
  • natal dispersal
  • passive dispersal
  • plant dispersal
  • pollen dispersal
  • primary seed dispersal
  • propagule dispersal
  • recent dispersal
  • reduced dispersal
  • restricted dispersal
  • secondary dispersal
  • seed dispersal
  • sex-biased dispersal
  • short-distance dispersal
  • species dispersal
  • spore dispersal
  • wind dispersal

  • Terms modified by Dispersal

  • dispersal ability
  • dispersal agent
  • dispersal area
  • dispersal barrier
  • dispersal behavior
  • dispersal behaviour
  • dispersal capability
  • dispersal capacity
  • dispersal characteristic
  • dispersal corridor
  • dispersal direction
  • dispersal distance
  • dispersal ecology
  • dispersal event
  • dispersal filter
  • dispersal function
  • dispersal history
  • dispersal hypothesis
  • dispersal kernel
  • dispersal limitation
  • dispersal mechanism
  • dispersal mode
  • dispersal model
  • dispersal models
  • dispersal movement
  • dispersal pattern
  • dispersal potential
  • dispersal probability
  • dispersal process
  • dispersal range
  • dispersal rate
  • dispersal route
  • dispersal strategy
  • dispersal syndrome
  • dispersal unit
  • dispersal vector

  • Selected Abstracts


    EVOLUTION, Issue 4 2009
    Rolf Kümmerli
    Numerous theoretical studies have investigated how limited dispersal may provide an explanation for the evolution of cooperation, by leading to interactions between relatives. However, despite considerable theoretical attention, there has been a lack of empirical tests. In this article, we test how patterns of dispersal influence the evolution of cooperation, using iron-scavenging in the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa as our cooperative trait. We found that relatively limited dispersal does not favor cooperation. The reason for this is that although limited dispersal increases the relatedness between interacting individuals, it also leads to increased local competition for resources between relatives. This result supports Taylor's prediction that in the simplest possible scenario, the effects of increased relatedness and local competition exactly cancel out. In contrast, we show that one way for cooperation to be favored is if individuals disperse in groups (budding dispersal), because this maintains high relatedness while reducing local competition between relatives (relatively global competition). [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 10 2007
    Vincent A.A. Jansen
    We study the evolution of the dispersal rate in a metapopulation model with extinction and colonization dynamics, akin to the model as originally described by Levins. To do so we extend the metapopulation model with a description of the within patch dynamics. By means of a separation of time scales we analytically derive a fitness expression from first principles for this model. The fitness function can be written as an inclusive fitness equation (Hamilton's rule). By recasting this equation in a form that emphasizes the effects of competition we show the effect of the local competition and the local population size on the evolution of dispersal. We find that the evolution of dispersal cannot be easily interpreted in terms of avoidance of kin competition, but rather that increased dispersal reduces the competitive ability. Our model also yields a testable prediction in term of relatedness and life-history parameters. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 8 2007
    S. Bergek
    Gene flow between coexisting or nearby populations normally prevents genetic divergence and local adaptation. Despite this, there are an increasing number of reports of sympatric sister taxa, indicating potential divergence and speciation in the face of gene flow. A large number of such reported cases involve lake-dwelling fish, which are expected to run into few physical barriers to dispersal within their aquatic habitat. However, such cases may not necessarily reflect sympatric speciation if cryptic dispersal barriers are common in lakes and other aquatic systems. In this study, we examined genetic differentiation in perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) from nine locations in a single, small lake (24 km2), using microsatellites. We detected significant genetic differentiation in all but two pairwise comparisons. These patterns were not consistent with divergence by distance or the existence of kin groups. Instead, they suggest that cryptic barriers to dispersal exist within the lake, allowing small-scale genetic divergence. Such an observation suggests that allopatric (or parapatric) divergence may be possible, even in small, apparently homogenous environments such as lakes. This has important consequences for how we currently view evidence from nature for sympatric speciation. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 3 2005
    M. C. Double
    Abstract Dispersal influences evolution, demography, and social characteristics but is generally difficult to study. Here we combine long-term demographic data from an intensively studied population of superb fairy-wrens(Malurus cyaneus) and multivariate spatial autocorrelation analyses of microsatellite genotypes to describe dispersal behavior in this species. The demographic data revealed: (1) sex-biased dispersal: almost all individuals that dispersed into the study area over an eight-year period were female (93%; n 5 153); (2) high rates of extragroup infidelity (66% of offspring), which also facilitated local gene dispersal; and (3) skewed lifetime reproductive success in both males and females. These data led to three expectations concerning the patterns of fine-scale genetic structure: (1) little or no spatial genetic autocorrelation among females, (2) positive spatial genetic autocorrelation among males, and (3) a heterogeneous genetic landscape. Global autocorrelation analysis of the genotypes present in the study population confirmed the first two expectations. A novel two-dimensional local autocorrelation analysis confirmed the third and provided new insight into the patterns of genetic structure across the two-dimensional landscape. We highlight the potential of autocorrelation analysis to infer evolutionary processes but also emphasize that genetic patterns in space cannot be fully understood without an appropriate and intensive sampling regime and detailed knowledge of the individuals genotyped. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 7 2003
    Giacomo Bernardi
    Abstract., Population disjunctions, as a first step toward complete allopatry, present an interesting situation to study incipient speciation. The geological formation of the Baja California Peninsula currently divides 19 species of fish into disjunct populations that are found on its Pacific Coast and in the northern part of the Gulf of California (also called the Sea of Cortez), but are absent from the Cape (Cabo San Lucas) region. We studied the genetic makeup of disjunct populations for 12 of these 19 fish species. Phylogeographic patterns for the 12 species can be separated into two major classes: a first group (eight species) showed reciprocal monophyly and high genetic divergence between disjunct populations. A second group (four species) displayed what appeared to be panmictic populations. Population structure between Pacific Coast populations, across the Punta Eugenia biogeographic boundary, was also evaluated. While dispersal potential (inferred by pelagic larval duration) was a poor predictor of population structure between Gulf of California and Pacific populations, we found that population genetic subdivision along the Pacific Coast at Punta Eugenia was always positively correlated with differentiation between Pacific and Gulf of California populations. Vicariant events, ongoing gene flow, and ecological characteristics played essential roles in shaping the population structures observed in this study. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 4 2002
    Madalena Branco
    Abstract Nested clade analysis was applied to cytochrome b restriction site data previously obtained on 20 natural populations of the European rabbit across the Iberian Peninsula to test the hypothesis of postglacial dispersal from two main refugia, one in the northeast and the other in the southwest. Apart from historical fragmentation that resulted in geographic discontinuity of two distinct mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) clades A and B, patterns of haplotype genetic variability have been shaped mostly by restricted gene flow via isolation by distance. The distribution of tip versus interior haplotypes suggests that dispersal occurred from both the southwestern and northeastern groups. Dispersal from the southwest had a north and northwest direction, whereas from the northeast it had mostly a western and southern orientation, with subsequent overlap in a southeastern-northwestern axis across the Iberian Peninsula. The analysis of the pairwise mismatch distribution of a 179,181-bp fragment of the mtDNA control region, for seven of those populations, further supports the idea that major patterns of dispersal were in the direction of central Iberia. Additionally, rabbit populations do not show signs of any significant loss of genetic diversity in the recent past, implying that they maintained large population sizes and structure throughout the ice ages. This is congruent with the fact that the Iberian Peninsula was itself a glacial refugium during Quaternary ice ages. Nonetheless, climatic oscillations of this period, although certainly milder than in northern Europe, were sufficient to affect the range distributions of Iberian organisms. [source]

    Effects of Habitat Fragmentation on Effective Dispersal of Florida Scrub-Jays

    Aphelocoma c,rulescens; dispersión; flujo génico; fragmentación Abstract:,Studies comparing dispersal in fragmented versus unfragmented landscapes show that habitat fragmentation alters the dispersal behavior of many species. We used two complementary approaches to explore Florida Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma c,rulescens) dispersal in relation to landscape fragmentation. First, we compared dispersal distances of color-marked individuals in intensively monitored continuous and fragmented landscapes. Second, we estimated effective dispersal relative to the degree of fragmentation (as inferred from two landscape indexes: proportion of study site covered with Florida Scrub-Jay habitat and mean distance to nearest habitat patch within each study site) by comparing genetic isolation-by-distance regressions among 13 study sites having a range of landscape structures. Among color-banded individuals, dispersal distances were greater in fragmented versus continuous landscapes, a result consistent with other studies. Nevertheless, genetic analyses revealed that effective dispersal decreases as the proportion of habitat in the landscape decreases. These results suggest that although individual Florida Scrub-Jays may disperse farther as fragmentation increases, those that do so are less successful as breeders than those that disperse short distances. Our study highlights the importance of combining observational data with genetic inferences when evaluating the complex biological and life-history implications of dispersal. Resumen:,Estudios que comparan la dispersión en paisajes fragmentados versus no fragmentados muestran que la fragmentación del hábitat altera la conducta de dispersión de muchas especies. Utilizamos dos métodos complementarios para explorar la dispersión de Aphelocoma c,rulescens en relación con la fragmentación del paisaje. Primero, comparamos las distancias de dispersión de individuos marcados con color en paisajes continuos y fragmentados monitoreados intensivamente. Segundo, estimamos la dispersión efectiva en relación con el grado de fragmentación (inferida a partir de dos índices del paisaje: proporción del sitio de estudio cubierta con hábitat para A. c,rulescens y la distancia promedio al parche más cercano en cada sitio de estudio) mediante la comparación de regresiones de aislamiento genético por distancia entre 13 sitios de estudio con una gama de estructuras de paisaje. Entre los individuos marcados con color, las distancias de dispersión fueron mayores en los paisajes fragmentados versus los continuos, un resultado consistente con otros estudios. Sin embargo, los análisis genéticos revelaron que la dispersión efectiva decrece a medida que decrece la proporción de hábitat en el paisaje. Estos resultados sugieren que aunque individuos de A. c,rulescens pueden dispersarse más lejos a medida que incrementa la fragmentación, aquellos que lo hacen son reproductores menos exitosos que los que se dispersan a corta distancia. Nuestro estudio resalta la importancia de combinar datos observacionales con inferencias genéticas cuando se evalúan las complejas implicaciones de la dispersión sobre la biología y la historia natural. [source]

    Role of Corridors in Plant Dispersal: an Example with the Endangered Ranunculus nodif lorus

    Florian Kirchner
    But the few experimental studies supporting the usefulness of corridors have all concerned animal species. We investigated the role of corridors in seed dispersal, studying population genetic and demographic structure in metapopulations of the rare, pond-dwelling, autogamous plant species Ranunculus nodiflorus L. in the Fontainebleau Forest ( France ). Differentiation on three polymorphic isozyme markers was strong among local populations ( ponds ) within metapopulations ( sites ) and moderate among metapopulations. Partial Mantel tests revealed that the connection of ponds through temporarily flooded natural corridors, facilitating seed migration, had a strong negative effect on genetic differentiation between local populations and that a pond was more likely to be colonized when connected by corridors to other occupied ponds. Thus, corridors are probably a key element of landscape structure for metapopulation dynamics in R. nodiflorus. From a conservation perspective, our results suggest that corridors could increase the chance of persistence of plant species living in fragmented habitats by promoting seed dispersal between habitat patches. Resumen: La propuesta de que la migración de organismos entre parches de hábitat puede ser incrementada por corredores ha sido muy discutida en biología de la conservación. Pero los pocos estudios experimentales que apoyan la utilidad de los corredores han sido enfocados hacia especies de animales. Investigamos el papel de los corredores en la dispersión de semillas, estudiando la genética poblacional y la estructura demográfica en metapoblaciones de la especie de planta rara, autógama, habitante de estanques Ranunculus nodiflorus L. en el bosque Fontainebleau ( Francia ). La diferenciación de tres isozimas polimórficas marcadoras fue fuerte entre las poblaciones locales ( estanques ) dentro de metapoblaciones ( sitios ) y fue moderada entre metapoblaciones. Las pruebas parciales de Mantel revelaron que la conexión de estanques a través de corredores naturales inundados facilitando la migración de semillas, tuvo un efecto negativo fuerte en la diferenciación genética entre poblaciones locales y que un estanque fue más probable de ser colonizado cuando se conectaba por corredores con otros estanques ocupados. Por lo tanto, los corredores probablemente son un factor clave de la estructura del paisaje para dinámicas metapoblacionales en R. nodiflorus. Desde una perspectiva de conservación, nuestros resultados sugieren que los corredores podrían incrementar la probabilidad de persistencia de especies de plantas que viven en hábitats fragmentados al promover la dispersión de semillas entre parches de hábitats. [source]

    Sex, isolation and fidelity: unbiased long-distance dispersal in a terrestrial amphibian

    ECOGRAPHY, Issue 5 2006
    M. Alex Smith
    Amphibians in general are considered poor dispersers and thus their dispersal curve should be dominated by short movements. Additionally, as male toads do not compete for females and sexual selection is by female choice, dispersal should be male-biased. Furthermore, since adults are site-loyal and polygynous, juveniles should move farther and faster than adults. We tested the hypotheses that dispersal would be limited and both sex- and age-biased in a population of Fowler's toads Bufo fowleri at Lake Erie, Ontario, Canada. Based on a mark-recapture study of 2816 toads, 1326 recaptured at least once, we found that although the toads did show high site fidelity, the dispersal curve was highly skewed with a significant "tail" where the maximum distance moved by an adult was 34 km. Dispersal was neither sex-biased nor age-biased despite clear theoretical predictions that dispersal should be biased towards males and juveniles. We conclude that the resource competition hypothesis of sex-biased dispersal does not predict dispersal tendencies as readily for amphibians as for mammals and birds. Toad dispersal only appears to be juvenile-biased because the juveniles are more abundant than the adults, not because they are the more active dispersers. [source]

    The relationships between habitat topology, critical scales of connectivity and tick abundance Ixodes ricinus in a heterogeneous landscape in northern Spain

    ECOGRAPHY, Issue 5 2003
    Agustin Estrada-Peña
    The habitat mosaic was used to quantify connectivity between patches of different tick density of the notorious tick species Ixodes ricinus in an attempt to determine the cause of variations in tick abundance among apparently homogeneous sites in northern Spain. The analysis revealed that patches with high tick abundance are "stepping-stone" territories that, when removed from the landscape, cause large changes in connectivity. Sites with medium tick abundance do not cause such a critical transition in connectivity. Patches with low tick abundance, but optimal abiotic conditions for survival, are located within the minimum cost corridors network joining the patches, while those sites where the tick has been intermittently collected are located at variable distances from this network. Sites where the tick is consistently absent, but where the habitat is predicted to be suitable (old, heterogeneous forests of Quercus spp.) for the tick, are very separated from this main network of connections. These results suggest that tick distribution in a zone is highly affected not only by abiotic variables (vegetation and weather) but also by host movements. Dispersal of the tick is a function of how the hosts perceive the habitat, and the habitat's permeability to host movement. Permanent tick populations seem to be supported by the existence of these critical, high density patches, located at significant places within the habitat network. [source]

    Dispersal characteristics of three odonate species in a patchy habitat

    ECOGRAPHY, Issue 1 2003
    S. Angelibert
    Dispersal has a potentially profound effect on the dynamics of populations especially when a population occupies a patchy habitat. Ponds surrounded by terrestrial landscape are an example of patchy distribution of physical conditions and constitute "islands" for odonates. Few studies have focussed on dispersal in odonates. We have used the direct method of dispersal observing (capture-mark-recapture technique) in order to estimate the degree of linkage in three patchy populations of odonate localised on three ponds. We also examined the differences in dispersal ability within and among three species (Coenagrion puella, Coenagrion scitulum and Libellula depressa). The ponds were situated in southwest France on a limestone plateau. In this arid area, these ponds constitute the only surface water available and are relatively sparsely distributed. The size of the ponds ranged from 48 to 79 m2 and they were 200 and 775 m apart. We demonstrated that three factors influence the dispersal ability of these odonates. The first is represented by the abiotic factors and especially weather conditions. This determines the number of days that dispersal is possible. The second is interspecific differences. We showed that sensitivity to weather conditions, species size and species behaviour influence dispersal ability. The third factor is the intraspecific characteristics. We demonstrated that there are differences in dispersal ability according to sex and age. To conclude, we discuss the importance of pond management to maintain the existing odonate populations and to facilitate introduction of new populations in this region where little exchange occurs between ponds. [source]

    Dispersal and life span spectra in plant communities: a key to safe site dynamics, species coexistence and conservation

    ECOGRAPHY, Issue 2 2002
    Roel J. Strykstra
    Dispersal and life span of individual plant species within five plant communities were assessed to obtain a characterization of these communities in this respect. Such a characterization is important in the context of restoration and maintenance. The most frequent species of five communities were ranked in eight classes according to their level of seed dispersal capability, their seed bank formation (dispersal in time and space) and their individual life span. In the communities, all eight classes were found, but communities differed in the distribution of the species over the classes. A theoretical framework was constructed to use the level of specialization of plant species in terms of dispersal in space and time, and life span, to define the characteristics of safe site dynamics within communities. Following simple rules, the relative reliability of the occurrence of safe sites in space and time was defined. After that, the relative reliability of the habitat was linked to the best fitting combination of trait specialization level. Having defined this link, communities could be characterized in a comparative way by their level and pattern of reliability of the opportunities for recruitment in space and time. The meaning of the coexistence of a range of trait combinations in one community was discussed. It was postulated that habitat reliability can explain this by assuming that the habitat of the community is part of a larger system, or consists of several "subsystems". These insights need to be considered in nature conservation. Succession and also specializations beyond the scope of dispersal and life span may influence the occurrence of species in a seemingly unfit habitat (for instance the occurrence of semi parasitic annuals in a community of perennials, because they use the perennial root system of other species). Finally, the meaning of safe site reliability in space and time in the context of restoration of communities was discussed. The reliability in space and time may be different today from that of the past, which restricts the feasibility of restoration of communities. [source]

    Macroecology of a host-parasite relationship

    ECOGRAPHY, Issue 1 2000
    Caryn C. Vaughn
    The larvae of freshwater mussels are obligate ectoparasites on fishes while adults are sedentary and benthic. Dispersal of mussels is dependent on the movement of fish hosts, a regional process, but growth and reproduction should be governed by local processes. Thus, mussel assemblage attributes should be predictable from the regional distribution and abundance of fishes. At a broad spatial scale in the Red River drainage, USA, mussel species richness and fish species richness were positively associated; maximum mussel richness was limited by fish richness, but was variable beneath that constraint. Measured environmental variables and the associated local fish assemblages each significantly accounted for the regional variation in mussel assemblages. Furthermore, mussel assemblages showed strong spatial autocorrelation. Variation partitioning revealed that pure fish effects accounted for 15.4% of the variation in mussel assemblages; pure spatial and environmental effects accounted for 16.1% and 7.8%, respectively. Shared variation among fish, space and environmental variables totaled 40%. Of this shared variation, 36.8% was associated with the fish matrix. Thus, the variation in mussel assemblages that was associated with the distribution and abundance of fishes was substantial (> 50%), indicating that fish community structure is an important determinant of mussel community structure. Although animals commonly disperse plants and, thus, influence the structure of plant communities, our results show a strong macroecological association between two disparate animal groups with one strongly affecting the assemblage structure of the other. [source]

    Dispersal and egg shortfall in Monarch butterflies: what happens when the matrix is cleaned up?

    1. We use an individual-based model describing the life of a monarch butterfly, which utilises milkweeds both aggregated in patches and scattered across the wider landscape as a substrate for laying eggs. The model simplifies the metapopulation of milkweed habitat patches by representing them as a proportion of the overall landscape, with the rest of the landscape considered matrix, which may contain some low density of milkweed plants. 2. The model simulates the number of eggs laid daily by a butterfly as it searches for hosts. The likelihood of finding hosts is related to the density of plants and the search ability of the butterfly. For an empty matrix, remaining in a habitat patch results in more eggs laid. However individuals that are good searchers have almost equivalent success without remaining in a habitat patch. These individuals are most affected by the presence of hosts in the matrix. 3. Given realistic values of habitat patch availability, our model shows that the presence of plants at a low density in the matrix has a substantial impact on the number of eggs laid; removing these plants can reduce lifetime potential fecundity by ca. 20%. These results have implications for monarch butterflies inhabiting agricultural landscapes, in which genetically modified soybean that is resistant to herbicides has resulted in the decimation of milkweeds over large areas. [source]

    Modelling and analysing evolution of dispersal in populations at expanding range boundaries

    Abstract 1.,Species would be expected to shift northwards in response to current climate warming, but many are failing to do so because of fragmentation of breeding habitats. Dispersal is important for colonisation and an individual-based spatially explicit model was developed to investigate impacts of habitat availability on the evolution of dispersal in expanding populations. Model output was compared with field data from the speckled wood butterfly Pararge aegeria, which currently is expanding its range in Britain. 2.,During range expansion, models simulated positive linear relationships between dispersal and distance from the seed location. This pattern was observed regardless of quantity (100% to 10% habitat availability) or distribution (random vs. gradient distribution) of habitat, although higher dispersal evolved at expanding range margins in landscapes with greater quantity of habitat and in gradient landscapes. Increased dispersal was no longer evident in any landscape once populations had reached equilibrium; dispersal values returned to those of seed populations. However, in landscapes with the least quantity of habitat, reduced dispersal (below that of seed populations) was observed at equilibrium. 3.,Evolutionary changes in adult flight morphology were examined in six populations of P. aegeria along a transect from the distribution core to an expanding range margin in England (spanning a latitudinal distance of >200 km). Empirical data were in agreement with model output and showed increased dispersal ability (larger and broader thoraxes, smaller abdomens, higher wing aspect ratios) with increasing distance from the distribution core. Increased dispersal ability was evident in populations from areas colonised >30 years previously, although dispersal changes were generally evident only in females. 4.,Evolutionary increases in dispersal ability in expanding populations may help species track future climate changes and counteract impacts of habitat fragmentation by promoting colonisation. However, at the highest levels of habitat loss, increased dispersal was less evident during expansion and reduced dispersal was observed at equilibrium indicating that, for many species, continued habitat fragmentation is likely to outweigh any benefits from dispersal. [source]

    Computer-generated null models as an approach to detect perceptual range in mark,re-sight studies , an example with grasshoppers

    Silke Hein
    Abstract., 1. Dispersal and habitat detection are key factors for the colonisation of habitat fragments in heterogeneous landscapes. The ability to recognise a habitat from a certain distance should increase the survival chances of a dispersing individual; however, due to methodological problems there is little information on the perceptual range of most species. 2. In a field experiment, 44 individually marked grasshoppers of the species Oedipoda caerulescens (Orthoptera: Acrididae: Locustinae) were released into an unfamiliar, hostile environment at various distances from a patch of preferred habitat. 3. Whether individuals reached the habitat or not was measured, as well as the daily movement distances. The number of individuals that reached the habitat was tested against computer-generated predictions based on different underlying rules for the movement behaviour of individuals but not accounting for the ability to detect habitat from distance. 4. On the first day a significantly higher proportion of grasshoppers arrived in the habitat than predicted by any of the null models. 5. It was concluded that individuals of O. caerulescens are able to detect their preferred habitat from a distance. 6. Edge permeability was very low as none of the individuals left the habitat once they had reached it. 7. Additional analyses showed that individuals changed movement behaviour from a directed walk with great daily distances in unsuitable habitat to a walk with significantly shorter daily distances within the preferred habitat. 8. The problems that arose in the field experiment are discussed and recommendations are given for further studies. [source]

    Dispersal ability and host-plant characteristics influence spatial population structure of monophagous beetles

    Matthew J. St Pierre
    Abstract., 1. Dispersal plays an integral role in determining spatial population structure and, consequently, the long-term survival of many species. Theoretical studies indicate that dispersal increases with population density and decreasing habitat stability. In the case of monophagous insect herbivores, the stability of host-plant populations may influence their spatial population structure. 2. The tallgrass prairie in Iowa, U.S.A. is highly fragmented and most prairie insects face a landscape with fewer habitat patches and smaller host-plant populations than 150 years ago, potentially making dispersal between patches difficult. Some herbivores, however, use native plant species with weedy characteristics that have increased in abundance because of disturbances. 3. Mark,recapture data and presence,absence surveys were used to examine dispersal and spatial population structure of two monophagous beetles with host plants that exhibit different population stability and have responded differently to fragmentation of tallgrass prairie. 4. Chrysochus auratus Fabricius exhibits a patchy population structure and has relatively large dispersal distances and frequencies. Its host plant is variable locally in time and space, but is more abundant than 150 years ago. The other species, Anomoea laticlavia Forster, exhibits a metapopulation or non-equilibrium population structure and has relatively small dispersal distances and frequencies. Its host-plant populations are stable in time and space. 5. The results indicate that dispersal ability of monophagous beetles reflects the life-history dynamics of their host plants, but the spatial population structure exhibited today is strongly influenced by how the host plants have responded to the fragmentation process over both time and space. [source]

    Dispersal between host populations in field conditions: navigation rules in the parasitoid Venturia canescens

    E. Desouhant
    Abstract. 1. Dispersal is a life-history trait that can have great ecological and evolutionary consequences, however understanding of how insects disperse is limited. 2. Navigation rules of the solitary koinobiont parasitoid of the pyralid moth larvae Venturia canescens (Gravenhorst) were studied in conditions that it is likely to meet when dispersing between host populations and in the absence of cues related directly to the presence of hosts. 3. Mark,release,recapture experiments were conducted in a natural host-free habitat, and letting the animals disperse for different periods. 4. In the presence of vegetation, wasps seemed to disperse rapidly (1 h for an area of ,,1 ha) and capture rates were independent of both dispersal time and distance from the release point. 5. The navigation rules of V. canescens during dispersal between tree stands can be summarised as: move up- or down-wind, avoid or pass through open, sunny areas, and go for shady and dense vegetation. 6. The consequences of the navigation rules for host,parasitoid dynamics are discussed in relation to different spatial scales. [source]

    Dispersal frequency affects local biomass production by controlling local diversity

    ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 6 2006
    Birte Matthiessen
    Abstract Dispersal is a major factor regulating the number of coexisting species, but the relationship between species diversity and ecosystem processes has mainly been analysed for communities closed to dispersal. We experimentally investigated how initial local diversity and dispersal frequency affect local diversity and biomass production in open benthic microalgal metacommunities. Final local species richness and local biomass production were strongly influenced by dispersal frequency but not by initial local diversity. Both final local richness and final local biomass showed a hump-shaped pattern with increasing dispersal frequency, with a maximum at intermediate dispersal frequencies. Consequently, final local biomass increased linearly with increasing final richness. We conclude that the general relationship between richness and ecosystem functioning remains valid in open systems, but the maintenance of ecosystem processes significantly depends on the effects of dispersal on species richness and local interactions. [source]

    Dispersal, spatial scale, and species diversity in a hierarchically structured experimental landscape

    ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 5 2005
    Marc W. Cadotte
    Abstract Although there has been growing interest in the effect of dispersal on species diversity, much remains unknown about how dispersal occurring at multiple scales influences diversity. We used an experimental microbial landscape to determine whether dispersal occurring at two different scales , among local communities and among metacommunities , affects diversity differently. At the local scale, dispersal initially had a positive effect and subsequently a neutral effect on diversity, whereas at the metacommunity and landscape scales, dispersal showed a consistently negative effect. The timing in which dispersal affected beta diversity also differed sharply between local communities and metacommunities. These patterns were explained by scale- and time-dependent effects of dispersal in allowing spread of species and in removing spatial refuges from predators. Our results suggest that the relative contribution of opposing mechanisms by which dispersal affects diversity changes considerably over time and space in hierarchical landscapes in which dispersal occurs at multiple scales. [source]

    Trade Liberalization and the Geography of Production: Agglomeration, Concentration, and Dispersal in Indonesia's Manufacturing Industry

    ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY, Issue 3 2004
    Örjan Sjöberg
    Abstract: The effect of the liberalization of trade on the spatial concentration of economic activities is not straightforward. It has been widely argued that protectionism increases spatial concentration as firms locate close to the main domestic markets. However, it has also been argued that an expansion of international trade primarily favors existing industrial centers and therefore leads to increased regional inequalities. Against the background of ongoing debates in both mainstream economics and in geography, we examine the spatial concentration of manufacturing in Indonesia between 1980 and 1996, a period when Indonesia substantially liberalized its trade regime. The high concentration did not decrease during this period, and establishments that engaged in international trade were actually comparably concentrated. We discuss some possible explanations for the spatial concentration in Indonesia and conclude that a host of factors may affect the outcome of trade liberalizations. In particular, the spatial configuration of the national settlement system is a potentially important factor in this regard. [source]

    Dispersal and influences on movement for Anoplophora glabripennis calculated from individual mark-recapture

    J.S. Bancroft
    Abstract We conducted an individual mark-release-recapture experiment on the beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis Motchulsky (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). This invasive beetle has been introduced from Asia to Europe and North America and poses a serious threat to several important species of tree. Eradication efforts may benefit from knowledge of dispersal behaviour. Trees were cut and held to determine emergence rate of A. glabripennis. Unique marks were painted onto 912 beetles released into a group of 165 trees in Gansu, China. Data on subsequent sightings of beetles were used in a truncated diffusion model to calculate flight distances. Characteristics of the trees and climatic information were used in statistical tests for influence on movement. A total of 2245 sightings of beetles were observed and 29% of marked beetles were resighted. The scanning technique using binoculars was 90% effective in finding beetles and provided 81% accuracy for determining the sex of the beetles. Experimental manipulation of density quantified how A. glabripennis congregated on unoccupied trees and were repulsed from crowded hosts. The seasonal emergence rate of adults declined exponentially from July 20 to August 5. The results suggested A. glabripennis fly to nearby host trees at a rate of 34% per day. Median flight distance was estimated at 20 m per day. Statistical analysis with a generalized linear model tested the beetle's propensity to leave a tree and distance of flight. Generally, beetle movement showed a significant response to beetle density, weather conditions, beetle size, and tree size, in that order. The techniques developed here improve on previous recapture techniques to quantify dispersal and can be useful for analysing populations of other organisms. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 4 2002
    Madalena Branco
    Abstract Nested clade analysis was applied to cytochrome b restriction site data previously obtained on 20 natural populations of the European rabbit across the Iberian Peninsula to test the hypothesis of postglacial dispersal from two main refugia, one in the northeast and the other in the southwest. Apart from historical fragmentation that resulted in geographic discontinuity of two distinct mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) clades A and B, patterns of haplotype genetic variability have been shaped mostly by restricted gene flow via isolation by distance. The distribution of tip versus interior haplotypes suggests that dispersal occurred from both the southwestern and northeastern groups. Dispersal from the southwest had a north and northwest direction, whereas from the northeast it had mostly a western and southern orientation, with subsequent overlap in a southeastern-northwestern axis across the Iberian Peninsula. The analysis of the pairwise mismatch distribution of a 179,181-bp fragment of the mtDNA control region, for seven of those populations, further supports the idea that major patterns of dispersal were in the direction of central Iberia. Additionally, rabbit populations do not show signs of any significant loss of genetic diversity in the recent past, implying that they maintained large population sizes and structure throughout the ice ages. This is congruent with the fact that the Iberian Peninsula was itself a glacial refugium during Quaternary ice ages. Nonetheless, climatic oscillations of this period, although certainly milder than in northern Europe, were sufficient to affect the range distributions of Iberian organisms. [source]

    Fungal cannons: explosive spore discharge in the Ascomycota

    Frances Trail
    Abstract The ascomycetous fungi produce prodigious amounts of spores through both asexual and sexual reproduction. Their sexual spores (ascospores) develop within tubular sacs called asci that act as small water cannons and expel the spores into the air. Dispersal of spores by forcible discharge is important for dissemination of many fungal plant diseases and for the dispersal of many saprophytic fungi. The mechanism has long been thought to be driven by turgor pressure within the extending ascus; however, relatively little genetic and physiological work has been carried out on the mechanism. Recent studies have measured the pressures within the ascus and quantified the components of the ascus epiplasmic fluid that contribute to the osmotic potential. Few species have been examined in detail, but the results indicate diversity in ascus function that reflects ascus size, fruiting body type, and the niche of the particular species. [source]

    Variability in performance in wild Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., fry from a single redd

    C. García De Leániz
    Dispersal and growth were studied in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., fry from a natural isolated redd. The distribution of fry leaving the redd was strongly peaked, 80% being caught within a 2-week period. Early in the dispersal period, all fry leaving the redd had remnants of yolk sac and had not fed; by half way through the dispersal period, no fry had any visible yolk, but 35% still had empty stomachs. Fry leaving the redd during the first half of the dispersal period tended to settle in different first feeding sites than those dispersing later. Predation on fry by larger salmonids was frequent, especially during dispersal. Coefficients of variation for length, weight and condition factor increased significantly over the study period and for individually recognised fry, growth rates varied markedly. Thus, individual salmon fry differ in physical status on emergence from the redd and these differences are amplified during the first few weeks after emergence. [source]

    Dothistroma (red-band) needle blight of pines and the dothistromin toxin: a review

    FOREST PATHOLOGY, Issue 3 2004
    R. E. Bradshaw
    Summary Dothistroma (red-band) needle blight has been a problem in plantations of exotic pines in the southern hemisphere for many decades. The prevalence of this disease is currently increasing in the northern hemisphere and is now affecting trees in their native ranges. The fungal pathogen Mycosphaerella pini with its anamorph Dothistroma pini, which is responsible for the disease, produces a toxin, dothistromin, that is closely related to the potent carcinogen, aflatoxin. Understandably this has provoked concern about possible effects on the health of forestry workers. This review gives a broad coverage of literature on both disease and toxin. The fungus has a complicated taxonomy with many synonyms and in most countries only the anamorph is found. It is a necrotrophic pathogen that kills needle tissue and completes its life cycle in the lesion thus formed. Dispersal of the disease is normally by rain splash of conidiospores but there is evidence that long range dispersal has occurred by transport of contaminated plant tissue and by wind/cloud dispersal of spores in air currents. The severity of disease is affected by humidity, temperature and light. There is variation in susceptibility of different Pinus species and some achieve increased resistance with age. The current method of control in southern hemisphere plantation forests is through spraying with copper fungicides and, with P. radiata, increased disease resistance has been achieved through a breeding programme. The dothistromin toxin is a difuroanthraquinone and is similar in structure to the aflatoxin precursor versicolorin B. Part of a gene cluster encoding dothistromin biosynthetic genes has been cloned and this has confirmed parallels between the dothistromin and aflatoxin biosynthetic pathways. Dothistromin produces damaging oxygen radicals by reductive oxygen activation rather than by photosensitization, but is also thought to exert its toxic effects on specific cellular targets. Studies have shown that dothistromin is a weak mutagen and clastogen and is therefore a potential carcinogen. Although the risks to forest workers are considered very low it is prudent to avoid unnecessary exposure during periods when dothistromin levels are likely to be at their peak. Résumé La maladie des bandes rouges causée par Dothistroma est un problème dans les plantations de pins exotiques de l'hémisphère sud depuis de nombreuses années. La prévalence de cette maladie est en augmentation dans l'hémisphère nord et affecte maintenant les pins dans leurs régions d'origine. Le champignon pathogène Dothistroma pini, responsable de la maladie, produit une toxine, la dothistromine, proche de l'aflatoxine qui est un puissant carcinogène. Ceci pose donc la question des effets possibles sur la santé des travailleurs forestiers. Cette revue repose sur une large couverture de la littérature concernant aussi bien la maladie que la toxine. Le champignon a une taxonomie complexe avec de nombreux synonymes, et seul l'anamorphe se rencontre dans de nombreux pays. C'est un champignon nécrotrophe qui tue les tissus de l'aiguille et réalise son cycle biologique dans la lésion ainsi formée. La dissémination de la maladie s'effectue principalement par éclaboussures de pluie contenant les conidies mais une dissémination à longue distance a été mise en évidence par transport de matériel contaminé ou par dissémination des spores par le vent ou les nuages dans les courants aériens. La sévérité de la maladie est affectée par l'humidité, la température et la lumière. Il existe des différences de sensibilité entre espèces de Pinus, et certaines présentent une résistance accrue avec l'âge. La méthode actuelle de lutte dans les forêts de plantations de l'hémisphère sud consiste à pulvériser des fongicides à base de cuivre ; dans le cas de Pinus radiata, une augmentation de la résistance a été obtenue grâce à un programme d'amélioration génétique. La toxine dothistromine est une difuroanthraquinone, similaire en structure à la versicolorine B, précurseur de l'aflatoxine. Une partie d'une batterie de gènes comprenant des gènes de biosynthèse de la dothistromine a été clonée, confirmant les analogies entre les voies de biosynthèse de la dothistromine et de l'aflatoxine. La dothistromine produit des radicaux oxygène nocifs par activation de la réduction de l'oxygène plutôt que par photosensibilisation, mais ses effets toxiques s'exercent aussi probablement sur des sites cellulaires spécifiques. Des études montrent que la dothistromine est un mutagène et clastogène faible, et donc potentiellement carcinogène. Bien que les risques pour les ouvriers forestiers soient considérés comme très faibles, il est prudent d'éviter dans la mesure du possible de s'exposer dans les périodes où les niveaux de dothistromine sont supposés élevés. Zusammenfassung Die Dothistroma -Nadelbräune ist in der Südhemisphäre in Plantagen mit exotischen Kiefernarten seit vielen Jahren ein Problem. In der Nordhemisphäre nimmt die Bedeutung dieser Krankheit derzeit zu und sie befällt nun Bäume auch in ihren natürlichen Verbreitungsgebieten. Der Erreger ist der Ascomycet Mycosphaerella pini (Anamorphe: Dothistroma pini). Der Pilz bildet das Toxin Dothistromin, das eng mit dem hochtoxischen Karzinogen Aflatoxin verwandt ist. Daraus ergab sich die Frage nach möglichen Nebenwirkungen dieser Baumkrankheit auf die Gesundheit von Waldarbeitern. Dieser Review fasst die Information über die Krankheit und das Toxin zusammen. Der Pilz hat eine komplizierte Taxonomie mit vielen Synonymen und in den meisten Ländern wurde nur die Anamorphe nachgewiesen. Er ist ein nekrotrophes Pathogen, das Blattgewebe abtötet, und in den so gebildeten Läsionen seinen Lebenszyklus abschliesst. Der normale Ausbreitungsweg der Krankheit erfolgt über Konidiosporen mit Regentropfen, aber es gibt auch Hinweise auf einen Ferntransport mit infiziertem Pflanzenmaterial und über die Verbreitung von Sporen mit dem Wind bzw. Wolken in Luftströmungen. Die Krankheitsintensität wird durch Luftfeuchte, Temperatur und Licht beeinflusst. Es gibt Unterschiede in der Anfälligkeit zwischen verschiedenen Kiefernarten und manche davon werden mit zunehmendem Alter resistenter. Derzeit werden in Plantagen der südlichen Hemisphäre Kupferfungizide zur Kontrolle dieser Krankheit eingesetzt und für Pinus radiata wurde in Züchtungsprogrammen eine erhöhte Resistenz erreicht. Das Toxin Dothistromin ist ein Difuroanthrachinon und ähnelt in seiner Struktur dem Aflatoxin-Präkursor Versicolorin B. Ein Teil des Genclusters, das die Dothistromin-Biosynthese codiert, wurde geklont, und es wurden dabei Parallelen zwischen dem Dothistromin- und dem Aflatoxin-Biosyntheseweg bestätigt. Dothistromin bildet schädliche Sauerstoffradikale (wahrscheinlich eher durch reduktive Sauerstoffaktivierung als durch Photosensibilisierung), es dürfte aber auch auf spezifische Zellkomponenten toxisch wirken. Dothistromin zeigt schwache mutagene und chromosomenschädigende Wirkungen und ist deshalb ein potentielles Karzinogen. Obwohl das Risiko für Waldarbeiter als gering eingeschätzt wird, sollte man in Perioden, in denen der Dothistromingehalt hoch sein dürfte, eine unnötige Exposition vermeiden. [source]

    Dispersal of freshwater invertebrates by large terrestrial mammals: a case study with wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Mediterranean wetlands

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 11 2008
    Summary 1.,Many invertebrates inhabiting insular aquatic habitats rely on external agents or vectors to disperse. Besides water connections and wind, waterfowl and amphibians are known to mediate passive dispersal of freshwater invertebrates. However, the possibility of dispersal by terrestrial mammals has been largely overlooked. 2.,We investigated the potential of both external and internal zoochorous dispersal of aquatic invertebrates by the wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Mediterranean wetlands in the Camargue (France). As wild boar frequently visit wetlands for feeding and wallowing purposes, we hypothesized that they may be important passive dispersal vectors of aquatic invertebrates at a local scale. Dried mud was collected from selected ,rubbing trees' used by boars to dispose of parasites. Additionally, faecal pellets were collected from different locations in the wetland area. 3.,Seventeen freshwater invertebrate taxa including rotifers, cladocerans, copepods and ostracods hatched from sediment obtained from ,rubbing trees', while invertebrates hatching from dried faeces (10 taxa) were mainly rotifers. Dispersing invertebrates were collected up to 318 m from a nearest potential dispersal source. Both abundance and richness of invertebrates significantly decreased with dispersal distance. 4.,Our results demonstrate that large mammals such as wild boar can act as dispersal vectors of aquatic invertebrates at a local scale in the wetland area of the Camargue and suggest that external transport may be quantitatively more important than internal transport. As wallowing (mud bathing) is common in many terrestrial mammals, this mode of dispersal may be quite widespread. [source]

    Constraints on recovery: using molecular methods to study connectivity of aquatic biota in rivers and streams

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 4 2007
    JANE M. HUGHESArticle first published online: 2 MAR 200
    Summary 1. The ,Field of Dreams Hypothesis' states ,if we build it, they will come', referring to the assumption that if habitats are restored, species will recolonise them. However, the ability of a species to recolonise a restored site will depend not only on the appropriate habitat being present, but also on the ability to get there. This is likely to depend on both the species' dispersal behaviour and the position of a site in the landscape. 2. Animals with good potential for dispersal are more likely to be able to disperse to newly restored sites. Similarly, sites in lowland streams with limited altitudinal differences between sites may be easier to reach than upstream sites. This is because upstream sites are connected to one another via lowland streams that have different characteristics and therefore may be difficult for animals to traverse. 3. In this paper, genetic data from a range of freshwater species that have been analysed in my laboratory are used to assess the importance of life cycle and position in the landscape (i.e. upland versus lowland streams) on connectivity patterns (and thus recolonisation potential) among populations. 4. In general, contemporary dispersal across catchment boundaries is negligible, except for aquatic insects with an adult flight stage. Dispersal among streams within catchments appears to be more limited than was predicted from knowledge on life histories, except for fish in lowland rivers and streams. 5. As predicted, dispersal of fish, crustaceans and molluscs among streams within catchments is significantly greater in lowland rivers than in upland streams. 6. Overall, these analyses suggest that, with the exception of most insects, and fishes in lowland rivers, natural recolonisation of restored sites is only likely from sites within the same stream. If a species has disappeared from the whole stream, then restoration of habitat alone may not be sufficient for its re-establishment. [source]

    A comparative study of the dispersal of 10 species of stream invertebrates

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 9 2003
    J. M. Elliott
    Summary 1. Apart from downstream dispersal through invertebrate drift, few quantitative data are available to model the dispersal of stream invertebrates, i.e. the outward spreading of animals from their point of origin or release. The present study provides comparative data for 10 species, using two independent methods: unmarked animals in six stream channels built over a stony stream and marked animals in the natural stream. Experiments were performed in April and June 1973 and 1974, with initial numbers of each species varying from 20 to 80 in the stream channels and 20 to 60 for marked animals. 2. Results were the same for marked invertebrates and those in the channels. Dispersal was not density-dependent; the number of dispersing animals was a constant proportion of the initial number for each species. The relationship between upstream or downstream dispersal distance and the number of animals travelling that distance was well described by an inverse power function for all species (exponential and log models were poorer fits). Results varied between species but were similar within species for the 4 months, and therefore were unaffected by variations in mean water velocity (range 0.04,0.35 m s,1) or water temperature (range 6.7,8.9 °C in April, 12.1,14.8 °C in June). 3. Species were arranged in order, according to their dispersal abilities. Three carnivores (Perlodes, Rhyacophila, Isoperla) dispersed most rapidly (70,91% in 24 h, maximum distances 9.5,13.5 m per day), followed by two species (Protonemura, Rhithrogena) in which about half their initial numbers dispersed (50,51% in 24 h, 7.5,8 m per day), and four species (Ecdyonurus, Hydropsyche, Gammarus, Baetis) in which less than half dispersed (33,40% in 24 h, 5.5,7 m per day). Dispersal was predominantly upstream for all nine species. Few larvae (20%) of Potamophylax dispersed, with similar maximum upstream and downstream distances of 3.5 m per day. The mean time spent drifting downstream was known for seven species from previous studies, and correlated positively with their dispersal distances. Therefore, the species formed a continuum from rapid to very slow dispersers. These interspecific differences should be considered when evaluating the role of dispersal in the maintenance of genetic diversity in stream invertebrates, and in their ability to colonise or re-colonise habitats. [source]

    Dispersal in drift-prone macroinvertebrates: a case for density-independence

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 5 2002
    1.,Studies of dispersal of macroinvertebrates in streams and rivers tend to be focused on drift, whilst benthic movements are usually considered to be less important. 2.,Field-enclosure experiments with the mayfly Baetis rhodani indicate that net dispersal in this species is simply a proportional loss of individuals from the benthos. 3.,Neither net upstream or downstream movements exhibited evidence of density-dependence in the form of curvilinear relationships between initial and final densities. 4.,The net number of animals moving upstream did not differ significantly from the net number moving downstream. 5.,The probable mechanisms behind density-independent dispersal are discussed, as are the implications for our understanding of population dynamics in relation to invertebrate drift. [source]