Disease Guidelines (disease + guideline)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Sputum bacteriology in hospitalized patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Taiwan with an emphasis on Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

RESPIROLOGY, Issue 1 2007
Sheng-Hsiang LIN
Background and objective: Bacterial infection is one of the major causes of acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD). This study was undertaken to investigate the microbiology of AECOPD. Methods: Medical records from 494 episodes of AECOPD in patients admitted to the National Taiwan University Hospital from January 2000 to June 2004 were reviewed. Severity of COPD was classified according to the 2003 Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guideline. Results: Potential pathogenic microorganisms were isolated from patients in 328 (66.4%) episodes of AECOPD. The predominant bacteria were Klebsiella pneumoniae (19.6%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (16.8%) and Haemophilus influenzae (7.5%), followed by Acinetobacter baumannii (6.9%), Enterobacter species (6.1%) and Staphylococcus aureus (6.1%). The incidence of Streptococcus pneumoniae was 2.4%. Spirometry results obtained within 1 year of the exacerbation were available in 186 cases. K. pneumoniae was more frequently isolated in stage I COPD (39.1%) than stage II (16.6%), III (13.8%) and IV (9.4%). No glucose non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli were isolated in stage I patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that P. aeruginosa (odds ratio (OR) 3.19; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.21,8.38), intubation (OR 14.81; 95% CI: 5.08,43.12) and age (OR 1.1; 95% CI: 1.03,1.17) were independent risk factors for mortality. Conclusions: Klebsiella pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa are the most common sputum pathogens in hospitalized patients with AECOPD in Taiwan, with the former being more commonly isolated from mild COPD and the latter associated with poor clinical outcome. These results should be considered when deciding which antibiotics should initially be used to treat patients with AECOPD. [source]

Mineral metabolism disturbances in patients with chronic kidney disease

B. Kestenbaum
Abstract Background Kidney disease, especially chronic kidney disease (CKD), is a worldwide public health problem with serious adverse health consequences for affected individuals. Secondary hyperparathyroidism, a disorder characterized by elevated serum parathyroid hormone levels, and alteration of calcium and phosphorus homeostasis are common metabolic complications of CKD that may impact cardiovascular health. Materials and methods Here, we systematically review published reports from recent observational studies and clinical trials that examine markers of altered mineral metabolism and clinical outcomes in patients with CKD. Results Mineral metabolism disturbances begin early during the course of chronic kidney disease, and are associated with cardiovascular disease and mortality in observational studies. Vascular calcification is one plausible mechanism connecting renal-related mineral metabolism with cardiovascular risk. Individual therapies to correct mineral metabolism disturbances have been associated with clinical benefit in some observational studies; clinical trials directed at more comprehensive control of this problem are warranted. Conclusions There exists a potential to improve outcomes for patients with CKD through increased awareness of the Bone Metabolism and Disease guidelines set forth by the National Kidney Foundation,Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative. Future studies may include more aggressive therapy with a combination of agents that address vitamin D deficiency, parathyroid hormone and phosphorus excess, as well as novel agents that modulate circulating promoters and inhibitors of calcification. [source]

Inhospital management of COPD exacerbations: a systematic review of the literature with regard to adherence to international guidelines

Cathy Lodewijckx RN MSc PhD Cand
Abstract Rationale, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations are a leading cause of hospitalization. Suboptimal inhospital management is expected to lead to more frequent exacerbations and recurrent hospital admission, and is associated with increased mortality. Aims, To explore inhospital management of COPD and to compare the results with recommendations from international guidelines. Methods, A literature search was carried out for relevant articles published 2000,2009 in the databases Medline, Cochrane Library, Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature and Invert. In addition, the reference lists of the selected articles were examined. Main inclusion criteria were as follows: COPD, exacerbation, hospitalization, description of inpatient management, and clinical trials. Assessment and treatment strategies in different studies were analysed and compared with American Thoracic Society-European Respiratory Society and Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines. Outcomes were analysed. Results, Seven eligible studies were selected. Non-pharmacological treatment was infrequently explored. When compared with international guidelines, diagnostic assessment and therapy were suboptimal, especially non-pharmacological treatment. Respiratory physicians were more likely to perform recommended interventions than non-respiratory physicians. Conclusions, Adherence to international guidelines is low for inhospital management of COPD exacerbations, especially in terms of non-pharmacological treatment. Further investigation is recommended to explore strategies like care pathways that improve performance of recommended interventions. [source]

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease guidelines: An Asian perspective

Hiromasa Ishii