Disability-adjusted Life Years (disability-adjusted + life_year)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Burden of disease related to Parkinson's disease in Spain in the year 2000

Esther Cubo MD
Abstract We measured the burden caused by Parkinson's disease (PD) in Spain during the year 2000 and compared it against PD burden worldwide and in the European A subregion. Burden of disease (BoD) is an important factor in health policy. Disability-adjusted life years (DALY) as a measure of BoD is the result of adding years of life lost (YLL) and years lived with disability (YLD). The burden of PD (BPD) has not been studied in Spain. YLL were obtained from the Spanish death certificates and YLD from the estimated number of incident PD cases and the average PD duration. PD disability was calculated, using the Disability Weights for Diseases in the Netherlands. Prior PD DALY data for Europe and the world were obtained from the 2001 World Health Organization World Health Report. A discount rate of 3% and age-weighting modulation factor with K = 1 were used. In Spain, PD generated 67,582 DALY, comprising 6,351 (9.4%) YLL and 61,231 (90.6%) YLD. Most PD DALY (57.5%) occurred in the population 60 to 74 years of age. When PD DALY estimates were adjusted using the world population in 2000, Spain registered a PD DALY rate of 84 per 100,000 population, higher than both the world and European A subregion rates (24 and 35 per 100,000 population, respectively). PD burden in Spain in 2000 was high, with disability being the major contributing factor. Although BPD in Spain was greater than both world and European A subregion BPD, these differences should nevertheless be interpreted with caution. © 2005 Movement Disorder Society [source]

Burden of disease attributable to selected environmental factors and injury among children and adolescents in Europe

Richard Reading
Burden of disease attributable to selected environmental factors and injury among children and adolescents in Europe . ValentF, LittleD, BertolliniR, NemerLE, BarboneF & TamburliniG . ( 2004 ) Lancet , 363 , 2032 , 2039 . Background Environmental exposures contribute to the global burden of disease. We have estimated the burden of disease attributable to outdoor and indoor air pollution, inadequate water and sanitation, lead exposure, and injury among European children and adolescents. Methods Published studies and reports from international agencies were reviewed for calculation of risk-factor exposure in Europe. Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) or deaths attributable to each factor, or both, were estimated by application of the potential impact fraction to the estimates of mortality and burden of disease from the WHO global database of burden of disease. Findings Among children aged 0,4 years, between 1.8% and 6.4% of deaths from all causes were attributable to outdoor air pollution; acute lower-respiratory-tract infections attributable to indoor air pollution accounted for 4.6% of all deaths and 3.1% of DALYs; and mild mental retardation resulting from lead exposure accounted for 4.4% of DALYs. In the age-group 0,14 years, diarrhoea attributable to inadequate water and sanitation accounted for 5.3% of deaths and 3.5% of DALYs. In the age-group 0,19 years, injuries were the cause of 22.6% of all deaths and 19.0% of DALYs. The burden of disease was much higher in European subregions B and C than subregion A. There was substantial uncertainty around some of the estimates, especially for outdoor air pollution. Interpretation Large proportions of deaths and DALYs in European children are attributable to outdoor and indoor air pollution, inadequate water and sanitation, lead exposure, and injuries. Interventions aimed at reducing children's exposure to environmental factors and injuries could result in substantial gains. The pronounced differences by subregion and age indicate the need for targeted action. [source]

Cost-effectiveness of Weight Watchers and the Lighten Up to a Healthy Lifestyle program

Linda Cobiac
Abstract Objective: Intensive weight loss programs that incorporate dietary counselling and exercise advice are popular and are supported by evidence of immediate weight loss benefits. We evaluate the cost-effectiveness of two weight loss programs, Lighten Up to a Healthy Lifestyle and Weight Watchers. Methods: Health gains from prevention of chronic disease are modelled over the lifetime of the Australian population. These results are combined with estimates of intervention costs and cost offsets (due to reduced rates of lifestyle-related diseases) to determine the dollars per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted by each intervention program, from an Australian health sector perspective. Results: Both weight loss programs produced small improvements in population health compared to current practice. The time and travel associated with attending group-counselling sessions, however, was costly for patients, and overall the cost-effectiveness ratios for Lighten Up ($130,000/DALY) and Weight Watchers ($140,000/DALY) were high. Conclusion: Based on current evidence, these intensive behavioural counselling interventions are not very cost-effective strategies for reducing obesity, and the potential benefits for population health are small. Implications: It will be critical to consider other strategies (e.g. changing the ,obesogenic' environment) or explore alternative methods of intervention delivery (e.g. Internet) to see if they offer a more cost-effective approach by effectively reaching a high number of people at a low cost. [source]

Valuation of health states in the US study to establish disability weights: lessons from the literature

Jürgen Rehm
Abstract The metric of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) has become the global standard of measuring burden of disease. DALYs are comprised of years of life lost due to premature mortality and years of healthy life lost due to living with disability. In order to calculate the second part of the DALY equation, disease specific disability weights have to be established, i.e. measures for the decline of health associated with these disease states, which vary between zero for perfect health and one for death. Although these disability weights are key for estimating DALYs, there have not been many comprehensive studies with empirical determinations of them. This article describes a systematic review on the state of the art with respect to empirically determining disability weights. Based on this review, a multi-method approach is outlined, which has also been implemented in a US study to measure burden of disease. This approach involves the use of psychometric methodology as well as economic trade-off methods for determining the value of health states. It is conceptualized as a disaggregated approach, where the disability weight of any health state can be calculated if the attributes of this health state are known. The US study received the collaboration of experts from more than 20 institutes of the National Institutes of Health and of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. First results will be available by the end of this year. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]