Disordered Eating (disordered + eating)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


The 21st Century Paradox: Body Image, Obesity, and Disordered Eating in Youths

ANALYSES OF SOCIAL ISSUES & PUBLIC POLICY, Issue 1 2009
Christine Bachman
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


Lack of seasonal variation in eating attitudes and behaviours among female college students

EUROPEAN EATING DISORDERS REVIEW, Issue 2 2005
Melissa A. Munn
Abstract Objective Previous studies have found a season of birth effect for women with eating disorders. However, findings regarding the two types of season of birth (i.e. month of birth and temperature at conception) have been conflicting, and few studies have examined relationships between season of birth and general disordered eating in non-clinical populations. The present study sought to examine this relationship more closely by investigating both month of birth and temperature at conception in undergraduate women. Method Subjects included 427 undergraduate females from a large university in the United States. Disordered eating in the areas of body dissatisfaction, compensatory behaviour, binge eating and weight preoccupation was assessed with the Minnesota Eating Behaviors Survey (MEBS). Results No significant mean differences in MEBS scores were found between those individuals born in the first versus second half of the year. Furthermore, no significant associations were found between disordered eating and temperature at conception. Discussion Our findings suggest that disordered eating symptoms do not show a season of birth effect. Discrepancies between these findings and those for clinical samples suggest the possible presence of different aetiological mechanisms for general eating symptoms versus clinical eating disorders. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]


A prospective study of disordered eating among sorority and nonsorority women

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 3 2004
Kelly C. Allison
Abstract Objective The current study examined disordered eating prospectively among sorority and nonsorority women. Method University women were surveyed during their first, second, and third undergraduate years. Disordered eating, depression, self-esteem, body mass index (BMI), and ideal weight were measured. Results Disordered eating did not differ between the groups before women joined sororities. By Time 3, sorority women reported higher Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) Drive for Thinness subscale scores than nonsorority women, but the EDI Bulimia and Body Dissatisfaction subscales did not differ. BMI, ideal weights, depression, and self-esteem did not differ. Conclusions Women who join sororities are similar to those who do not in their baseline levels of disordered eating, but they maintain more rigorous attitudes and behaviors regarding dieting over the course of their higher education. © 2004 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 35: 354,358, 2004. [source]


Disordered eating and job stress among nurses

JOURNAL OF NURSING MANAGEMENT, Issue 7 2009
CHES, KEITH A. KING PhD
Aim, The purpose of this study was to examine disordered eating behaviours among nurses in the state of Ohio. Background, Individuals involved in disordered eating tend to report more frequent and higher levels of perceived stress than their counterparts. As nurses regularly perform stressful roles and responsibilities within a high-stress environment, this group may be at elevated risk of disordered eating. Method, A 65-item survey was mailed to a random sample of 1000 nurses in the state of Ohio. Results, A total of 435 nurses (47%) returned completed surveys. Most (93%) were registered nurses (RNs) and 87% were over 31 years old. Results indicated that disordered eating differed significantly based on perceived job stress and perceived body satisfaction. Nurses with high levels of perceived job stress and low levels of body satisfaction had higher disordered eating involvement. Conclusions, Nurses reporting high levels of job stress are at increased risk of disordered eating behaviours. Recommendations for future research are offered. Implications for nursing management, Employee wellness programmes should be developed that educate and support nurses to make healthy lifestyle choices. [source]


The diagnosis of eating disorders in adults with learning disabilities: Conceptualisation and implications for clinical practice

EUROPEAN EATING DISORDERS REVIEW, Issue 5 2010
Ceri J. Jones
Abstract Objective The literature suggests that less attention has been afforded to eating disorders (EDs) in adults with learning disabilities (LDs) than in adults of normal intellect. This review aimed to examine the methods, prevalence and implications of an ED diagnosis in adults with LDs. Method Key texts, journals and online databases were searched for literature examining disordered eating in adults with LDs. Results A review of the extant literature revealed that a range of dysfunctional eating behaviours have been classified as ,eating disorders' and highlighted a lack of clarity about the distinction between feeding and EDs. A small body of research suggests that some individuals with LDs show the emotional and cognitive characteristics of typical EDs. Discussion The lack of consensus about conceptualisation, assessment, diagnosis and treatment of EDs in individuals with LDs needs to be addressed in order to aid awareness and enhance clinical approaches for this population. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]


Lack of seasonal variation in eating attitudes and behaviours among female college students

EUROPEAN EATING DISORDERS REVIEW, Issue 2 2005
Melissa A. Munn
Abstract Objective Previous studies have found a season of birth effect for women with eating disorders. However, findings regarding the two types of season of birth (i.e. month of birth and temperature at conception) have been conflicting, and few studies have examined relationships between season of birth and general disordered eating in non-clinical populations. The present study sought to examine this relationship more closely by investigating both month of birth and temperature at conception in undergraduate women. Method Subjects included 427 undergraduate females from a large university in the United States. Disordered eating in the areas of body dissatisfaction, compensatory behaviour, binge eating and weight preoccupation was assessed with the Minnesota Eating Behaviors Survey (MEBS). Results No significant mean differences in MEBS scores were found between those individuals born in the first versus second half of the year. Furthermore, no significant associations were found between disordered eating and temperature at conception. Discussion Our findings suggest that disordered eating symptoms do not show a season of birth effect. Discrepancies between these findings and those for clinical samples suggest the possible presence of different aetiological mechanisms for general eating symptoms versus clinical eating disorders. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]


The role of biodevelopmental and psychological factors in disordered eating among adolescent males and females

EUROPEAN EATING DISORDERS REVIEW, Issue 4 2003
M. P. McCabe
Abstract The present study examined the role of biodevelopmental and psychological factors in the development of disordered eating in early adolescent males and females. Three hundred and six girls (mean age,=,13.66 years; SD,=,1.12 years) and 297 boys (mean age,=,13.89 years; SD,=,1.13 years) from grades 7,10 completed a questionnaire which assessed disordered eating, biodevelopmental (body mass index (BMI), age and puberty) and psychological factors (self-esteem, depression, anxiety, ineffectiveness, perfectionism). Not surprisingly, girls were more likely than boys to engage in extreme weight loss behaviours. There were no significant differences between boys and girls on measures of binge eating or bulimic tendencies. Self-esteem, depression and anxiety were found to be significant predictors of disordered eating among girls, while anxiety, ineffectiveness, self-esteem and perfectionism were significant predictors among boys. The findings from this study demonstrate the importance of psychological variables in predicting extreme weight loss behaviours among both adolescent males and females. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]


Five-year longitudinal predictive factors for disordered eating in a population-based sample of overweight adolescents: Implications for prevention and treatment

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 7 2009
Dianne Neumark-Sztainer PhD
Abstract Objective The objective of this study is to identify predictors of prevalence and incidence of disordered eating (binge eating and extreme weight control behaviors) among overweight adolescents. Method Five-year longitudinal associations were examined in 412 overweight adolescents who participated in Project EAT-I and II. Results Among both overweight males and females, risk factors for disordered eating included exposure to weight loss magazine articles, higher weight importance, and unhealthy weight control behaviors, while family connectedness, body satisfaction, and regular meals were protective factors, although there were some differences in predictors of prevalence (total cases) versus incidence (new cases) of disordered eating. Among males, poor eating patterns, including fast food and sweetened beverage intake, increased risk for disordered eating, and the use of healthy weight control behaviors was protective. Discussion Attention should be directed toward decreasing disordered eating among overweight adolescents. Findings suggest the importance of promoting positive family relationships, psychological health, and regular meals, and steering adolescents away from overemphasizing weight and using unhealthy weight control behaviors. © 2009 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2009 [source]


"Ice" use and eating disorders: A report of three cases

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 2 2009
Alice Neale MD
Abstract Objective: To describe the use of crystal methamphetamine hydrochloride "ice," a powerful, synthetic stimulant drug associated with rapid weight loss. Method: We report the first three cases of young women "ice" users requiring admission to a specialized eating disorders unit. Results: Case one had no prior history of an eating disorder and became emaciated following regular use of "ice"; she regarded weight gain positively. Case 2 had polysubstance abuse since early adolescence and commenced binge eating and vomiting in response to weight gain when not using "ice"; she learned to maintain her weight without weight losing behaviors. Case 3 developed anorexia nervosa in early adolescence, required numerous inpatient admissions and commenced using stimulant drugs for weight loss in her late teens; she discharged prematurely. All patients had features of personality disorder on interview and drug abuse had impaired their work and social adjustment. Discussion: "Ice" use may be associated with the onset of disordered eating or used as an efficient weight losing behavior in an established eating disorder. © 2008 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2009. [source]


Developmental pathways of eating problems in adolescents

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 8 2008
Annie Aimé PhD
Abstract Objective: To examine the developmental eating trajectories of adolescents and identify psychological correlates and risk factors associated with those trajectories. Method: Seven hundred thirty-nine adolescents completed self-reported measures of eating problems, internalizing and externalizing behaviors, alcohol and drug use, peer victimization, and depression. Results: Five eating trajectories were obtained. The proportions of males and females were the same in the increasing eating problems trajectory. For both genders, internalizing and externalizing problems were identified as associated risk factors of an eating pathology and reporting at least some eating problems was associated with an increased likelihood of psychological problems. Other risk factors found only in boys were frequency of drug use, victimization, and depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Externalizing problems in girls and internalizing behaviors in boys with disordered eating should not be overlooked. Atypical eating behaviors in boys are of particular concern since it increases their risk of cooccurring psychopathology. © 2008 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2008 [source]


Childhood abuse and eating disorders in gay and bisexual men

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 5 2007
Matthew B. Feldman PhD
Abstract Objective: This study examines the association between eating disorders and a history of childhood abuse in gay and bisexual men, and how substance abuse and depression might impact this relationship. Method: 193 white, black, Latino gay, and bisexual men were sampled from community venues. DSM-IV diagnoses of anorexia, bulimia, and binge eating disorder were assessed using the World Health Organization's Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Results: Men with a history of childhood sexual abuse are significantly more likely to have subclinical bulimia or any current full-syndrome or subclinical eating disorder compared with men who do not have a history of childhood sexual abuse. A history of depression and/or substance use disorders did not mediate this relationship. Conclusion: Researchers should study other potential explanations of the relationship between a history of childhood abuse and eating disorders in gay and bisexual men. Clinicians working with gay and bisexual men who have a history of childhood abuse should assess for disordered eating as a potential mechanism to cope with the emotional sequelae associated with abuse. © 2007 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2007. [source]


Maintenance of internet-based prevention: A randomized controlled trial

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 2 2007
Corinna Jacobi PhD
Abstract Objective: Excessive weight or shape concerns and dieting are among the most important and well-established risk factors for the development of symptoms of disordered eating or full-syndrome eating disorders. Prevention programs should therefore target these factors in order to reduce the likelihood of developing an eating disorder. The aims of this study were to determine the short-term and maintenance effects of an internet-based prevention program for eating disorders. Method: One hundred female students at two German universities were randomly assigned to either an 8-week intervention or a waiting-list control condition and assessed at preintervention, postintervention, and 3-month follow-up. Results: Compared with the control group, the intervention produced significant and sustained effects for high-risk women. Conclusion: Internet-based prevention is effective and can be successfully adapted to a different culture. © 2006 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2006 [source]


Dieting history in obese youngsters with and without disordered eating

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 8 2006
Line Claus MA
Abstract Objective: This article examines the relationship between the emergence of disordered eating and the history of weight and dieting in obese youngsters. Method: Both child and parent reports were obtained from 40 obese disordered eaters (objective bulimic episodes, n = 20; objective overeating episodes, n = 20) and 40 obese matched controls aged 10,16 years. Results: No significant differences between subsamples with regard to weight and dieting history were found. In dieters, it was shown that overweight onset preceded dieting onset, which in turn preceded dietary restraint onset. Despite some discordance regarding precise onset ages of different behaviors, parent and child re ports revealed the same temporal sequences. Conclusion: A developmental pathway from weight problems through dieting to binge eating is plausible for a subgroup of obese children. Convergence between parent and child reports supports the assumption that children's reports are a viable means of monitoring dieting and weight behaviors. © 2006 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2006; 39:721,728 [source]


Practical use of the International Olympic Committee Medical Commission position stand on the female athlete triad: A case example

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 3 2006
Roberta Trattner Sherman PhD
Abstract The female athlete triad consists of the interrelated problems of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis, and it is believed to affect female athletes in all sports and at all levels of competition. Objective: The current article highlights the Position Stand on the Female Athlete Triad of the International Olympic Committee's Medical Commission (IOCMC). Method: The literature related to disordered eating, energy availability, amenorrhea, and bone loss in athletes is briefly reviewed. A hypothetical case is presented to illustrate some of the common issues and problems encountered when working with athletes affected by the triad, such as the effect of weight on performance in "thin" sports, coach involvement, sport participation by symptomatic athletes, and treatment resistance/motivation. Results: Strategies recommended by the position stand for managing those issues and problems are presented regarding the referral, evaluation, and treatment phases of the management process. Conclusion: Implications of the position stand are discussed in terms of the IOCMC's endorsement of the athlete's health being primary to her performance. © 2006 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., Int J Eat Disord, 2006 [source]


A prospective study of disordered eating among sorority and nonsorority women

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 3 2004
Kelly C. Allison
Abstract Objective The current study examined disordered eating prospectively among sorority and nonsorority women. Method University women were surveyed during their first, second, and third undergraduate years. Disordered eating, depression, self-esteem, body mass index (BMI), and ideal weight were measured. Results Disordered eating did not differ between the groups before women joined sororities. By Time 3, sorority women reported higher Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) Drive for Thinness subscale scores than nonsorority women, but the EDI Bulimia and Body Dissatisfaction subscales did not differ. BMI, ideal weights, depression, and self-esteem did not differ. Conclusions Women who join sororities are similar to those who do not in their baseline levels of disordered eating, but they maintain more rigorous attitudes and behaviors regarding dieting over the course of their higher education. © 2004 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 35: 354,358, 2004. [source]


Body image dissatisfaction and disordered eating in black and white women

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 3 2003
Marisol Perez
Abstract Objective This study predicted and found that body image dissatisfaction and bulimic symptoms have a curvilinear relationship among undergraduate women. Results For the women in this sample, regardless of race, body image dissatisfaction correlated with bulimic symptoms, such that women who perceived themselves as bigger or smaller than the ideal body size for their ethnic group endorsed bulimic symptoms. Black and white women differed regarding their ethnic group's ideal body image and their self-perceptions of how they compared with the ideal image. Black women tended to report being underweight, whereas white women tended to report being overweight. Discussion The findings in this study suggest that some black women are not buffered against eating disorders as suggested in previous research. © 2003 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 33: 342,350, 2003. [source]


Investigation of quality of the parental relationship as a risk factor for subclinical bulimia nervosa

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 4 2001
Tracey D. Wade
Abstract Objective Previous literature suggests a link between the quality of the parental relationship and disordered eating in offspring. We investigated the relationship between offspring pyschopathology and the parental relationship using a population-based twin registry that contained 766 complete twin pairs. Method We used reports of twin lifetime psychopathology from the twins and quality of parental relationship and parental lifetime psychopathology from both parents. Results Poorer quality of the marital relationship predicted the presence of subclinical bulimia nervosa (SBN) using both mother's (odds ratio [OR] = 0.83, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.71,0.97) and father's (OR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.62,0.97) reports. It also predicted the presence of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and alcohol dependence. SBN was still strongly predicted by the marital relationship when parental psychopathology was included as a covariate. Discussion These results are supportive of the notion that a conflictual and distant marital relationship can, at least partially, act as an environmental risk factor for SBN. © 2001 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 30: 389,400, 2001. [source]


Pathways mediating sexual abuse and eating disturbance in children

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 3 2001
Stephen Wonderlich
Abstract Objective To examine the relationship between childhood maltreatment and eating disorders in a sample of children. Method Twenty 10,15-year-old female children who were receiving treatment following reported childhood sexual abuse and 20 age-matched controls were compared on a series of measures assessing eating disorder behaviors, body image concerns, substance use, mood, impulsive behavior, and self-concept. Results Sexually abused children reported higher levels of eating disorder behaviors, impulsive behaviors, and drug abuse than controls. Furthermore, behavioral impulsivity provided the strongest mediational effect between a history of childhood sexual abuse and purging and restrictive dieting behavior. Drug use proved to be a significant secondary mediator of the childhood sexual abuse eating disorder behavior association. Discussion These data support the hypothesis that childhood sexual abuse is related to disordered eating in children, and extend similar findings that have been previously reported with adults. Behavioral impulsivity and drug use appear to be significant mechanisms that influence eating disorder behavior following childhood sexual abuse. © 2001 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 29: 270,279, 2001. [source]


Who Benefits From What?

JOURNAL OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 9 2003
Drive for Thinness as a Moderator of Responsiveness to Different Eating Disorder Prevention Messages
This research examined how women respond to different types of messages regarding eat ing disorders, and specifically whether women's degree of drive for thinness moderated their responsiveness to particular messages. In this study, 112 undergraduate women were randomly assigned to receive a condition focusing on either healthy eating or disordered eating. First, and as hypothesized, findings at an immediate posttest revealed that women found the healthy eating condition more enjoyable, personally relevant, and interesting, whereas they found the disordered eating condition more anxiety-provoking and fear-inducing. Second, and contrary to predictions, findings at the 3-month follow-up indicated that those who were high on drive for thinness were hurt by participation in the disordered eating condition, whereas those who were low on drive for thinness were helped by participation in this condition. Discussion focuses on the theoretical and applied implications of these findings. [source]


Women's Sports Media, Self-Objectification, and Mental Health in Black and White Adolescent Females

JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION, Issue 2 2003
Kristen Harrison
Recent surveys have suggested that sports media exposure may be linked to adolescents' body perceptions. This study tested this relationship from the perspective of objectification theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997) by surveying and experimenting with 426 adolescent females aged 10,19. Sports magazine reading predicted greater body satisfaction among older adolescents, regardless of whether they participated in sports. Self-objectification in adolescents of all ages predicted mental health risks including body shame, disordered eating, and depression. Participants also viewed a video depicting men's sports, women's lean sports, or women's nonlean sports. For White participants, watching lean sports increased self-objectification, whereas for participants of color, watching nonlean sports had the same effect. Discussion focuses on self-objectification in adolescents and how cultural differences in the female body ideal are reflected in portrayals of female athletes. [source]


Disordered eating and job stress among nurses

JOURNAL OF NURSING MANAGEMENT, Issue 7 2009
CHES, KEITH A. KING PhD
Aim, The purpose of this study was to examine disordered eating behaviours among nurses in the state of Ohio. Background, Individuals involved in disordered eating tend to report more frequent and higher levels of perceived stress than their counterparts. As nurses regularly perform stressful roles and responsibilities within a high-stress environment, this group may be at elevated risk of disordered eating. Method, A 65-item survey was mailed to a random sample of 1000 nurses in the state of Ohio. Results, A total of 435 nurses (47%) returned completed surveys. Most (93%) were registered nurses (RNs) and 87% were over 31 years old. Results indicated that disordered eating differed significantly based on perceived job stress and perceived body satisfaction. Nurses with high levels of perceived job stress and low levels of body satisfaction had higher disordered eating involvement. Conclusions, Nurses reporting high levels of job stress are at increased risk of disordered eating behaviours. Recommendations for future research are offered. Implications for nursing management, Employee wellness programmes should be developed that educate and support nurses to make healthy lifestyle choices. [source]


Childhood sexual abuse and obesity

OBESITY REVIEWS, Issue 3 2004
T. B. Gustafson
Summary The causes of the current obesity epidemic are multifactorial and include genetic, environmental, and individual factors. One potential risk factor may be the experience of childhood sexual abuse. Childhood sexual abuse is remarkably common and is thought to affect up to one-third of women and one-eighth of men. A history of childhood sexual abuse is associated with numerous psychological sequelae including depression, anxiety, substance abuse, somatization, and eating disorders. Relatively few studies have examined the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and adult obesity. These studies suggest at least a modest relationship between the two. Potential explanations for the relationship have focused on the role of disordered eating, particularly binge eating, as well as the possible ,adaptive function' of obesity in childhood sexual abuse survivors. Nevertheless, additional research on the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and obesity is clearly needed, not only to address the outstanding empirical issues but also to guide clinical care. [source]


Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and Eating Pathology in High School Students

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ORTHOPSYCHIATRY, Issue 1 2009
Shana Ross PhD
Although past research has explored self-injurious behaviors and disordered eating among adults in clinical settings, little research has been conducted examining nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and eating pathology in community samples of adolescents. Four hundred and 40 students were screened for the presence of NSSI; a prevalence rate of 13.9% was found. Those who indicated that they engaged in NSSI (n = 59) and a comparison group of non-self-injurers (n = 57) completed the Eating Disorders Inventory. Results indicate that students who engage in NSSI display significantly more eating pathology than their non-NSSI peers, including poor interoceptive awareness; difficulties with impulse regulation; an increased sense of ineffectiveness, distrust, and social insecurity; and increased bulimic tendencies and body dissatisfaction. Relationships were found between increased lifetime frequency of NSSI behaviors and poor impulse control and deficits in affective regulation. In addition, adolescents who had stopped self-injuring reported comparable rates of eating pathology as did adolescents who continued to self-injure. The theoretical connection between NSSI and eating pathology are discussed with reference to enhancing knowledge regarding the characteristics of NSSI. [source]


Are overweight adolescents at higher risk of engaging in unhealthy weight-control behaviours?

ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 5 2009
Helena Fonseca
Abstract Aim: To examine correlates of unhealthy weight-control behaviours (UNWCB), and to explore possible associated variables. Methods: Sample included 3762, 8th and 10th grade public school Portuguese students who participated in the 2002 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC)/World Health Organization (WHO) survey of adolescent health. Factor analysis was used, and two scales were identified as ,healthy weight-control behaviours' (HWCB) and ,UNWCB' through Kaiser criteria analysis. Frequency scores were developed and used in analysis of variance (ANOVAs) test as dependent variables, according to gender and age. Pearson correlations and post-hoc analysis were performed to identify potential associations. Results: UNWCB were significantly higher among those who were dieting or not dieting, but considering they should, and were significantly and progressively increasing from those perceiving themselves as thin, to those perceiving themselves as being the right size and those perceiving themselves as fat. Overweight reported more frequently than non-overweight, both HWCB and UNWCB. Finally, there were significant differences concerning alcohol use, with UNWCB increasing progressively from reporting ,drinking rarely or never' to ,drinking every week' and ,everyday'. Conclusion: Because UNWCB are associated with both medical and psychological health risks, routine screening is warranted. Special attention needs to be directed towards youth at greatest risk for disordered eating, including overweight youth. [source]