Disequilibrium Patterns (disequilibrium + pattern)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Disequilibrium Patterns

  • linkage disequilibrium pattern

  • Selected Abstracts

    Linkage Disequilibrium Pattern in Asthma Candidate Genes from 5q31-q33 in the Singapore Chinese Population

    Pallavi N. Parate
    Summary Studies have shown linkage between microsatellite markers from the chromosome 5q31-q33 region with asthma, atopy and total IgE levels in the Singapore Chinese population. However, subsequent case-control studies failed to show association between the polymorphisms in the candidate genes from this region and asthma or related phenotypes. In this study, we investigated 20 asthma candidate genes from this region for all possible informative polymorphisms within our population, linkage disequilibrium (LD) structure and tagging SNP transferability from HapMap populations. We re-sequenced these genes and identified 267 polymorphisms including 26 insertion-deletions, four microsatellite markers and 237 single nucleotide polymorphisms. The region contained 17 distinct LD blocks with the largest within the serine peptidase inhibitor kazal type 5 (SPINK5) gene spanning 23 kb. Of the 267 polymorphisms identified, 40% are represented in HapMap Han Chinese from Beijing and 29% in Han Chinese from Denver. 72% of the polymorphisms can be represented by tagged SNPs from the HapMap Beijing Han Chinese population and are highly correlated in terms of minor allele frequencies and LD structure. Our data suggest that although the HapMap Han Chinese population from Beijing is very similar to the Singapore Chinese population, this similarity is insufficient to account for up to 28% of the polymorphisms in the local population. [source]

    Mutational Spectrum and Linkage Disequilibrium Patterns at the Ornithine Transcarbamylase Gene (OTC)

    L. Azevedo
    Summary Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC; EC is a hepatic enzyme involved in ammonia elimination via the urea cycle. Since the sequence of the OTC gene was reported many types of mutations continue to be found in OTC deficiency patients, continuing to increase the already wide mutational spectrum known for this gene. In this study we present the clinical, biochemical and molecular features of thirteen late-onset OTC deficiency patients. Mutations were identified in all these patients, among which six were novel point substitutions (L59R, A137P, L148S, Y176L, L186P, and K210N) and one was a 2-bp deletion at exon 4 (341-342delAA). In addition, a de novo genomic deletion of maternal origin encompassing exons 1 to 5 was also identified by the analysis of LD patterns using intragenic polymorphic markers. This work exemplifies the potential value of population genetic studies for the detection of large deletions. [source]

    Association Between Alcoholism and ,-Amino Butyric Acid ,2 Receptor Subtype in a Russian Population

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 4 2005
    Jaakko Lappalainen
    Background: Two recent large genetic studies in the US population have reported association between genetic variation in ,-amino butyric acid ,2 receptor subtype (GABRA2) and risk for alcohol dependence. The goal of this study was to test whether GABRA2 is associated with alcohol dependence in a sample of Russian alcohol-dependent men. Methods: A total of 113 Russian alcohol-dependent men and 100 male population control subjects were recruited in St. Petersburg and genotyped for seven GABRA2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using real-time PCR (TaqMan). Six SNPs were located in a GABRA2 haplotype block previously associated with alcohol dependence (AD) in the US population. SNPs and haplotypes were tested for an association to AD using ,2 analysis and a likelihood ratio-based statistic implemented in the software COCAPHASE. Results: Significant associations between two SNPs and AD were observed (p < 0.05). In addition, a trend-level association was observed between AD and three adjacent SNPs (p < 0.1). Associated alleles were carried in a haplotype that was present at frequencies of 0.37 and 0.48 in the control and alcohol-dependent populations, respectively (p < 0.06). Tight linkage disequilibrium spanning from the central portion of the gene to the 3, end was observed in this population. Comparison of the findings to the previously published studies in the US population revealed a highly similar linkage disequilibrium pattern in this population. Conclusions: These findings suggest that genetic variants of GABRA2 increase risk for AD in the Russian population and provide additional support to the hypothesis that polymorphic variation at the GABRA2 locus plays an important role in predisposing to AD at least in European-ancestry populations. [source]

    SNP selection and multidimensional scaling to quantify population structure

    Kelci Miclaus
    Abstract In the new era of large-scale collaborative Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS), population stratification has become a critical issue that must be addressed. In order to build upon the methods developed to control the confounding effect of a structured population, it is extremely important to visualize and quantify that effect. In this work, we develop methodology for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) selection and subsequent population stratification visualization based on deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in conjunction with non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS); a distance-based multivariate technique. Through simulation, it is shown that SNP selection based on Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium (HWD) is robust against confounding linkage disequilibrium patterns that have been problematic in past studies and methods as well as producing a differentiated SNP set. Non-metric MDS is shown to be a multivariate visualization tool preferable to principal components in conjunction with HWD SNP selection through theoretical and empirical study from HapMap samples. The proposed selection tool offers a simple and effective way to select appropriate substructure-informative markers for use in exploring the effect that population stratification may have in association studies. Genet. Epidemiol. 33:488,496, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Linkage disequilibrium patterns and genetic structure of Amerindian and non-Amerindian Brazilian populations revealed by long-range X-STR markers

    Fabio P.N. Leite
    Abstract The extent of X-chromosome linkage disequilibrium (LD) was studied in a southern Brazilian population, and in a pool of samples from Amerindian populations. For this purpose, 11 microsatellites, located mostly in a Xq region comprising ,86 Mb was investigated. The lower Amerindian gene diversity associated with significant differences between the populations studied indicated population structure as the main cause for the higher LD values in the Amerindian pool. On the other hand, the LD levels of the non-Amerindian Brazilian sample, although less extensive than that of the Amerindians, were probably determined by admixture events. Our results indicated that different demographic histories have significant effects on LD levels of human populations, and provide a first approach to the X-chromosome ancestry of Amerindian and non-Amerindian Brazilian populations, being valuable for future studies involving mapping and population genetic studies. Am J Phys Anthropol 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Assessment of selection mapping near the myostatin gene (GDF-8) in cattle

    ANIMAL GENETICS, Issue 5 2009
    P. Wiener
    Summary Domestic species provide a unique opportunity to examine the effects of selection on the genome. The myostatin gene (GDF-8) has been under strong selection in a number of cattle breeds because of its influence on muscle conformation and association with the ,double-muscling' phenotype. This study examined genetic diversity near this gene in a set of breeds including some nearly fixed for the allele associated with double-muscling (MH), some where the allele is segregating at intermediate frequency and some where the allele is absent. A set of microsatellites and SNPs were used to examine patterns of diversity at the centromeric end of bovine chromosome 2, the region where GDF-8 is located, using various statistical methods. The putative position of a selected gene was moved across the genomic region to determine, by regression, a best position of reduced heterozygosity. Additional analyses examined extended homozygous regions and linkage disequilibrium patterns. While the SNP data was not found to be very informative for selection mapping in this dataset, analyses of the microsatellite data provided evidence of selection on GDF-8 in several breeds. These results suggested that, of the breeds examined, the allele was most recently introduced into the South Devon. Limitations to the selection-mapping approach were highlighted from the analysis of the SNP data and the situation where the MH allele was at intermediate frequency. [source]

    Nucleotide variability and linkage disequilibrium patterns at the porcine FABP5 gene

    ANIMAL GENETICS, Issue 5 2008
    A. Ojeda
    Summary Fatty acid binding protein 5 (FABP5) is a major positional and physiological candidate gene for the porcine FAT1 QTL on SSC4. Here we characterize the nucleotide polymorphism and haplotype variability of FABP5 and we compare it with that of FABP4, given their close physical location and similar metabolic roles. DNA resequencing of the FABP5 gene region in 29 pigs from 14 breeds and in European and Japanese wild boars revealed 36 polymorphisms in 5.2 kb, and a nucleotide diversity of 0.19%, comparable to values reported in other domestic species but sixfold lower than that previously found for FABP4. Remarkably, both the nucleotide variability and the haplotype structure of FABP5 and FABP4 were dramatically different, and the Hudson,Kreitman,Aguadé test was highly significant. Nevertheless, both genes also had similarities. The neighbour-joining trees of their haplotypes did not show a geographical arrangement for any of the genes. Besides, both genes presented a similar extent and pattern of linkage disequilibrium. Haplotype blocks did not extend for large stretches (,1 kb in both genes), and the number of tag SNPs required to capture all variability was higher than previously expected. Our findings indicate that FABP4 and FABP5 have undergone different selective or evolutive processes. The fact that haplotype blocks were so small may require us to increase the number of SNPs in prospective whole-genome association studies in the pig. [source]

    Different Evolutionary Histories of the Coagulation Factor VII Gene in Human Populations?

    Georgios Athanasiadis
    Summary Immoderate blood clotting constitutes a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in modern industrialised societies, but is believed to have conferred a survival advantage, i.e. faster recovery from bleeding, on our ancestors. Here, we investigate the evolutionary history of the Coagulation Factor VII gene (F7) by analysing five cardiovascular-risk-associated mutations from the F7 promoter and nine neutral polymorphisms (six SNPs and three microsatellites) from the flanking region in 16 populations from the broader Mediterranean region, South Saharan Africa and Bolivia (687 individuals in total). Population differentiation and selection tests were performed and linkage disequilibrium patterns were investigated. In all samples, no linkage disequilibrium between adjacent F7 promoter mutations ,402 and ,401 was observed. No selection signals were detected in any of the samples from the broader Mediterranean region and South Saharan Africa, while some of the data suggested a potential signal of positive selection for the F7 promoter in the Native American samples from Bolivia. In conclusion, our data suggest, although do not prove, different evolutionary histories in the F7 promoter region between Mediterraneans and Amerindians. [source]