Disabilities Research (disabilities + research)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Language Impairment and Reading Disability: Connections and Complexities Introduction to the Special Issue

Elaine R. Silliman
Researchers and practitioners in the fields of reading and language are well informed about the importance of phonological awareness in beginning reading. The purpose of this special issue of Learning Disabilities Research & Practice is to present recent research that extends the search for language and reading connections beyond the realm of phonological awareness. Many children with language impairment (LI) identified before formal schooling experience persistent difficulty in learning to read. Two interrelated issues are prerequisite for understanding the developmental course of events that might link language and reading (dis)ability in these children. One is an appreciation of exactly what is meant by LI, while the second concerns how LI should be explained. In this introductory article, we explore the complexities of these two issues, in particular the controversy between the domain-specific perspective and the domain-general perspective on the nature of specific LI (SLI). Consistent with these perspectives, future studies on possible language-reading links will need to measure language and related processes in greater breadth and depth, over time, and within a variety of experiential contexts. The five articles in this issue represent a critical first step in this direction. [source]

A Drop in the Bucket: Randomized Controlled Trials Testing Reading and Math Interventions

Pamela M. Seethaler
The purpose of this study was to determine the proportion of empirical studies published in the last 5 years in a sample of special education peer-reviewed journals that (1) assessed the effects of reading and math interventions with group designs and (2) used random assignment to treatment conditions to test those interventions. A hand search of articles from the Journal of Special Education, Exceptional Children, Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, the Journal of Learning Disabilities, and School Psychology Review yielded 806 relevant articles, of which 5.46 percent tested a reading or math intervention using a group design and 4.22 percent used random assignment. These findings indicate that randomized experimental designs, which offer the highest level of evidence of an intervention's efficacy, are underrepresented in the literature, at least in the area of reading and math interventions. [source]

A public health collaboration for the surveillance of autism spectrum disorders

Catherine E. Rice
Summary Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) represent a range of behavioural phenotypes defined by impaired development in social interaction, communication, imagination, and range of interests or behaviours. The aetiology and epidemiology of these serious developmental disabilities (DDs) are poorly understood. Estimates of the population prevalence of ASDs have varied widely within the US and abroad, with increasing estimates in most of the recent studies. In an effort to improve our understanding of the prevalence, population characteristics and public health impact of these conditions, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has funded a multi-site surveillance network for ASDs and other DDs that consists of programmes known as the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) network which conducts surveillance activities and the Centers for Autism and Developmental Disabilities Research and Epidemiology (CADDRE) which also conducts surveillance in addition to special research studies related to the ASDs. This collaboration will be referred to hereafter as the ADDM Network. The ADDM Network is implementing a multiple-source surveillance programme to determine population prevalence and characteristics of ASDs and other DDs. This paper describes the collaborative efforts and explains the methods in developing this coordinated public health surveillance network to provide an ongoing source of high-quality data on ASDs. [source]

Treatment Acceptability of Healthcare Services for Children with Cerebral Palsy

Norm Dahl
Background, Although treatment acceptability scales in intellectual and developmental disabilities research have been used in large- and small-scale applications, large-scale application has been limited to analogue (i.e. contrived) investigations. This study extended the application of treatment acceptability by assessing a large sample of care givers' perceptions of treatment for children with cerebral palsy (CP) in a real-world setting and tested if responses differed across child characteristics, type of medical service or respondent demographics. Method, One hundred and fifty four care givers' for children with CP rated the acceptability of treatments and related medical services by clinicians working in a multi-disciplinary children's specialty setting using Kazdin's (Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 13, 1980, 259) Treatment Evaluation Inventory. Results, There were significant (P < 0.05) differences between male and female respondents' ratings of treatment acceptability. There were no other significant differences for caregiver ratings in relation to child characteristics, type of appointment, severity of CP or other respondent demographic characteristics. Conclusion, Mothers and fathers of children with developmental disabilities may differ in their perceptions of the acceptability of medical treatment services for children with developmental disabilities. Future studies addressing treatment acceptability should expand the scope of demographic information assessed and include items specific to the roles respondents have in providing and coordinating therapeutic regimens for their children's medical needs. [source]