Disorders Criteria (disorders + criterion)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

GENETIC STUDY: 5-HTTLPR polymorphism, mood disorders and MDMA use in a 3-year follow-up study

Rocío Martín-Santos
ABSTRACT A 3-year longitudinal prospective study was conducted to compare the incidence of substance use disorders (SUD) and non-substance use disorders (NSUD) among ecstasy users and two control groups: one of cannabis users and the other of non-drug users. The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism related to NSUD was also studied. A total of 94 subjects were included: 37 ecstasy users, 23 cannabis users and 34 non-drug users. SUD and NSUD disorders were diagnosed according to the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders criteria using the Psychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental Disorders. Incidence Rates (IR) are presented. The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism was analyzed. Hardy,Weinberg equilibrium was studied. The results of the study showed that the highest IR of SUD was cannabis abuse/dependence in both the ecstasy (IR: 48.6/100 person,year) and cannabis (IR: 2.5/100 person,year) groups. There were no new cases of SUD in non-drug users at follow-up. The highest IR of NSUD was primary mood disorder in both the ecstasy (IR: 4.2/100 person,year) and in the non-drug (IR: 1.3/100 person,year) groups (P < 0.282). There were no new cases of NSUD in the cannabis group at follow-up. 5-HTTLPR polymorphism was associated with lifetime of primary mood disorders in ecstasy group (P = 0.018). Ecstasy use was associated with a higher rate of cannabis abuse/dependence disorders and mood disorders than cannabis use. In the ecstasy users, 5-HTTLPR polymorphism may result in a high vulnerability to primary mood disorders. [source]

Research Submission: Chronic Headache and Comorbibities: A Two-Phase, Population-Based, Cross-Sectional Study

HEADACHE, Issue 8 2010
Ariovaldo Da Silva Jr MD
Background., Studies using resources of a public family health program to estimate the prevalence of chronic daily headaches (CDH) are lacking. Objectives., To estimate the 1-year prevalence of CDH, as well as the presence of associated psychiatric and temporomandibular disorders (TMD) comorbidities, on the entire population of a city representative of the rural area of Brazil. Methods., This was a cross-sectional, population-based, 2-phase study. In the first phase, health agents interviewed all individuals older than 10 years, in a rural area of Brazil. In the second stage, all individuals who reported headaches on 4 or more days per week were then evaluated by a multidisciplinary team. CDH were classified according to the second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-2). Medication overuse headache was diagnosed, as per the ICHD-2, after detoxification trials. Psychiatric comorbidities and TMD were diagnosed based on the DSM-IV and on the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders criteria, respectively. Results., A total of 1631 subjects participated in the direct interviews. Of them, 57 (3.6%) had CDH. Chronic migraine was the most common of the CDH (21, 36.8%). Chronic tension-type headache (10, 17.5%), medication overuse headache (13, 22.8%) and probable medication overuse headache (10, 17.5%) were also common. Psychiatric disorders were observed in 38 (67.3%) of the CDH subjects. TMD were seen in 33 (58.1)% of them. Conclusions., The prevalence of CDH in the rural area of Brazil is similar to what has been reported in previous studies. A significant proportion of them have psychiatric comorbidities and/or TMD. In this sample, comorbidities were as frequent as reported in convenience samples from tertiary headache centers. (Headache 2010;50:1306-1312) [source]

Apolipoprotein E Genotype and Mortality: Findings from the Cache County Study

Kathleen M. Hayden PhD
Objectives: To evaluate the association between apolipoprotein E (apo E) ,4 and mortality, the population attributable risk for mortality with ,4, and relative contributions of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Design: Population-based cohort study. Setting: Community-based. Participants: Permanent residents of Cache County, Utah, aged 65 and older as of January 1, 1995. Measurements: Participants were genotyped at the apo E locus using buccal-swab deoxyribonucleic acid. Cardiovascular health was ascertained using self- or proxy-report interviews at participants' residences. AD was diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition, Revised, and National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke,Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders criteria. Utah Department of Vital Statistics quarterly reports were reviewed to identify participants who died. Results: Crude evaluations showed nonsignificantly greater risk of death for ,2/2 (hazard ratio (HR)=1.66, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.92,2.76) and ,3/4 (HR=1.11, 95% CI=0.97,1.26) genotypes and significantly greater risk for ,4/4 (HR=1.48, 95% CI=1.09,1.96). After adjustment for age, age2, sex, and education, risks increased to 1.98 (95% CI=1.08,3.35), 1.28 (95% CI=1.12,1.46), and 2.02 (95% CI=1.47,2.71), respectively, compared with ,3/3 genotypes. Adjustment for presence of any CVD did not change the risk of death for ,3/4 and ,4/4. Adjustment for AD reduced the risk of death for ,3/4 (HR=1.13, 95% CI=0.99,1.30) and ,4/4 (HR=1.59, 95% CI=1.15,2.14). The population attributable risk of death for ,3/4 and ,4/4 genotypes combined is estimated at 9.6%. Conclusion: These findings suggested that the ,2/2, ,3/4, and ,4/4 genotypes have greater early mortality risks. Further analyses showed that AD partially mediates the association between ,3/4, ,4/4, and death. [source]

Clinical predictors of response to pharmacotherapy with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in obsessive,compulsive disorder

Abstract, The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical predictors of response to treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) in a sample of patients with obsessive,compulsive disorder (OCD). A total of 55 patients diagnosed as OCD according to revised 3rd edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria underwent a 12-week standardized SSRI treatment. According to ,treatment response', defined as at least a 35% drop in the Yale,Brown Obsessive,Compulsive Scale total score, OCD patients were divided into two groups. A total of 32 (58.2%) patients who responded to treatment and 23 (41.8%) who did not, were compared in terms of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. The authors' findings demonstrated that the severity of obsession,compulsions and disability in work, social and family lives at the beginning of treatment were significantly higher in OCD patients who did not respond to treatment in comparison to those who did. Linear regression analysis, however, revealed that Sheehan Disability Scale-work score at baseline was a predictor of response to SSRI treatment. The higher levels of disability at the beginning of treatment in patients with OCD are associated with a poorer response to SSRI. [source]