Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Administrators

  • care administrator
  • college administrator
  • health administrator
  • health care administrator
  • hospital administrator
  • program administrator
  • public administrator
  • school administrator

  • Selected Abstracts


    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 2 2003
    Hon. Betty Barteau
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Konane M. MartínezArticle first published online: 13 JUL 200
    This article explores the role of the anthropologist working with immigrant communities in the U.S.,Mexico Border Region. As an anthropologist, I have had to negotiate my role as an academic, administrator, and activist. The article examines these three roles by analyzing the experience of the anthropologist with immigrant communities and agencies over the past nine years and during the southern California wildfires of 2007. While in many ways the three roles are categorically distinct, they are also connected and work to inform each other. The position of an applied anthropologist in the U.S.,Mexico border has allowed for development of practical and applied solutions to help improve the wellbeing of immigrant communities. This form of applied, practical, yet academically grounded work has the potential to elevate the anthropology of immigration beyond that of traditional researcher. [source]

    The First MBA President: George W. Bush as Public Administrator

    James P. Pfiffner
    President Bush was praised early in his first term as a tough-minded decision maker who knows how to get things done. This essay argues that President Bush possesses formidable political skills that have helped him achieve many of his policy goals, focusing on his most important national security policies: the war in Iraq, the war on terrorism and the treatment of detainees, the use of intelligence leading up to the war, and the reorganization of the executive branch. In the end, however, President Bush's deficiencies as a public administrator have undermined his policy successes. [source]


    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 2 2009
    Hon. Jonathan Lippman
    The William H. Rehnquist Award is one of the most celebrated judicial honors in the country. It is given each year to a state court judge who demonstrates the "highest level of judicial excellence, integrity, fairness, and professional ethics." The 2008 recipient, Jonathan Lippman, was recently appointed and confirmed as Chief Judge of the State of New York. Chief Judge Lippman was previously the Presiding Justice of the Appellate Division of the First Judicial Department of the New York State Supreme Court. He was appointed New York's Chief Administrative Judge by Chief Judge Judith S. Kaye and served from January 1996 to May 2007 and was responsible for the operation of a court system with a $2.4 billion budget, 1300 state-paid judges, 2300 town and village judges, and 16,000 nonjudicial personnel. Among his numerous professional activities, Chief Judge Lippman served as president of the Conference of State Court Administrators from 2005 to 2006 and was the vice-chair of the National Center for State Courts from 2005 to 2006, where he was a member of the Board of Directors from 2003 to 2007. During his tenure, Chief Judge Lippman has been the recipient of numerous awards and recognitions, including the 2006 Fund For Modern Courts Cyrus R. Vance Tribute for Vision, Integrity and Dedication to the Fair Administration of Justice Personified by Cyrus R. Vance (November 27, 2006); the New York County Lawyers' Association Conspicuous Service Award in Recognition of Many Years of Outstanding Public Service (September 28, 2006); and the Award for Excellence in Public Service of the New York State Bar Association's Committee on Attorneys in Public Service (January 24, 2006). Chief Judge Lippman received a Bachelor of Arts in Government and International Relations from New York University, Washington Square College, where he graduated cum laude in 1965. He also received his J.D. from New York University in 1968. Below is the speech he delivered after accepting the William H. Rehnquist Award from U.S. Supreme Court Chief Justice John G. Roberts. [source]

    Occupational Knowledge and Practice amongst UK University Research Administrators

    John Hockey
    With the exception of lecturing staff, research on occupational groups and cultures within the UK higher education system is relatively sparse. This paper focuses upon one specialist group, to-date under-researched but which plays a central role in contemporary higher education administration: graduate research administrators. This occupational group is of particular interest as its members administer and manage an increasing complex and key area of university life, which in many cases appears to span the putative occupational divide between ,academic' and ,administrative' work. Based upon qualitative interviews with 27 research administrators, and using some of Bourdieu's conceptual devices, the paper analyses particular kinds of informal occupational knowledge and practice, necessary in order effectively to ,do' the complex task of research administration in the pressurized environment of contemporary British higher education. [source]

    Gender Earnings Differentials Among College Administrators

    James Monks
    This analysis examines gender pay gap among the top five salaried individuals at private higher education institutions. We find a 13.0 percent average pay disadvantage for women versus men. This pay gap can be decomposed into a 10.4 percent differential owing to differences in the types of institutions and occupations that women hold relative to men and a 2.6 percent unexplained earnings differential. [source]

    Effect of an interdisciplinary educational program on antipsychotic prescribing among nursing home residents with dementia

    Johanne Monette
    Abstract Objective To assess the effect of an interdisciplinary educational program in reducing the use of antipsychotics in nursing home residents with dementia. Methods We conducted a longitudinal pilot study to test the implementation of a 7-month interdisciplinary educational program in a fixed cohort of residents with dementia receiving antipsychotics. The program included consciousness-raising, educational sessions, and clinical follow-up. Administrators, physicians, pharmacists, nursing staff, and personal care attendants were involved. The effect of the program was assessed over a 6-month period, in terms of the proportion of discontinuations and dose reductions of antipsychotics. Repeated measures for use of other psychotropics and restraints, frequency of disruptive behaviors, and stressful events experienced by nursing staff and personal care attendants were simultaneously assessed. Results Among the 81 residents still present at the end of the program, there were 40 (49.4%) discontinuations and 11 (13.6%) dose reductions. No significant changes were found in the use of other psychotropics, the use of restraints, or in the number of stressful events experienced by nursing staff and personal care attendants. The frequency of disruptive behaviors decreased significantly over the 6-month period (p,<,0.001). Conclusions Our interdisciplinary educational program led to a substantial reduction in the number of residents receiving antipsychotics and to a decrease in the frequency of disruptive behaviors. Our findings suggest that implementation of recognized practice guidelines could be an effective way to target residents who might not benefit from antipsychotics or who may tolerate a dose reduction. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A Nursing Home in Arab-Israeli Society: Targeting Utilization in a Changing Social and Economic Environment

    Khalid Suleiman MD
    This article is a case study of the first 10 years of operation (1992,2002) of the Dabouriya Home for the Aged, the first publicly funded culturally adapted nursing home for Israeli citizens of Arab descent. Although 44% of Arab Israelis and 26% of Jewish Israelis aged 65 and older are disabled, in 1999, 4.3% of the Jewish population but only 0.7% of the Arab-Israeli population aged 65 or older lived in long-term care institutions; disabled Arab-Israeli elderly were mainly cared for by families. As Arab-Israeli society modernizes and traditional caregiving is reduced, alternatives must be found for this growing, disabled population. Medical and administrative records of 404 people admitted consecutively to a 136-bed facility over 10 years were analyzed. Two distinct segments of the needy population were served: people with independent activity of daily living (ADL) function but little or no family to provide help with intermediate ADLs and those dependent in ADLs and with health problems, especially dementia. Economic, demographic, and social changes in Arab-Israeli society may mean that traditional caregivers will not be able to adequately care for this highly disabled population. Administrators of the public health system in Israel should be aware of the underutilization of publicly funded long-term care by disabled Arab Israelis and the lack of care alternatives for the population that does use nursing homes, because there may be severe consequences in terms of caregiver burden and social stress when disabled elderly people remain in unsuitable environments. [source]

    Consensus Statement on Improving the Quality of Mental Health Care in U.S. Nursing Homes: Management of Depression and Behavioral Symptoms Associated with Dementia

    American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry, American Geriatrics Society
    The American Geriatrics Society and American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry Expert Panel on Quality Mental Health Care in Nursing Homes developed this consensus statement. The following organizations were represented on the expert panel and have reviewed and endorsed, the consensus statement: Alzheimer's Association, American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry, American Association of Homes and Services for the Aging, American College of Health Care Administrators, American Geriatrics Society, American Health Care Association, American Medical Directors Association, American Society on Aging, American Society of Consultant Pharmacists, Gerontological Society of America, National Association of Directors of Nursing Administration in Long-Term Care, National Citizen's Coalition for Nursing Home Reform, National Conference of Gerontological Nurse Practitioners. The following organizations were also represented on the expert panel and reviewed and commented on the consensus statement: American Psychiatric Association: Council on Aging, American Psychological Association. [source]

    Implementation of NIAAA College Drinking Task Force Recommendations: How Are Colleges Doing 6 Years Later?

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 10 2010
    Toben F. Nelson
    Background:, In 2002, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) College Drinking Task Force issued recommendations to reduce heavy drinking by college students, but little is known about implementation of these recommendations. Current discussion about best strategies to reduce student drinking has focused more on lowering the minimum legal drinking age as advocated by a group of college and university presidents called the Amethyst Initiative than the NIAAA recommendations. Methods:, A nationally representative survey of administrators was conducted at 351 4-year colleges in the United States to ascertain familiarity with and progress toward implementation of NIAAA recommendations. Implementation was compared by enrollment size, public or private status, and whether the school president signed the Amethyst Initiative. Results:, Administrators at most colleges were familiar with NIAAA recommendations, although more than 1 in 5 (22%) were not. Nearly all colleges use educational programs to address student drinking (98%). Half the colleges (50%) offered intervention programs with documented efficacy for students at high risk for alcohol problems. Few colleges reported that empirically supported, community-based alcohol control strategies including conducting compliance checks to monitor illegal alcohol sales (33%), instituting mandatory responsible beverage service (RBS) training (15%), restricting alcohol outlet density (7%), or increasing the price of alcohol (2%) were operating in their community. Less than half the colleges with RBS training and compliance checks in their communities actively participated in these interventions. Large colleges were more likely to have RBS training and compliance checks, but no differences in implementation were found across public/private status or whether the college president signed the Amethyst Initiative. Conclusions:, Many colleges offer empirically supported programs for high-risk drinkers, but few have implemented other strategies recommended by NIAAA to address student drinking. Opportunities exist to reduce student drinking through implementation of existing, empirically based strategies. [source]

    Perceived Barriers and Benefits to Research Participation Among School Administrators

    November 2008 issue of Journal of School Health
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Staff- and School-Level Predictors of School Organizational Health: A Multilevel Analysis

    Katherine Bevans PhD
    ABSTRACT Background:, An organizationally healthy school environment is associated with favorable student and staff outcomes and thus is often targeted by school improvement initiatives. However, few studies have differentiated staff-level from school-level predictors of organizational health. Social disorganization theory suggests that school-level factors, such as faculty turnover, student mobility, and concentration of student poverty, would be negatively associated with school organizational health, but these relationships may be moderated by staff-level factors. Methods:, The present study examined the association among school- and staff-level predictors of staff-perceived school organizational health (eg, academic emphasis, collegial leadership, and staff affiliation), as measured by the Organizational Health Inventory. Results:, Multilevel analyses on data from 1395 staff across 37 elementary schools indicated that school membership accounted for between 26% and 35% of the variance in different components of staff-perceived organizational health. Two-level hierarchical analyses indicated that both school- and staff-level characteristics are important predictors of organizational health. Furthermore, some school and staff characteristics interacted to predict staff affiliation and collegial leadership. Conclusions:, Findings suggest that factors at both the school and staff level are important potential targets for school improvement. Administrators aiming to improve relationships among staff members should be cognizant of staff-level characteristics (race, age, and role in school) associated with less favorable perceptions of the school environment, whereas efforts to enhance student work ethic and discipline should target schools with specific school-level characteristics (high rates of faculty turnover and student mobility). [source]

    Training Needs of Administrators in the Nonprofit Sector: What Are They and How Should We Address Them?

    Drew A. Dolan
    In increasing numbers, academic programs across the country are exploring how they can best meet the needs of nonprofit organizations. To better support the debate and decision-making processes of such programs, the author contributes information on training drawn from nearly six hundred nonprofit administrators, exploring variables that may influence the needs and examining the format for training most desired by those administrators. [source]

    Perception of Risk by Administrators and Home Health Aides

    Mary Agnes Kendra Ph.D.
    Increasing numbers of persons over 65, decreased length of hospital stay, and need for chronic (custodial) health care have placed a strain on home health care agencies. The second largest group of persons providing care is home health aides (HHAs), who perform in-home, nonskilled, technical procedures with little or no on-site supervision. They are generally high school graduates or hold GEDs. The purpose of this study was to compare home health care administrators' (HHCAs) and HHAs' perceptions of risk involved in home visiting. Given HHAs' educational preparation and limited supervision, they are basically on their own for work performed. Although agencies provide orientation sessions for new workers, periodic in-services often relate to tasks and competency testing and little attention directed toward protecting the self,specifically, strategies to decrease personal risk. In order to determine to what extent HHCAs and HHAs perceive risk, the Home Health Care Perception of Risk Questionnaire, a self-report measure, was administered to a national random sample of 93 HHCAs and 227 HHAs. Findings suggest that these groups differ in perception of risk and level of agency support in making home visits. Suggestions for meeting the needs of this HHA provider group are offered. [source]

    Itinerant Surgical and Medical Specialist Care in Kansas: Report of a Survey of Rural Hospital Administrators

    Rick Kellerman M.D
    ABSTRACT In most rural areas, specialist nonprimary care, when available, is provided by "itinerant" physicians and surgeons who periodically visit from a distant home base. Little is known about current usage and acceptability of itinerant specialists in rural communities. Administrators of hospitals in rural and frontier Kansas counties were asked to report the frequency of itinerant care in their facilities, the home base of each specialist and a listing of procedures performed during specialist visits. Administrators were also asked to respond on a Likert scale to six questions inviting their assessment of itinerant care. Responses were received from 53 of 56 hospitals. All offered at least one monthly session of itinerant medical or surgical care. The most common specialties represented were cardiology (in 87 percent of hospitals), urology (68 percent), orthopedics (68 percent) and radiology (60 percent). General surgeons consulted in over 80 percent of responding hospitals. Psychiatrists, dermatologists and neurologists were rarely available in the hospitals surveyed. Administrators generally rated itinerant care highly, though some expressed concern about revenue lost when specialists performed procedures in their home-base office or hospital. No associations were found between amount of care offered and potential explanatory variables such as hospital size, distance from subregional centers, or percentage of patients hospitalized locally. Furttier study is needed to better understand differences in itinerant specialist utilization and acceptance among rural Kansas hospitals. Because Kansas demographics are similar to those of many other American rural areas, such study may offer insights applicable to other regions. [source]

    Leadership Styles of New Ireland High School Administrators

    Alfred Tivinarlik
    First page of article [source]

    Naïve Diversification in the Swedish Premium Pension Scheme: Experimental Evidence

    APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 3 2009
    Ted Martin Hedesström
    In the Swedish Premium Pension Scheme (PPS) all citizens in paid employment allocate part of their public pension savings to mutual funds. In so doing they tend to distribute their choices maximally across different stock fund categories. It is hypothesised that this reflects the naïve application of a variety-inducing diversification heuristic. The results of two experiments simulating choices of fund categories in the PPS support this hypothesis by showing that participating undergraduates chose stock funds investing in overlapping and non-overlapping markets or industries in a way demonstrating failure to take into account covariation among fund returns. Administrators of the PPS and similar defined-contribution pension plans should provide participants with comprehensive advice on how to diversify their investment. Dans le régime de retraite suédois (PPS), tous les citoyens ayant un emploi salarié allouent une part de l'épargne de leur retraite publique à des fonds d'investissements. Ce faisant, ils tendent majoritairement à répartir leurs choix dans différentes catégories de fonds. On a fait l'hypothèse que cela reflète l'application naïve d'une heuristique de la diversification. Les résultats de deux expérimentations simulant des choix entre différentes catégories de fonds pour le PPS confirment cette hypothèse : les sujets (étudiants) ont choisi des fonds en actions et devaient investir sur des marchés ou dans des branches industrielles relevant ou non du même secteur économique et cela d'une façon qui mettait en évidence leur incapacitéà prendre en considération le fait que le retour sur investissement de différents fonds pouvait être lié. Les administrateurs du PPS et de plans de pensions avec versements programmés devraient fournir aux participants des conseils avisés sur la façon de diversifier leur investissement. [source]

    Performance analysis of a cellular mobile network with retrials and guard channels using waiting and first passage time measures

    A. Economou
    Most studies of modern cellular mobile networks concern performance measures directly computable from the stationary state probabilities such as the blocking probability and the mean traffic rates of the various kinds of calls. In this paper, we consider a cellular mobile system with retrials and guard channels for the handover calls, but we concentrate on performance measures related to the waiting and first passage times of the system. More concretely, we first build a Markovian model representing a station of the network and then we study the waiting time of a customer, the idle times of the guard channels and the time between successive lost calls. These measures shed light on the behaviour of the system and quantify the quality of service from both points of view of the customer and the administrator. Several numerical results illustrate the effect of the system parameters in its performance. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Regulation of Injected Ground Water Tracers

    GROUND WATER, Issue 4 2000
    Skelly A. Holmbeck-Pelham
    Ground water tracer tests are routinely performed to estimate aquifer flow and transport properties, including the determination of well capture zones, hydrogeologic parameters, and contaminant travel times. Investigators may be unaware of tracer test reporting requirements and may fail to notify their regulatory agency prior to conducting tracer tests. The injection of tracers falls under the jurisdiction of the federal Underground Injection Control (UIC) program, which regulates the introduction of substances into underground sources of drinking water as part of the Safe Drinking Water Act. The UIC program is administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and by states with EPA-approved programs. The federal UIC program requires that tracer tests must not endanger underground sources of drinking water, and all tracer tests must be reported prior to injection. We contacted the UIC program administrator for every state in early 1997. Some states report having more stringent requirements, while some states do not meet minimum federal requirements. Although the primary responsibility for ground water tracer selection and use rests on the investigator, national guidance is required to assure compliance with the UIC program. To assist investigators, we present acceptable tracers that have been identified by two states, Nevada and South Carolina, that require no further regulatory review. [source]

    Do Satisfied Employees Satisfy Customers?

    Parents, Satisfaction Among Public School Administrators, Students, Support-Services Staff Morale
    Data were obtained from school staff (N= 1,567) who provided support services to schools in a major metropolitan school district. These data were analyzed in relation to data obtained from 3 customer groups (school administrators, students, and parents) who provided ratings of their satisfaction with services. Several aspects of employee morale (e. g., quality of supervision, teamwork, and goal clarity, along with workgroup service climate) were significantly and positively related to administrator and parent satisfaction, but not to student satisfaction. Relations of employee morale and workgroup service climate to administrator satisfaction and parent satisfaction were moderated by customer contact with employees. Results are discussed in relation to expectations of customers and employees that affect the nature of the service-exchange interaction. [source]

    Read Lining: UHD9 Renovation

    For a University of Houston downtown (UHD) campus renovation, the school's administration asked us to convert the entire ninth floor of a 1929 cotton warehouse into executive administrative offices, including those of the president, vice president, provost, and human resources department. In response to this task, we posed two primary questions: How can we combine "high-end" and "low-end" materials to alter typical expectations of how a university administrative office should and should not appear? How can we challenge assumed differences between use and appearance, part and whole,and, ultimately, between student and administrator,to produce a space that suspends hierarchical preconceptions and produces a more open "etiquette" for dialogue? [source]

    Medical Error and Patient Safety: Understanding Cultures in Conflict

    LAW & POLICY, Issue 2 2002
    Joanna Weinberg
    Evidence documenting the high rate of medical errors to patients has taken a prominent place on the health care radar screen. The injuries and deaths associated with medical errors represent a major public health problem with significant economic costs and erosion of trust in the health care system. Between 44,000 and 98,000 deaths due to preventable medical errors are estimated to occur each year, making medical errors the eighth leading cause of death in the United States. However, the recent prominence of the issue of safety or error does not reflect a new phenomenon or sudden rift in the quality of health care (although it is a system fraying at the edges). Rather, the prominence of the issue reflects a radical change in the culture of health care, and in how relationships within the health care system are structured and perceived. In this paper, I discuss the multiple factors responsible for the change in the culture of health care. First, the culture has shifted from a clinician cantered system, in which decision making is one,sided, to a shared system of negotiated care between clinician and patient, and, often, between administrator or payer. Second, the nature of quality in health care has changed due to the geometric increase in the availability of technological and pharmaceutical enhancements to patient care. Third, the health care culture continues to rely on outdated models of conflict resolution. Finally, the regulatory structure of health system oversight was set in place when fee,for,service care governed physician,patient relationships and where few external technologies were available. In the current health care culture, that structure seems inadequate and diffuse, with multiple and overlapping federal and state regulatory structures that make implementation of patient safety systems difficult. [source]

    Administrative challenges and rewards of online learning in a rural community college: Reflections of a distance learning administrator

    Gwladys A. Austin
    Development of online learning courses and programs in colleges and universities has changed the teaching and learning environment and many institutional processes and systems over the past decade. This chapter describes the changes, challenges, and rewards of developing an online learning program by a small rural community college in central Michigan. [source]

    Conflict: The Skeleton in Academe's Closet

    Rose Ann Findlen
    "Conflict IS the job," the seasoned administrator tells his younger colleague. But conflict may offer opportunities as well as obstacles and ought not be avoided. [source]

    From faculty to administrator: Like going to a new planet

    Brian L. Foster
    The transition from faculty to administration is a cultural as well as organizational shift. [source]

    Perspectives from the Dark Side: The career transition from faculty to administrator

    Risa Palm
    A number of challenges mark the transition from full-time faculty member to academic administrator. [source]

    Attitude of health-care providers toward childhood leukemia patients with different socio-economic status,

    PEDIATRIC BLOOD & CANCER, Issue 5 2008
    Saskia Mostert MD
    Abstract Background Treatment results differ significantly between poor and prosperous children with leukemia in Indonesia. The objective of this study was to determine whether parental socio-economic status influences beliefs, attitude, and behavior of health-care providers (hcp) treating childhood leukemia in Indonesia. Procedure A self-administered semi-structured questionnaire was filled in by 102 hcp (69 doctors, 28 nurses, 2 psychologists, 2 hematology technicians, 1 administrator). Results Most hcp (98%) asked parents about their financial situation. The decision to start treatment was influenced by parental socio-economic status (86%), motivation of parents (80%), and motivation of doctors (76%). Health-care providers stated that prosperous patients comply better with treatment (64%), doctors comply better with treatment for the prosperous (53%), most patients cannot afford to complete treatment (58%), less extensive explanations are given toward poor families (60%), and communication is impeded by differences in status (67%). When dealing with prosperous families a minority of hcp stated that they pay more attention (27%), work with greater accuracy (24%), take more interest (23%), and devote more time per visit (22%). Most hcp denied differences in the quality of medical care (93%) and the chances of cure (58%) between poor and prosperous patients. Conclusions Beliefs, attitude, and behavior of hcp toward poor versus prosperous patients appeared to differ. These differences may contribute to the immense drop-out rate and slight chances of survival among poor patients with leukemia in developing countries. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2008;50:1001,1005. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    From the Fabulous Baker Boys to the Master of Disaster: The White House Chief of Staff in the Reagan and G. H. W. Bush Administrations

    Chiefs of staff in the modern presidency usually assume three major roles during their tenure: administrator, adviser, and guardian. Through original survey data, this article explores these roles by examining six chiefs of staff who served during the Reagan-Bush era: James Baker, Donald Regan, Howard Baker, Kenneth Duberstein, John Sununu, and Samuel Skinner. Based on the evidence, Howard Baker and James Baker were perceived as the most effective chiefs of staff in performing these three major functions. Not surprisingly, the Reagan administration prospered during both Bakers'tenures. [source]

    Assessing and Managing Environmental Risk: Connecting Local Government Management with Emergency Management

    Scott Somers
    Ensuring that a community is prepared to deal with a disaster is among the many tasks public managers are charged with addressing. Disaster preparedness and response requires adherence to standard planning practices, yet disasters are typically unpredictable. Dealing with disasters, therefore, requires a blend of traditional management skills and improvisation. Furthermore, like other aspects of administrative leadership, the top administrator must blend initiation and responsiveness in interactions with elected officials and a careful delineation of responsibility in handling actual emergencies. This article discusses how local administrators assess risk and balance preparedness needs within a universe of daily operational needs. Managing environmental risk is also explored from a political and legal context. [source]

    The First MBA President: George W. Bush as Public Administrator

    James P. Pfiffner
    President Bush was praised early in his first term as a tough-minded decision maker who knows how to get things done. This essay argues that President Bush possesses formidable political skills that have helped him achieve many of his policy goals, focusing on his most important national security policies: the war in Iraq, the war on terrorism and the treatment of detainees, the use of intelligence leading up to the war, and the reorganization of the executive branch. In the end, however, President Bush's deficiencies as a public administrator have undermined his policy successes. [source]