Disease Equation (disease + equation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Disease Equation

  • renal disease equation

  • Selected Abstracts

    Chronic Kidney Disease and Cognitive Function in Older Adults: Findings from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Cognitive Study

    Kristine Yaffe MD
    OBJECTIVES: To investigate cognitive impairment in older, ethnically diverse individuals with a broad range of kidney function, to evaluate a spectrum of cognitive domains, and to determine whether the relationship between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cognitive function is independent of demographic and clinical factors. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study. PARTICIPANTS: Eight hundred twenty-five adults aged 55 and older with CKD. MEASUREMENTS: Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, mL/min per 1.73 m2) was estimated using the four-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. Cognitive scores on six cognitive tests were compared across eGFR strata using linear regression; multivariable logistic regression was used to examine level of CKD and clinically significant cognitive impairment (score ,1 standard deviations from the mean). RESULTS: Mean age of the participants was 64.9, 50.4% were male, and 44.5% were black. After multivariable adjustment, participants with lower eGFR had lower cognitive scores on most cognitive domains (P<.05). In addition, participants with advanced CKD (eGFR<30) were more likely to have clinically significant cognitive impairment on global cognition (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.0, 95% CI=1.1,3.9), naming (AOR=1.9, 95% CI=1.0,3.3), attention (AOR=2.4, 95% CI=1.3,4.5), executive function (AOR=2.5, 95% CI=1.9,4.4), and delayed memory (AOR=1.5, 95% CI=0.9,2.6) but not on category fluency (AOR=1.1, 95% CI=0.6,2.0) than those with mild to moderate CKD (eGFR 45,59). CONCLUSION: In older adults with CKD, lower level of kidney function was associated with lower cognitive function on most domains. These results suggest that older patients with advanced CKD should be screened for cognitive impairment. [source]

    Uric Acid as a Marker for Renal Dysfunction in Hypertensive Women on Diuretic and Nondiuretic Therapy

    Hyperuricemia is a common finding in hypertensive patients, especially among those who are on diuretic therapy. However, its clinical relevance regarding cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease (CKD) has not clearly been established. The authors assessed whether, in a population of 385 hypertensive women categorized according to diuretic therapy, the stratification in quartiles by uric acid levels would identify a gradient of changes in renal function and in risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The following were evaluated: serum uric acid, glycemia, total and fractional cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein (Apo) B, Apo A-I, and C-reactive protein. Renal function was assessed by serum creatinine, albuminuria, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation, whereas cardiovascular risk was estimated through the Framingham score. A total of 246 women were on diuretic therapy; 139 were taking other antihypertensive medications. There was a reduction in eGFR parallel to the increase in uric acid levels, regardless of diuretic use and without a concomitant increase in albuminuria. In both groups, higher uric acid levels translated into an increase in metabolic syndrome components, in markers of insulin resistance, triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein levels, and Apo B/Apo A-I ratios, as well as in Framingham scores. Hyperuricemia was associated with an increase in inflammatory markers only in patients on diuretic therapy. In a binary logistic regression, hyperuricemia (uric acid >6.0 mg/dL) was independently associated with CKD (eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m²) (odds ratio, 2.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.61,4.3; P<.001). In hypertensive women, the presence of hyperuricemia indicated a substantial degree of kidney dysfunction as well as a greater cardiovascular risk profile. [source]

    Renal function and cardiovascular risk profile after conversion from ciclosporin to tacrolimus: prospective study in 80 liver transplant recipients

    Aliment Pharmacol Ther,30, 834,842 Summary Background, Increased risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease in liver transplant recipients results in particular from the side effects of calcineurin inhibitor-based immunosuppressive therapy. Several studies have demonstrated a more favourable outcome for patients receiving tacrolimus (TAC) as compared with ciclosporin (CS). Aim, To investigate the effects of conversion from CS to TAC on cardiovascular risk factors and renal function in liver transplant recipients. Methods, In a prospective study, all except two patients had chronic kidney disease stages 2,4 (n = 80), according to estimated glomerular filtration rate using the abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. Results, Conversion was accompanied with a mean decrease of total cholesterol from 194.6 ± 54.0 mg/dL to 175.8 ± 44.2 mg/dL (P < 0.001), low density lipoprotein cholesterol from 106.7 ± 39.2 mg/dL to 90.9 ± 28.6 mg/dL (P < 0.001) and mean arterial blood pressure values from 102.2 ± 13.2 mm Hg to 95.9 ± 11.7 mm Hg (P < 0.001). Renal function remained stable. No cases of de novo diabetes mellitus were identified. The Framingham risk score was significantly reduced from 5.2 ± 4.4 at baseline to 4.4 ± 5.3 after 12 months (P = 0.006). Conclusions, Conversion from CS to TAC has been shown to improve the cardiovascular risk profile and may retard further decline of renal function after liver transplantation. [source]

    Prediction of glomerular filtration rate in renal transplant recipients: cystatin C or Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation?

    Uwe Pöge
    Abstract: Background: To overcome disadvantages of serum creatinine two strategies have been suggested to identify patients with reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR). On the one hand, the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation is now recommended to classify the stage of chronic kidney disease. On the other hand, cystatin C (Cys C) has been investigated in numerous studies, finding a higher sensitivity than creatinine in detecting diminished GFR. To date, no comparison of both strategies in patients after renal transplantation has been performed. Methods: One hundred and five consecutive renal transplant recipients underwent 99mTc-DTPA , clearance measurement. Simultaneously, MDRD estimates were calculated and Cys C serum levels were determined. ROC analyses were performed at different decision points from 20 to 70 mL/min/1.73 m2. Results: Although the area under the curve did not differ significantly between MDRD and Cys C within the tested GFR range, the AUC for Cys C tended to be higher when GFR exceeded 55 mL/min/1.73 m2. A significantly higher diagnostic accuracy for Cys C compared with MDRD (p=0.045 at 65 mL/min/1.73 m2) was found when investigating the subgroup of patients with well-functioning grafts (GFR>40 mL/min/1.73 m2). Conclusion: MDRD equation is equivalent to Cys C measurement in renal transplant recipients. As availability of MDRD is superior to Cys C, we recommend GFR estimation using the MDRD equation. Nevertheless, Cys C may serve as a confirmation test of high MDRD estimates in patients with well-functioning grafts because of superior accuracy in these patients. [source]

    Selecting an optimal cutoff value for creatinine in the model for end-stage liver disease equation

    Teh-Ia Huo
    Huo T-I, Hsu C-Y, Lin H-C, Lee P-C, Lee J-Y, Lee F-Y, Hou M-C, Lee S-D. Selecting an optimal cutoff value for creatinine in the model for end-stage liver disease equation. Clin Transplant 2009 DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-0012.2009.01099.x. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Abstract:, Background:, The model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) is used for organ allocation in liver transplantation. The maximal serum creatinine (Cr) level for MELD is set at 4.0 mg/dL; however, there was no outcome data to justify this strategy. Methods:, Ninety-two patients with cirrhosis with Cr level >4 mg/dL were selected from 1438 patients and compared with MELD score-matched controls for three-month and six-month mortality. Results:, At three months, patients with Cr level >4 mg/dL had a significantly higher mortality rate than the 184 controls with a lower Cr level (44.6% vs. 29.3%, p = 0.015). This trend was still significant at six months: the mortality rate was 62% in the index group vs. 45.1% in the control group (p = 0.011). The difference between the index and control groups was the smallest (2.5% at three months and 3.4% at six months) when Cr was up-scaled to 5.5 mg/dL. The predictive accuracy of the MELD was estimated by using area under receiver-operating characteristic (AUC) curve. Only the cutoff of 5.5 mg/dL at six months displayed a higher AUC (0.753). Conclusions:, A cutoff at 5.5 mg/dL may be more appropriate for the MELD. The MELD for patients with cirrhosis with advanced renal insufficiency deserves re-evaluation. [source]