Disease Duration (disease + duration)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Disease Duration

  • average disease duration
  • longer disease duration
  • mean disease duration
  • median disease duration
  • shorter disease duration

  • Selected Abstracts

    Experiences of diagnosis and treatment among people with multiple sclerosis

    Rhiannon G. Edwards MSc
    Abstract Rationale, aims and objectives, The aim of this qualitative study was to examine patients' experiences of being diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS), the information that they were given at this time, subsequent treatment and its impact on their lives. Method, Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 24 people with MS. The use of interviews allowed participants' experiences to be explored in depth. Participants were recruited by the MS Society through membership details and through a press release in a local newspaper. Telephone interviews lasted between 30 and 60 minutes, were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using thematic content analysis. Results, The majority of participants were female (n = 17), with ages ranging from 35 to 72 years. Disease duration ranged from 1 to 37 years. Many participants' diagnosed before and after 2000 had experienced long delays in diagnosis. At the point of diagnosis, participants had to make sense of and understand their diagnosis often with insufficient support. Some participants expressed anger about the way they had been given their diagnosis. Many felt they had not received sufficient information about their illness at this time and had responded by conducting their own searches for information to satisfy this need. Conclusion, Improving the way in which doctors communicate with patients experiencing diagnostic delay and at the point of diagnosis deserves further study, in order to avoid later adjustment problems. [source]

    The hair follicle melanocytes in vitiligo in relation to disease duration

    T S Anbar
    Abstract Background and aims, Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary disorder of skin and hair. Active melanocytes in hair follicles can be detected by DOPA and immunohistochemical staining, while amelanotic melanocytes can only be detected by the latter. None of the studies on hair melanocytes in vitiligo discussed the effect of disease duration on these melanocytes. Here, we study the presence of melanotic and amelanotic melanocytes in vitiligo hair follicles and statistically correlating their presence with the disease duration. Methods, This study was conducted on 30 patients with vitiligo and 10 normal volunteers. Three biopsies were taken from each patient: two from black and white hairs from vitiliginous areas and the third from apparently normal skin of the same patients. Sections were stained by DOPA reaction and NKI/beteb then examined for the presence of melanocytes. The presence of melanocytes and the disease duration were correlated statistically using the t -test. Results, Active melanocytes were detected in black hairs of 6.7% of vitiligo patients and in 100% of apparently normal skin of the same patients and controls. On examining black hairs of the 28 vitiligo patients with negative DOPA reaction, 19 of them (67.9%) showed positive NKI/beteb stain. Disease duration was inversely correlated with the melanocytes' presence within hair follicles. Melanocytes were absent from 100% of white hairs. Conclusions, The melanotic melanocytes were the first target of the disease process followed by the amelanotic melanocytes. Since the disappearance of the latter was inversely correlated with the disease duration, early treatment in vitiligo is advised. Conflicts of interest None declared. [source]

    Variably protease-sensitive prionopathy: A new sporadic disease of the prion protein,

    ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY, Issue 2 2010
    Wen-Quan Zou MD
    Objective: The objective of the study is to report 2 new genotypic forms of protease-sensitive prionopathy (PSPr), a novel prion disease described in 2008, in 11 subjects all homozygous for valine at codon 129 of the prion protein (PrP) gene (129VV). The 2 new PSPr forms affect individuals who are either homozygous for methionine (129MM) or heterozygous for methionine/valine (129MV). Methods: Fifteen affected subjects with 129MM, 129MV, and 129VV underwent comparative evaluation at the National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center for clinical, histopathologic, immunohistochemical, genotypical, and PrP characteristics. Results: Disease duration (between 22 and 45 months) was significantly different in the 129VV and 129MV subjects. Most other phenotypic features along with the PrP electrophoretic profile were similar but distinguishable in the 3 129 genotypes. A major difference laid in the sensitivity to protease digestion of the disease-associated PrP, which was high in 129VV but much lower, or altogether lacking, in 129MV and 129MM. This difference prompted the substitution of the original designation with "variably protease-sensitive prionopathy" (VPSPr). None of the subjects had mutations in the PrP gene coding region. Interpretation: Because all 3 129 genotypes are involved, and are associated with distinguishable phenotypes, VPSPr becomes the second sporadic prion protein disease with this feature after Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, originally reported in 1920. However, the characteristics of the abnormal prion protein suggest that VPSPr is different from typical prion diseases, and perhaps more akin to subtypes of Gerstmann-Strussler-Scheinker disease. ANN NEUROL 2010;68:162,172 [source]

    Independent association of rheumatoid arthritis with increased left ventricular mass but not with reduced ejection fraction

    ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 1 2009
    Rebecca L. Rudominer
    Objective Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with premature atherosclerosis, vascular stiffening, and heart failure. This study was undertaken to investigate whether RA is associated with underlying structural and functional abnormalities of the left ventricle (LV). Methods Eighty-nine RA patients without clinical cardiovascular disease and 89 healthy matched controls underwent echocardiography, carotid ultrasonography, and radial tonometry to measure arterial stiffness. RA patients and controls were similar in body size, hypertension and diabetes status, and cholesterol level. Results LV diastolic diameter (4.92 cm versus 4.64 cm; P < 0.001), mass (136.9 gm versus 121.7 gm; P = 0.004 or 36.5 versus 32.9 gm/m2.7; P = 0.01), ejection fraction (71% versus 67%; P < 0.001), and prevalence of LV hypertrophy (18% versus 6.7%; P = 0.023) were all higher among RA patients versus controls. In multivariate analysis, presence of RA was an independent correlate of LV mass (P = 0.004). Furthermore, RA was independently associated with presence of LV hypertrophy (odds ratio 4.14 [95% confidence interval 1.24, 13.80], P = 0.021). Among RA patients, age at diagnosis and disease duration were independently related to LV mass. RA patients with LV hypertrophy were older and had higher systolic pressure, damage index scores, C-reactive protein levels, homocysteine levels, and arterial stiffness compared with those without LV hypertrophy. Conclusion The present results demonstrate that RA is associated with increased LV mass. Disease duration is independently related to increased LV mass, suggesting a pathophysiologic link between chronic inflammation and LV hypertrophy. In contrast, LV systolic function is preserved in RA patients, indicating that systolic dysfunction is not an intrinsic feature of RA. [source]

    FS07.1 A survey of occupational hand eczema in Denmark

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 3 2004
    Rikke Skoet
    Background:, The need for prevention to reduce the number of occupational hand eczema is high. Occupational hand eczema is the most frequently recognised work-related disease in Denmark. Previous findings have shown that almost half of all cases develop a chronic condition with persistent dermatitis, and the annual cost to society is immense. Aims:, The aim of this study was to survey the trends and development of occupational hand eczema in Denmark and thereby help to ensure future successful prevention of chronic disabling occupational hand eczema. Methods:, 758 patients with recognised occupational hand eczema were included prospectively in the period October 2001- November 2002. Data on diagnoses, disease duration, severity, absence from work and occupation was obtained from The Danish National Board of Industrial Injuries and an additional questionnaire was administered by mail. Results:, 621 patients answered the questionnaire (response rate 82%). Irritant contact dermatitis was the most frequent diagnosis and the female/male ratio was 2:1. High prevalence was found in particularly wet occupations. 19 per cent had sick leave more than 5 weeks per year and the mean disease duration was 4.8 years (median 2.1 years). 68.2% had chronic changes. Conclusion:, The results showed a marked gender difference in the pattern of diagnosis and occupation. The impact of occupational hand eczema is still high with prolonged absence from work and a high percentage of chronic disease. The results of the study give important suggestions for future preventive strategies for health authorities. [source]

    Clinical presentations of alopecia areata

    Maria K. Hordinsky
    Alopecia areata (AA) may can occur on any hair-bearing region. Patients can develop patchy nonscarring hair loss or extensive loss of all body hair. Hair loss may fluctuate. Some patients experience recurrent hair loss followed by hair regrowth, whereas others may only develop a single patch of hair loss, never to see the disease again. Still others experience extensive loss of body hair. The heterogeneity of clinical presentations has led investigators conducting clinical therapeutic trials to typically group patients into three major groups, those with extensive scalp hair loss [alopecia totalis (AT)], extensive body hair loss [alopecia universalis (AU)], or patchy disease (AA). Treatment outcomes have been correlated with disease duration and extent. Recently, guidelines were established for selecting and assessing subjects for both clinical and laboratory studies of AA, thereby facilitating collaboration, comparison of data, and the sharing of patient-derived tissue. For reporting purposes the terms AT and AU, though still used are defined very narrowly. AT is 100% terminal scalp hair loss without any body hair loss and AU is 100% terminal scalp hair and body loss. AT/AU is the term now recommended to define the presence of AT with variable amounts of body hair loss. In this report the term AA will be used broadly to encompass the many presentations of this disease. Development of AA may occur with changes in other ectodermal-derived structures such as fingernails and toenails. Some investigators have also suggested that other ectodermal-derived appendages as sebaceous glands and sweat glands may be affected in patients experiencing AA. Whether or not function of these glands is truly impaired remains to be confirmed. Many patients who develop patchy or extensive AA complain of changes in cutaneous sensation, that is, burning, itching, tingling, with the development of their disease. Similar symptoms may occur with hair regrowth. The potential involvement of the nervous system in AA has led to morphologic investigations of the peripheral nervous system as well as analysis of circulating neuropeptide levels. In this article the clinical presentations of AA are reviewed. The guidelines for conducting treatment studies of AA are presented and observations on changes in cutaneous innervation are introduced. Throughout the text, unless otherwise noted, AA will be used in a general way to denote the spectrum of this disease. [source]

    Efficacy and safety of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor alogliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled by glyburide monotherapy

    R. E. Pratley
    Aim:, To evaluate the efficacy and safety of alogliptin, a potent and highly selective dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, in combination with glyburide in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled by sulphonylurea monotherapy. Methods:, After a 2-week screening period, adult patients 18,80 years of age entered a 4-week run-in/stabilization period in which they were switched from their own sulphonylurea medication to an equivalent dose of glyburide (open label) plus placebo (single blind). After the run-in period, patients were randomly assigned to double-blind treatment with alogliptin 12.5 mg (n = 203), alogliptin 25 mg (n = 198), or placebo (n = 99) for 26 weeks. The primary end-point was change from baseline to week 26 in glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c). Secondary end-points included clinical response rates and changes in fasting plasma glucose, ,-cell function (fasting proinsulin, insulin, proinsulin/insulin ratio, and C-peptide, and homeostasis model assessment ,-cell function), body weight, and safety end-points [adverse events (AEs), clinical laboratory tests, vital signs and electrocardiographic readings]. Results:, The study population had a mean age of 57 years and a mean disease duration of 8 years; it was well balanced for gender (52% women) and was mainly white (71%). The mean baseline HbA1c was approximately 8.1% in each group. Significantly greater least squares (LS) mean reductions in HbA1c were seen at week 26 with alogliptin 12.5 mg (,0.38%) and 25 mg (,0.52%) vs. placebo (+0.01%; p < 0.001), and more patients in the alogliptin 25-mg group had HbA1c levels ,7.0% at week 26 (34.8%, p = 0.002) vs. placebo (18.2%). Proportionately more patients in the alogliptin 12.5 mg (47.3%) and 25 mg (50.5%) groups had an HbA1c reduction ,0.5% from baseline compared with patients in the placebo group (26.3%; p < 0.001). Minor improvements in individual markers of ,-cell function were seen with alogliptin, but no significant treatment group differences were noted relative to placebo. Minor LS mean changes in body weight were noted across groups (placebo, ,0.20 kg; alogliptin 12.5 mg, +0.60 kg; alogliptin 25 mg, +0.68 kg). AEs were reported for 63,64% of patients receiving alogliptin and 54% of patients receiving placebo. Few AEs were treatment limiting (2.0,2.5% across groups), and serious AEs (2.0,5.6%) were infrequent, similar across groups, and generally considered not related to treatment. The incidences of hypoglycaemia for placebo, alogliptin 12.5 mg and alogliptin 25 mg groups were 11.1, 15.8 and 9.6% respectively. Conclusions:, In patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled by glyburide monotherapy, the addition of alogliptin resulted in clinically significant reductions in HbA1c without increased incidence of hypoglycaemia. [source]

    Subclinical vascular alterations in young adults with type 1 diabetes detected by arterial tonometry

    I. Barchetta
    Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus is characterized by a very high prevalence of atherosclerotic disease. Aims of this study were to determine arterial compliance parameters in type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients as an expression of early pre-clinical endothelial dysfunction and to evaluate the impact of glucose exposure parameters such as the duration of diabetes and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) on the risk of developing alterations in vascular compliance. Methods 23 patients with uncomplicated type 1 diabetes (mean age: 32.78 9.06 years, mean disease duration: 10.78 7.51 years, mean HbA1c levels: 7.7 1.9) and 26 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects (mean age: 32.3 8.51 years) were recruited. In these subjects, we evaluated arterial compliance by calibrated tonometry (HDI/Pulsewave CR-2000). Parameters included the following: large artery elasticity (C1), small artery elasticity (C2), systemic vascular resistance (SVR) and total vascular impedance (TVI). Results Patients with longer duration of T1D (>10 years) showed significant alterations in C2 (4.97 2.7 mL/mmHg 100) and in SVR (1464.67 169.16 dina s cm,5) when compared with both healthy individuals (C2: 8.28 2.67 mL/mmHg 100, p = 0.001; SVR: 1180.58 151.55 dina s cm,5, p = 0.01) and patients with recent-onset disease (,10 years) (C2: 10.02 3.6 mL/mmHg 100, p < 0.001; SVR: 1124.18 178.5 dina s cm,5, p < 0.000). Both disease duration and HbA1c independently predicted impaired arterial compliance. Conclusions Young adult T1D patients with no signs of disease complication have detectable vessel wall abnormalities, particularly of small arteries, suggestive of hyperglycaemia-related early endothelial dysfunction. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Evidence for a vicious cycle of exercise and hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes mellitus

    A. C. Ertl
    Abstract Exercise is a cornerstone of diabetes management as it aids in glycemic control, weight management, reducing blood pressure, and improving the quality of life of patients. Unfortunately, owing to the complexity and difficulties of regulating exogenous insulin in a physiologic manner during exercise, physical activity often results in hypoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (type 1 DM). When glucose levels fall below threshold glycemic levels, neuroendocrine, autonomic nervous system (ANS), and metabolic glucose counterregulatory mechanisms are activated. These hypoglycemic counterregulatory mechanisms in type 1 DM can be blunted irreversibly by disease duration or by acute episodes of prior stress. These reduced (or absent) counterregulatory responses result in a threefold increase in severe hypoglycemia when intensive glycemic control is implemented in type 1 DM 1. Much recent work has been focused on determining the in vivo mechanisms responsible for causing the increased incidence of severe hypoglycemia in type 1 DM. Studies from several laboratories have demonstrated the role played by episodes of antecedent hypoglycemia in producing blunted glucose counterregulatory responses during subsequent exposures of hypoglycemia. Until recently, the mechanisms responsible for exercise related hypoglycemia in type 1 DM have been attributed to relative or absolute increases of insulin levels or incomplete glycogen repletion after physical activity. Owing to the qualitative similarity of neuroendocrine, ANS, and metabolic responses to hypoglycemia and exercise, we have hypothesized that neuroendocrine and ANS counterregulatory dysfunction may also play an important role in the pathogenesis of exercise-related hypoglycemia in type 1 DM. Vicious cycles can be created in type 1 DM, where an episode of hypoglycemia or exercise can feed forward to downregulate neuroendocrine and ANS responses to a subsequent episode of either stress, thereby creating further hypoglycemia (Figure 1). This article will review the recent work that has studied the contribution of counterregulatory dysfunction to exercise-induced hypoglycemia in type 1 DM. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 1. Reciprocal vicious cycles may be created in type 1 diabetes mellitus (type 1 DM), whereby an episode of hypoglycemia or exercise can feed forward to downregulate neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous system responses to a subsequent episode of either stress, thereby creating further hypoglycemia [source]

    School attendance in children with Type 1 diabetes

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 4 2005
    L. A. Glaab
    Abstract Aims To determine whether children with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) miss more school than their non-DM siblings and peers and to identify factors associated with school absenteeism in children with DM. Methods School absenteeism data for the 2000,01 school year were obtained for 78 children with DM, 38 non-DM siblings and 118 269 age-matched peers in Toronto, Ontario. Questionnaires and hospital records were utilized to evaluate child-, family- and diabetes-related factors associated with school absenteeism in children with DM. Results Children with DM missed only slightly, albeit significantly more school than both their non-DM siblings (mean sd: 10.9 8.9 vs. 8.1 8.1 days, P < 0.001) and peers (median: 8.8 vs. 5.5 days, P = 0.0005). A multiple regression analysis indicated that school absenteeism in children with DM was associated with their parents' attitudes towards school attendance (P = 0.002), poorer metabolic control (P = 0.006), shorter disease duration (P = 0.006) and a lack of aggressive behaviour (P = 0.02). Conclusions With current management strategies, near normal school attendance is a reasonable goal for all children with DM and should be strongly encouraged by parents, educators and health care professionals. [source]

    Esophageal manometry in 28 systemic sclerosis Brazilian patients: findings and correlations

    D. C. Calderaro
    SUMMARY Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a multisystem disease of unknown etiology. Esophageal involvement affects 50,90% of patients and is characterized by abnormal motility and hypotonic lower esophageal sphincter. Data on the association of esophageal abnormalities and age, gender, SSc subset or duration, autoantibody profile, esophageal symptoms, and medication are lacking or conflicting. The aim of this study was the evaluation of these associations in Brazilian sclerodermic patients from the Rheumatology Division, Clinics Hospital, Federal University, Minas Gerais. They underwent medical records review, clinical interview, and esophageal manometry. The normal cutoff level for lower esophageal sphincter pressure was 14 mmHg. Abnormal peristalsis occurred when less than 80% of peristaltic waves were propagated. P -values less than 0.05 were considered significant. Twenty-eight patients were included: 71% were women. The population presented medium age and disease duration of 46 years and 12 years, respectively. Cutaneous diffuse SSc occurred in 39% and its limited form in 61%. Dysphagia, pyrosis, and regurgitation occurred, respectively, in 71%, 43%, and 61% of patients. Lower esophageal sphincter pressure and number of peristaltic waves-propagated medias were, respectively, 17.2 mmHg and 2.3. SSc-related manometric abnormalities were present in 86% of patients. Manometry revealed distal esophageal body hypomotility, hypotonic lower esophageal sphincter, or both, respectively, in 82%, 39%, and 36% of patients. One patient presented the manometric pattern of esophageal achalasia. Male patients more frequently presented hypotonic inferior esophageal sphincter. Manometric findings have had no relationship with the other variables. Nifedipine use did not influence manometric findings. [source]

    Decreased hippocampal volume on MRI is associated with increased extracellular glutamate in epilepsy patients

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 8 2008
    Idil Cavus
    Summary Purpose: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is associated with smaller hippocampal volume and with elevated extracellular (EC) glutamate levels. We investigated the relationship between the hippocampal volume and glutamate in refractory TLE patients. Methods: We used quantitative MRI volumetrics to measure the hippocampal volume and zero-flow microdialysis to measure the interictal glutamate, glutamine, and GABA levels in the epileptogenic hippocampus of 17 patients with medication-resistant epilepsy undergoing intracranial EEG evaluation. The relationships between hippocampal volume, neurochemical levels, and relevant clinical factors were examined. Results: Increased EC glutamate in the epileptogenic hippocampus was significantly related to smaller ipsilateral (R2= 0.75, p < 0.0001), but not contralateral hippocampal volume when controlled for glutamine and GABA levels, and for clinical factors known to influence hippocampal volume. Glutamate in the atrophic hippocampus was significantly higher (p = 0.008, n = 9), with the threshold for hippocampal atrophy estimated as 5 ,M. GABA and glutamine levels in the atrophic and nonatrophic hippocampus were comparable. Decreased hippocampal volume was related to higher seizure frequency (p = 0.008), but not to disease duration or febrile seizure history. None of these clinical factors were related to the neurochemical levels. Conclusions: We provide evidence for a significant association between increased EC glutamate and decreased ipsilateral epileptogenic hippocampal volume in TLE. Future work will be needed to determine whether the increase in glutamate has a causal relationship with hippocampal atrophy, or whether another, yet unknown factor results in both. This work has implications for the understanding and treatment of epilepsy as well as other neurodegenerative disorders associated with hippocampal atrophy. [source]

    Antiepileptic Drug Withdrawal after Successful Surgery for Intractable Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 2 2005
    Young Dae Kim
    Summary:,Purpose: To investigate the prognosis related to antiepileptic drug (AED) discontinuation after successful surgery for intractable temporal lobe epilepsy. Methods: The clinical courses after temporal lobectomies (TLs) were retrospectively analyzed in 88 consecutive patients. All the patients had TLs as the only surgical procedure, and they had been followed up for longer than 3 years. AED discontinuation was attempted if the patient had been seizure free without aura for ,1 year during the follow-up period. Results: Sixty-six (75%) patients achieved complete seizure freedom for ,1 year; 28 patients were seizure free immediately after surgery (immediate success); and 38 patients became seizure free after some period of recurrent seizures (delayed success). AED discontinuation was attempted in 60 (91%) of 66 patients with a successful outcome. In 13 (22%) patients, seizure relapse developed during AED reduction (n = 60), and in seven (12%) patients after discontinuation of AEDs (n = 38). The seizure recurrence rate was not different between the immediate- and delayed-success groups. Among 20 patients with seizure relapse related to AED tapering, nine (45%) of them regained seizure freedom after reinstitution of AED treatment, and AEDs were eventually discontinued in six of them. Seizures that recurred after complete AED discontinuation had a better prognosis than did the seizures that recurred during AED reduction (seizure freedom in 86% vs. 23%). At the final assessment, 54 (61%) patients had been seizure free ,1 year; 37 without AEDs and 17 with AEDs. The successful discontinuation of AEDs was more frequent for patients with a younger age at the time of surgery and for those patients with shorter disease duration. Conclusions: Our results suggest that seizure freedom without aura at ,1 year is a reasonable indication for the attempt at AED discontinuation. The subsequent control of recurrent seizures was excellent, especially if seizures relapsed after the complete discontinuation of AEDs. Younger age at the time of surgery and a shorter disease duration seem to affect successful AED discontinuation for a long-term period. [source]

    Effect of weight-regulating practices on potassium level in patients with anorexia or bulimia nervosa

    Dr. Katrin Imbierowicz
    Abstract Objective The authors evaluated retrospectively data from 397 patients with anorexia (AN) and bulimia nervosa(BN). Method Patients were divided into six pre-defined and symptom-related subgroups and their hypokalemia frequencies compared. The correlation between potassium level and disease-related patterns was assessed. Results The two purging type AN groups were at greatest risk of hypokalemia. Vomiting frequency, body mass index (BMI) and laxative dosage had an effect on potassium levels within the overall group but only accounted for 19% of the variance of potassium level. Effects could not be proved for fasting, sport and disease duration. Discussion Patients with anorexia or bulimia nervosa are very heterogeneous due to the considerable range of potential weight-regulating measures. Taking this heterogeneity into consideration by dividing patients into diagnostic subgroups and considering their symptomatology thus considerably aids the estimation of hypokalemia risk when treating eating disorders. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

    High HDL-cholesterol in women with rheumatoid arthritis on low-dose glucocorticoid therapy

    C. Garca-Gmez
    ABSTRACT Background, Dyslipidaemia has been described in non-treated rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and improves after therapy with disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs or glucocorticoids; however, it has generally been perceived that glucocorticoids adversely affect lipid metabolism. The association of low dose glucocorticoid therapy with plasma lipid levels was evaluated in female RA patients. Materials and methods, A cross-sectional study was conducted in 78 female RA patients [mean age: 60 (12) years; mean disease duration: 13 (9) years]. Sixty-five (83%) were on glucocorticoid therapy [total equivalent mean prednisone dose: 51 (17) mg d,1]. Each patient was assessed through a self-reported questionnaire, structured interview and physical examination. Blood samples were obtained for routine biochemistry, lipid profile and haematological tests. Lipid profiles of RA patients who were and were not on glucocorticoid therapy were compared. Results, Clinical and laboratory features of the two groups of patients were similar, except for the Health Assessment Questionnaire and body mass index, which were significantly higher in the patients on glucocorticoid therapy. These patients had 147% higher serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) levels than untreated patients (P = 0043), mainly at the expense of HDL2 subfraction, which was 244% higher (P < 0039), whereas HDL3-c was only 74% higher (P = 0219). Serum levels of glucose and total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL -c), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoproteins A-I and B were not increased in patients on glucocorticoid therapy. Conclusions, Low dose glucocorticoid therapy in RA patients is associated with an increase in HDL-c, without increasing LDL-c or triglyceride. These lipid changes may overall be considered favourable. [source]

    Impaired aortic elastic properties in patients with systemic sarcoidosis

    I. Moyssakis
    Abstract Background, Systemic sarcoidosis (Sar) is a granulomatous disorder involving multiple organs. Widespread vascular involvement and microangiopathy are common in patients with Sar. In addition, subclinical cardiac involvement is increasingly recognized in patients with Sar. However, data on the effect of Sar on the elastic properties of the arteries and myocardial performance are limited. In this study we looked for differences in aortic distensibility (AoD) which is an index of aortic elasticity, and myocardial performance of the ventricles, between patients with Sar and healthy subjects. In addition, we examined potential associations between AoD and clinical, respiratory and echocardiographic findings in patients with Sar. Materials and methods, A total of 83 consecutive patients (26 male/57 female, mean age 511 133 years) with Sar, without cardiac symptoms, were included. All patients underwent echocardiographic and respiratory evaluation including lung function tests. Additionally, 83 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects served as controls. AoD was determined non-invasively by ultrasonography. Results, AoD was lower in the Sar compared to the control group (229 026 vs. 245 020 10,6 cm2 dyn,1, P < 001), while left ventricular mass (LVM) was higher in the Sar group (2213 502 vs. 1956 313 g, P = 0007). Furthermore, myocardial performance of both ventricles was impaired in the Sar group. Multivariate linear regression analysis in the total sample population demonstrated a significant and independent inverse relationship between AoD and the presence of Sar (P < 0001). The same analysis in the Sar patients showed that AoD was associated significantly and independently with the stage of Sar, age, systolic blood pressure, LVM and myocardial performance of both ventricles. No significant relationship was found between AoD and disease duration, pulmonary artery pressure or lung function tests. Conclusions, Presence and severity of Sar are associated with reduced aortic distensibility, irrespective of the disease duration, pulmonary artery pressure and lung function. In addition, patients with Sar have increased LVM and impaired myocardial performance. [source]

    Elevated exhalation of hydrogen peroxide in patients with systemic sclerosis

    Abstract Background Systemic sclerosis is accompanied by an influx of activated phagocytes into distal airways. These cells release H2O2, which may evaporate from the airways surface and be detected in expired breath condensate. We tested whether patients with systemic sclerosis exhale more H2O2 than healthy subjects and whether breath condensate H2O2 levels correlate with some clinical parameters. Material and methods H2O2 was measured fluorimetrically in the expired breath condensate of 27 patients (22 women, five men, mean age 49 131 years) with systemic sclerosis and 27 age- and sex- matched healthy controls. Results Exhaled H2O2 levels were 35-fold higher (088 062 M vs. 025 017 M, P < 0001) in the patients with systemic sclerosis than in the controls. Treatment with cyclophosphamide and/or prednisone (29 50 months, range 3,168 months) did not significantly decrease H2O2 exhalation (078 050 M, n= 10 vs. 094 067 M, n= 17, P > 005). No significant difference was found between patients with limited and diffuse scleroderma (103 069 M, n= 17 vs. 063 041 M, n= 10, P > 005). H2O2 levels correlated with disease duration (r = 038, P < 005) and time from the first Raynaud's episode (r = 044, P < 005). Conclusions Patients with systemic sclerosis exhale more H2O2 than healthy controls, suggesting involvement of reactive oxygen species in disease processes. Lack of significant intergroups differences in H2O2 levels may have resulted from the small number of patients analyzed. [source]

    Efficacy of single-agent bortezomib vs. single-agent thalidomide in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma: a systematic comparison

    H. Miles Prince
    Abstract Objective:, To conduct a systematic review of the efficacy of single-agent bortezomib vs. single-agent thalidomide in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple. Methods:, Publications in English from 1966 to June 2005 (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane library), publication reference lists, Janssen-Cilag data-on-file and abstracts from recent multiple myeloma conferences were reviewed. Prospective studies containing at least a single arm of either treatment group with n,30 were included. Studies adding dexamethasone for non-responders were excluded. Statistical pooling was performed for response rate and overallsurvival. Results:, One bortezomib study (n = 333, NEJM 2005, 352; 2487,98) and 15 thalidomide (n = 1007) studies met these criteria and were included. Patient baseline characteristics including age, gender, IgG : IgA, disease duration and beta-2 microglobulin were well matched except that 48% of bortezomib patients had received prior thalidomide. Response rate, defined as serum M-protein reduction ,50%, was 53% for patients receiving bortezomib vs. 32% for thalidomide (P < 0.001, n = 10 studies). Response rate determined by European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) criteria was 41% for patients receiving bortezomib vs. 22% for thalidomide (P < 0.001, n = 4 studies). Conclusion:, Bortezomib was associated with a significantly higher response rate and complete remission rate using both M-protein and EBMT criteria. [source]

    Evolution of striatal degeneration in McLeod syndrome

    P. O. Valko
    Background and purpose:, McLeod neuroacanthocytosis syndrome (MLS) is an X-linked multisystem disorder with CNS manifestations resembling Huntington disease. Neuroimaging studies revealed striatal atrophy with predominance of the caudate nucleus. Our previous cross-sectional MRI study showed an association of volume loss in the caudate nucleus and putamen with the disease duration. Methods:, In the present study, we examined three brothers with genetically confirmed diagnosis of MLS using an observer-independent and fully automated subcortical segmentation procedure to measure striatal volumes. Results:, In a cross-sectional comparison with 20 healthy age-matched control men, the volumes of the caudate nucleus of the three patients were significantly smaller as confirmed by z -score transformations. On an individual basis, volumes in the two more severely affected and older patients were smaller than in the less affected younger brother. Longitudinal MRI-based measurements over 7 years demonstrated a statistical trend towards significant decreased caudate volumes in McLeod patients. Conclusions:, Our findings indicate that structural MRI combined with fully automated computational morphometric analyses represents an objective and observer-independent imaging tool for the representation of progressive striatal degeneration in MLS and might be a valuable methodology for cross-sectional as well as longitudinally volumetric studies in other rare neurodegenerative diseases, even on individual patients. [source]

    Apolipoprotein E polymorphism interacts with cigarette smoking in progression of multiple sclerosis

    A. Sena
    Background and purpose:, The influence of apolipoprotein E (ApoE) polymorphism on clinical severity of multiple sclerosis (MS) is still controversial. Cigarette smoking has been suggested to influence the progression of disability in these patients. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether an interaction of smoking with the ApoE polymorphism influences the progression of disability in MS patients. Methods:, Smoking history from 205 female patients with MS was obtained. Clinical data collected include age at onset, disease duration, annual relapse rate, the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and the Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (MSSS). ApoE polymorphism was examined in all patients and stratified according to smoking status and associations with the clinical data investigated. Results:, There were no significant associations between cigarette smoking and any of the clinical characteristics in the whole group of patients. In women carrying the ApoE E4 isoform, smokers had a lower EDSS (P = 0.033) and MSSS (P = 0.023) in comparison with non-smokers. Conclusion:, Our data suggest that in women with MS carrying the ApoE E4 isoform, cigarette smoking may have a protective influence on disease progression and accumulation of disability. These findings need to be confirmed by future large longitudinal studies. [source]

    Quality of life in 1000 patients with early relapsing,remitting multiple sclerosis

    N. Putzki
    Background and purpose:, To examine the quality of life (QoL) in a large cohort of untreated patients with relapsing,remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and to investigate the impact of intramuscular (IM) interferon beta-1a (IFN-1a) treatment. Methods:, Prospective, observational, open-label, multicentre study conducted in Germany. Untreated patients with RRMS who initiated treatment with IM IFN-1a were included and followed for 12 months. QoL was measured using the EQ-5D questionnaire. Clinical response was assessed by relapse rate and disability (Expanded Disability Status Scale; EDSS). Results:, A total of 1157 patients were included [mean age 37.6 years, median disease duration 13 months, mean relapse rate 1.7 (95%CI: 1.58,1.73), median EDSS score 2.0]. Relapse rate was reduced to 0.6 at 12 months (95%CI: 0.51,0.69, P < 0.0001). EDSS did not change significantly. At baseline, QoL was considerably lower in MS patients compared with the general German population, but was improved after treatment initiation [utilities of EQ-5D: 0.77 (95%CI: 0.75,0.78) vs. 0.75 (95%CI: 0.74,0.76) at baseline, 95%CI for difference: 0.01,0.03, P = 0.0046]. Higher disease activity and inability to work were negative predictors of QoL. 14.7% of patients were incapable of working for MS-related reasons. Conclusions:, Quality of life is considerably impaired in early stages of MS. Treatment initiation with IM IFN attenuates MS disease activity and improves QoL. Inability to work early during the disease is a major challenge for the social security systems. [source]

    Relationship between weight, levodopa and dyskinesia: the significance of levodopa dose per kilogram body weight

    J. C. Sharma
    Purpose:, Levodopa dose per kilogram body weight is reported to be a significant factor for dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease. We have investigated this hypothesis in data from the studies comparing ropinirole versus levodopa as the initial therapy. Methods:, Data from the ropinirole versus levodopa studies 056 and REAL-PET in early Parkinson's disease were pooled and manipulated to calculate levodopa dose per kilogram body weight. Logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate significant variables for the development of dyskinesia. Only the patients on levodopa monotherapy or with ropinirole were analyzed. Results:, Analysis of levodopa therapy patients revealed that dyskinetic patients had received significantly higher absolute levodopa dose and levodopa dose per kilogram body weight. Logistic regression revealed that the most significant factor was the higher levodopa dose per kilogram body weight, P = 0.005, odds ratio 1.078, 95% CI 1.023,1.135; younger age was the second factor ,P = 0.026. Variables of gender, absolute levodopa dose, weight, disease duration and initial motor Unified Parkinson's disease rating score were not significant. Conclusion:, Higher levodopa dose per kilogram body weight is an independently significant factor for developing dyskinesia. This relationship should be considered in treatment of Parkinson's disease patients aiming to prevent and manage dyskinesia. [source]

    Progression of dysautonomia in multiple system atrophy: a prospective study of self-perceived impairment

    M. Kllensperger
    To assess severity and progression of self-perceived dysautonomia and their impact on health-related quality of life (Hr-QoL) in multiple system atrophy (MSA), twenty-seven patients were recruited by the European MSA Study Group (EMSA-SG). At baseline, all patients completed the Composite Autonomic Symptom Scale (COMPASS) and the 36 item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and they were assessed using the 3-point global disease severity scale (SS-3) and the Unified MSA Rating Scale (UMSARS). After 6 months follow-up, the self completed COMPASS Change Scale (CCS), the SF-36, SS-3, and UMSARS were obtained. MSA patients showed marked self-perceived dysautonomia at baseline visit and pronounced worsening of dysautonomia severity on the CCS at follow-up. Severity and progression of dysautonomia did not correlate with age, disease duration, motor impairment and overall disease severity at baseline. There were no significant differences between genders and motor subtypes. Baseline COMPASS scores were, however, inversely correlated with SF-36 scores. Progression of self-perceived dysautonomia did not correlate with global disease progression. Hr-QoL scores were stable during follow-up. This is the first study to investigate self-perceived dysautonomia severity in MSA and its evolution over time. Our data suggest that dysautonomia should be recognized as a key target for therapeutic intervention in MSA. [source]

    Bone mineral density in familial amyloid polyneuropathy and in other neuromuscular disorders

    I. M. Conceio
    Neuromuscular diseases are a known risk factor for immobilization-induced osteoporosis. The aim of the study was to analyse bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) type I (Val30 Met) and to compare them with a population of patients with other neuromuscular disorders. We studied 24, ambulatory, neuromuscular patients, all men and premenopausal women. We included 12 FAP patients (GI) and 12 patients with other disorders (GII). Clinical data included age, sex, height, weight, alcohol intake, smoking, calcium intake, physical activity and history of fractures. Serum and urinary calcium, osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone and urinary N-telopeptide cross-linked type 1 collagen were determined in all patients. Bone mineral density of lumbar spine, hip and wrist were determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. No statistical differences were found in clinical or analytic data between the two groups, except for body mass index and calciuria, which were lower in GI. In GI, 54.5% were osteoporotic, against 23.1% in GII (P = 0.04). Bone mineral density was lower in GI when compared with GII, and tended to decrease with disease duration. Decreased BMI and the early autonomic involvement in GI probably explain the results. The prevention and early treatment of osteoporosis, in FAP patients should be considered a priority. [source]

    A randomly assigned double-blind cross-over study examining the relative anti-parkinsonian tremor effects of pramipexole and pergolide

    P. Navan
    This study examined the relative anti-Parkinson's disease (PD) tremor potencies of pergolide and pramipexole in people with PD, using a 3-month double-blind cross-over design. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either pergolide and then pramipexole (n = 9) or vice versa (n = 8). The dose of the respective dopamine agonist was increased according to a titration schedule up to a maximum 1.5 mg t.d.s., with cross-over at 10 weeks. Assessments were performed at baseline, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. The primary outcome measures were the differences in the clinical (rest and postural) tremor scores on pergolide versus pramipexole. Seventeen PD patients (11 females and six males) with a mean age 68.4 years (range: 55,84 years) and a mean disease duration of 3.9 years (range: 2 months to 13 years) participated in the study. Twelve of the patients were taking other anti-parkinsonian medications. Two patients dropped out of the study whilst on pergolide. Fifteen of 16 patients were able to cross-over from one dopamine agonist to the other, without major retitration. There were no significant differences between the effects of the two drugs on the primary outcome measures, suggesting that the anti-PD tremor efficacies of dopaminergic medications are not dependent on differential affinities for dopamine receptor types. [source]

    Effect of vitamin E supplementation in patients with ataxia with vitamin E deficiency

    S. Gabsi
    Ataxia with vitamin E (Vit E) defciency (AVED) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations of the , tocopherol transfer protein gene. The Friedreich ataxia phenotype is the most frequent clinical presentation. In AVED patients, serum Vit E levels are very low in the absence of intestinal malabsorption. As Vit E is a major antioxidant agent, Vit E deficiency is supposed to be responsible for the pathological process. Twenty-four AVED patients were fully investigated (electromyography, nerve conduction velocity (NVC) studies, somatosensory evoked potentials, cerebral computed tomography scan, sural nerve biopsy, genetic studies) and supplemented with Vit E (800 mg daily) during a 1-year period. Clinical evaluation was mainly based on the Ataxia Rating Scale (ARS) for cerebellar ataxia assessment and serum Vit E levels were monitored. Serum Vit E levels normalized and ARS scores decreased moderately but significantly suggesting clinical improvement. Better results were noted with mean disease duration , 15 years. Reflexes remained abolished and posterior column disturbances unchanged. Vitamin E supplementation in AVED patients stabilizes the neurological signs and can lead to mild improvement of cerebellar ataxia, especially in early stages of the disease. [source]

    Stabilization of mutant Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) protein by coexpressed wild SOD1 protein accelerates the disease progression in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mice

    Kei Fukada
    Abstract Transgenic mice carrying familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS)-linked mutant Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) genes such as G93A (G93A-mice) and G85R (G85R-mice) genes develop limb paresis. Introduction of human wild type SOD1 (hWT-SOD1) gene, which does not cause motor impairment by itself, into different FALS mice resulted in different effects on their clinical courses, from no effect in G85R-mice to acceleration of disease progression in G93A-mice. However, the molecular mechanism which causes the observed difference, has not been clarified. We hypothesized that the difference might be caused by the stability of mutant SOD1 proteins. Using a combination of mass spectrometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we found that the concentration of G93A-SOD1 protein was markedly elevated in tissues of transgenic mice carrying both G93A - and hWT-SOD1 genes (G93A/hWT-mice) compared to that in G93A-mice, and also found that the concentration of G93A-SOD1 protein had a close relation to the disease duration. The concentration of metallothionein-I/II in the spinal cord, reflecting the degree of copper-mediated oxidative stress, was highest in G93A/hWT-mice, second in G93A-mice, and normal in the mice carrying hWT-SOD1 gene. These results indicated that the increase of G93A-SOD1 protein was responsible for the increase of oxidative stress and disease acceleration in G93A/hWT-mice. We speculate that coexpression of hWT-SOD1 protein is deleterious to transgenic mice carrying a stable mutant such as G93A-SOD1, because this mutant protein is stabilized by hWT-SOD1 protein, but not to transgenic mice carrying an unstable mutant such as G85R-SOD1, because this mutant protein is not stabilized by hWT-SOD1. [source]

    Analysis of risk factors predicting thrombotic and/or haemorrhagic complications in 306 patients with Essential Thrombocythemia

    Franca Radaelli
    Abstract Thrombotic and haemorrhagic complications are the main causes of morbidity in Essential Thrombocythemia (ET). We investigated the clinical and laboratory characteristics associated with the occurrence of these events with the aim of identifying subgroups of patients who might benefit from anti-aggregant and/or cytoreductive therapy. The study involved 306 consecutive ET patients (median age 58 years and median follow-up 96 months); the investigated variables were age, gender, platelet count, previous history of thrombotic or haemorrhagic events, disease duration and cardiovascular risk factors. Forty-six patients (15%) experienced thrombotic complications during the follow-up: 26/64 patients with a previous history of thrombosis (40.6%) and 20/242 patients without (8.3%; p,<,0.0001). Thirty-one patients (10%) experienced major haemorrhagic complications, mainly gastrointestinal tract bleeding: 3 with and 28 without a history of haemorrhagic events (p,=,0.052). When the patients with a negative history of thrombosis were stratified on the basis of the number of cardiovascular risk factors (none vs. one vs. more than one), there was a significant correlation with the occurrence of thrombotic events (p,<,0.05). ET patients with a positive history of thrombosis are at high risk of thrombotic complications, and should receive cytoreductive and anti-aggregant treatment. Asymptomatic patients with a negative thrombotic history and no cardiovascular risk factors are at low risk, and should not be treated. Patients with a negative thrombotic history and one or more cardiovascular risk factors are at intermediate risk, and should be treated with anti-aggregant and/or cytoreductive therapy. The need for treatment should be periodically re-evaluated. Age and platelet count, generally accepted as very important risk factors for thrombosis, did not seem in our series associated with an increased risk for thrombosis. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Inflammatory bowel disease in young people: The case for transitional clinics

    J. Goodhand MRCP
    Abstract Background: The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing among adolescents. In all, 25% of patients are diagnosed before the age of 16, when they are traditionally transferred from the pediatric to the adult service. Methods: We conducted a retrospective case-controlled study to characterize patients treated in a novel transitional adolescent,young adult IBD clinic. This compared disease extent, radiation exposure, therapeutic strategy, and requirement for surgery in 100 adolescents with controls from our adult IBD clinic matched for disease duration. Results: The median (range) ages for the adolescent and adult population was 19 (16,28) and 43 (24,84), with a median age at diagnosis of 15 (3,26) and 39 (13,82) respectively (P < 0.001). Crohn's disease was significantly more common in the adolescents. Disease distribution was ileocolonic in 69% of adolescents and 28% of adults, restricted to the ileum in 20% of adolescents and 47% of adults, and colonic only in 11% and 22%, respectively. Upper gastrointestinal involvement occurred in 23% of adolescents, but was not seen in adults (P < 0.01). Total ulcerative colitis was seen in 67% of adolescents and 44% of adults (P < 0.01). Contrary to previous data adolescents did not receive more ionizing radiation than adults. Requirement for immunosuppressive therapy was higher in the adolescent group (53% versus 31%, respectively, P < 0.01). Likewise, 20% of adolescents had required biological therapy compared to only 8% in the adult cohort (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Gastroenterologists should recognize that IBD is more complex when presenting in adolescence and our data support the creation of specific adolescent transitional clinics. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2009 [source]

    Does primary sclerosing cholangitis impact quality of life in patients with inflammatory bowel disease?

    Ashwin N. Ananthakrishnan MD
    Abstract Background: Impairment of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important concern in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD; ulcerative colitis [UC], Crohn's disease [CD]). Between 2%,10% of patients with IBD have primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). There has been limited examination of the disease-specific HRQoL in this population compared to non-PSC IBD controls. Methods: This was a retrospective, case,control study performed at a tertiary referral center. Cases comprised 26 patients with a known diagnosis of PSC and IBD (17 UC, 9 CD). Three random controls were selected for each case after matching for IBD type, gender, age, and duration of disease. Disease-specific HRQoL was measured using the Short Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (SIBDQ). Disease activity for CD was measured using the Harvey,Bradshaw index (HB) and using the UC activity index for UC. Independent predictors of HRQoL were identified. Results: There was no significant difference in the age, gender distribution, or disease duration between PSC-IBD and controls. There was no difference in use of immunomodulators or biologics between the 2 groups. Mean SIBDQ score was comparable between PSC-IBD patients (54.5) and controls (54.1), both for UC and CD. Likewise, the disease activity scores were also similar (2.8 versus 3.1, P = 0.35). On multivariate analysis, higher disease activity score (,1.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] 95% CI ,1.85 to ,0.82) and shorter disease duration were predictive of lower HRQoL. Coexisting PSC did not influence IBD-related HRQoL. There was a higher proportion of permanent work disability in PSC-IBD (7.7%) compared to controls (0%). Conclusions: PSC does not seem to influence disease-specific HRQoL in our patients with IBD but is associated with a higher rate of work disability. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2010) [source]