Different Understandings (different + understanding)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Clinical decision-making in the context of chronic illness

Susan Watt DSW CSW
This paper develops a framework to compare clinical decision making in relation to chronic and acute medical conditions. Much of the literature on patient-physician decision making has focused on acute and often life-threatening medical situations in which the patient is highly dependent upon the expertise of the physician in providing the therapeutic options. Decision making is often constrained and driven by the overwhelming impact of the acute medical problem on all aspects of the individual's life. With chronic conditions, patients are increasingly knowledgeable, not only about their medical conditions, but also about traditional, complementary, and alternative therapeutic options. They must make multiple and repetitive decisions, with variable outcomes, about how they will live with their chronic condition. Consequently, they often know more than attending treatment personnel about their own situations, including symptoms, responses to previous treatment, and lifestyle preferences. This paper compares the nature of the illness, the characteristics of the decisions themselves, the role of the patient, the decision-making relationship, and the decision-making environment in acute and chronic illnesses. The author argues for a different understanding of the decision-making relationships and processes characteristic in chronic conditions that take into account the role of trade-offs between medical regimens and lifestyle choices in shaping both the process and outcomes of clinical decision-making. The paper addresses the concerns of a range of professional providers and consumers. [source]

Multi-way models for sensory profiling data

Rasmus Bro
Abstract One of the problems in analyzing sensory profiling data is to handle the systematic individual differences in the assessments from different panelists. It is unavoidable that different persons have, at least to a certain degree, different perceptions of the samples as well as a different understanding of the attributes or of the scales used for quantifying the assessments. Hence, any model attempting to describe sensory profiling data needs to deal with individual differences; either implicitly or explicitly. In this paper, a unifying family of models is proposed based on (i) the assumption that latent variables are appropriate for sensory data, and (ii) that individual differences occur. Based on how individual differences occur, various mathematical models can be constructed, all aiming at modeling simultaneously the sample-specific variation and the panelist-specific variation. The model family includes Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and PARAllel FACtor analysis (PARAFAC). The paper can be viewed as extending the latent variable approach commonly based on PCA to multi-way models that specifically take certain panelist-variations into account. The proposed model family is focused on analyzing data from quantitative descriptive analysis with fixed vocabulary, but it also provides a foundation upon which comparisons, extensions and further developments can be made. An example is given which shows that even for well-working data, models handling individual differences can shed important light on differences between the quality of the data from individual panelists. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Ethical Theory as Social Practice

This article represents a search for a different analytical language through which anthropology can engage with human rights. This effort is intended to contribute to what is an expanding range of ways in which anthropologists conceptualize, advocate for, and critique contemporary human rights. Its central argument is that current ethnographic studies of human rights practices can be used as the basis for making innovative claims within human rights debates that take place outside of anthropology itself. To do this, ethnographic description that captures the contradictions and contingencies at the heart of human rights practices is not enough. What is needed is a different understanding of how the idea of human rights comes to be formed in context. In this article, I suggest several possible ways that an anthropological philosophy of human rights can accomplish this. I conclude by locating this approach in relation to a longer history of anthropological skepticism toward universalist discourses. [source]

Clinical Practice of Functional Electrical Stimulation: From "Yesterday" to "Today"

Milan R. DimitrijevicArticle first published online: 18 AUG 200
Abstract:, Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is an accepted treatment method for paresis or paralysis after spinal cord and head injury as well as stroke and other neurological upper motor neuron disorders. At the beginning, FES worked like an electrophysiological brace for the correction of drop foot of patients after a stroke. When analyzing early accomplishments, it becomes evident that FES was influenced rather by technological and biomedical engineering development than by contemporary knowledge on neurocontrol of movement in individuals with upper motor neuron paralysis. Nevertheless, with better understanding of pathophysiology of spasticity and neurocontrol of impaired movement, FES advanced from an electrophysiological brace to a treatment modality for the improvement of muscle control, neuroaugmentation of residual movements, and supportive procedure for "spontaneous recovery" of motor control. In the present article we shall illustrate barriers which delayed FES to be applied in clinical practice of neuron rehabilitation from "Yesterday" to "Today." We shall discuss the importance to apply FES early after the onset of neurological conditions to prevent disuse of noninjured portions of the CNS. Moreover, FES can play a significant role in the supporting processes of neuroplasticity in the subacute phase of upper motor neuron dysfunction. Therefore, the electrophysiological brace of "Yesterday" provides "Today" a correction of missing neuromuscular function. At the same time, it is an active external device for the correction of motor deficits interacting with the somatosensory-motor integration. Thus, "Yesterday" and "Today" of the same technological approach can be very different, thanks to a different understanding and assessment of "external" and "internal" components of human motor control. [source]

Heat transfer by radiation and convection in fire testing

Ulf Wickström
Abstract Fire safety engineers, especially those experts writing fire test standards, often have different understandings of the concepts of heat transfer from a fire to a surface by radiation and convection. The concepts are therefore often not very well defined, in e.g. ISO and CEN standards, leading in many cases to confusions, misunderstandings and considerable errors. This paper is an effort, in a very simple way, to make the issue a little clearer, particularly for use in international standardization work. ISO/TC92 and the International FORUM of Fire Research Directors are currently endorsing very important work on procedures to calibrate heat flux meters. The two entities, heat transfer by radiation and convection, may be treated independently. The presentation below is deliberately very short and basic avoiding many phenomena that are not immediately needed in most fire standardization work. Recommendations are reached on how to define and measure heat transfer in fire testing. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Uncertain about Uncertainty: Understanding the Multiple Meanings of a Crucial Concept in International Relations Theory

Brian C. Rathbun
The force of uncertainty is central to every major research tradition in the study of international relations. Yet uncertainty has multiple meanings, and each paradigm has a somewhat unique understanding of it. More often than not, these meanings are implicit. I argue that realists define uncertainty as fear induced by anarchy and the possibility of predation; rationalists as ignorance (in a nonpejorative sense) endemic to bargaining games of incomplete information and enforcement; cognitivists as the confusion (again nonpejoratively) of decision making in a complex international environment; and constructivists as the indeterminacy of a largely socially constructed world that lacks meaning without norms and identities. I demonstrate how these different understandings are what provide the necessary microfoundations for the paradigms' definitions of learning, their contrasting expectations about signaling, and the functions provided by international organizations. This has conceptual, methodological, and theoretical payoffs. Understanding uncertainty is necessary for grasping the logic of each paradigm, for distinguishing them from each other, and promoting interparadigmatic communication. [source]

Incongruence between nurses' and patients' understandings and expectations of rehabilitation

Julie Pryor
Aims and objectives., To explore nurses' understandings and expectations of rehabilitation and nurses' perceptions of patients' understandings and expectations of rehabilitation. Background., Within the context of a broadening appreciation of the benefits of rehabilitation, interest in the nature of rehabilitation is growing. Some believe that rehabilitation services do not adequately meet the needs of patients. Others are interested in the readiness of patients to participate in rehabilitation. Design., Qualitative. Method., Grounded theory using data collected during interviews with nurses in five inpatient rehabilitation units and during observation of the nurses' everyday practice. Findings., According to nurses working in inpatient rehabilitation units, there is a marked incongruence between nurses' understandings and expectations of rehabilitation and what they perceive patients to understand and expect. Conclusion., Given these different understandings, an important nursing role is the education of patients about the nature of rehabilitation and how to optimise their rehabilitation. Relevance to clinical practice., Before patients are transferred to rehabilitation, the purpose and nature of rehabilitation, in particular the roles of patients and nurses, needs to be explained to them. The understandings of rehabilitation that nurses in this study possessed provide a framework for the design of education materials and orientation programmes that inform patients (and their families) about rehabilitation. In addition, reinforcement of the differences between acute care and rehabilitation will assist patients new to rehabilitation to understand the central role that they themselves can play in their recovery. [source]

From the Politics of Urgency to the Governance of Preparedness: A Research Agenda on Urban Vulnerability

Will Medd
To date, little social science understanding has been developed about what it would mean to strategically build resilience in the context of such rich interdependencies between social, technical and natural worlds. We argue that shifts in strategies to deal with urban crises marks a turn from the politics of urgency, characteristic of crisis management, towards a governance of preparedness, characterised by strategies to build urban resilience. Social science needs to develop research agendas that critically engage with different understandings of resilience and the challenges of building resilience across different scales of urban governance. [source]

A Norms Approach to Jury "Nullification:" Interests, Values, and Scripts

LAW & POLICY, Issue 1 2008
Juries and other lay tribunals are often justified because they leaven the law with community norms. Unfortunately, we do not have a particularly good theory of when and how juries substitute their normative judgments for the law. A first step in developing such a theory is to examine the nature of norms and the way jurors bring normative judgments to their task. In this article I compare and contrast different understandings of norms that currently are in vogue in the social sciences and then use these approaches to develop a more systematic understanding of when juries do and when they do not substitute their normative judgment for that of the law. [source]

Christian Ethics In Jewish Terms: A Response to David Novak

Stanley Hauerwas
While appreciating the illuminating qualities of Novak's account of natural law, Hauerwas also regards it as problematic precisely because of the unhealthy tension that remains between Novak's claim regarding the inseparability of theology and ethics, on the one hand, and his contention that the Noachian laws may ,be taken to be a universal requirement'of human reason, on the other. Hauerwas' central reservation is that Novak's account is the danger of abstracting from the law's sanctifying intent; i.e., its purpose to form a holy people. A consequence for Jewish-Christian dialogue, then, is a misplaced concentration on the role of the law in these respective traditions rather than different understandings of sanctification between (and within) these respective traditions. [source]

Patriotism, nationalism and modernity: the patriotic societies in the Danish conglomerate state, 1769,1814

ABSTRACT. This article investigates sixty-three patriotic societies established in the Danish conglomerate state during the Age of Enlightenment, since they can throw light on the pre-national collective identities. It explains how the patriotic societies had both an external function in regard to society and an internal function among their members. It analyses how the members comprehended patriotism and how they propagated ideas of solidarity and good citizenship to a wider audience. The patriotism of the eighteenth century is also compared with the nationalism of the nineteenth century, and the way they reflect two different understandings of core concepts such as state, language and folk culture is explained. However, both ideologies correlate to modernity, since they reflect the same dialectic tension in the relationship between the individual, the social community and the modern state. [source]

Integrating Hume's Accounts of Belief and Justification

Hume's claim that a state is a belief is often intertwined,though without his remarking on this fact,with epistemic approval of the state. This requires explanation. Beliefs, in Hume's view, are steady dispositions (not lively ideas), nature's provision for a steady influence on the will and action. Hume's epistemic distinctions call attention to circumstances in which the presence of conflicting beliefs undermine a belief's influence and thereby its natural function. On one version of this interpretation, to say that a belief is justified, ceteris paribus, is to say that for all that has been shown the belief would be steady in its influence under suitable reflection. On a second version, it is to say that prima facie justification is an intrinsic property of the state, in virtue of its steadiness. These versions generate different understandings of the relationship between Parts iii and iv of Book I of the Treatise. [source]

Enhancement Technologies and the Person: Christian Perspectives

Andrew Lustig
Distinctions between therapy and enhancement are difficult to draw with precision, especially in marginal cases. Nevertheless, most recent Christian discussions of enhancement technologies accept the general plausibility of distinctions drawn between therapeutic interventions and enhancement technologies by appealing to general understandings of nature and human nature as available benchmarks. On that basis, a range of religious assessments of enhancement technologies can be identified. Those judgments incorporate different interpretations of nature as a source of moral insight, different understandings of human responsibility in light of God's purposes, and different assessments of the effects of sin and finitude on human freedom. [source]


BIOETHICS, Issue 3 2010
ABSTRACT This article explores universal normative bases that could help to shape a workable legal construct that would facilitate a global use of advance directives. Although I believe that advance directives are of universal character, my primary aim in approaching this issue is to remain realistic. I will make three claims. First, I will argue that the principles of autonomy, dignity and informed consent, embodied in the Oviedo Convention and the UNESCO Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, could arguably be regarded as universal bases for the global use of advance directives. Second, I will demonstrate that, despite the apparent consensus of ethical authorities in support of their global use, it is unlikely, for the time being, that such consensus could lead to unqualified legal recognition of advance directives, because of different understandings of the nature of the international rules, meanings of autonomy and dignity which are context-specific and culture-specific, and existing imperfections that make advance directives either unworkable or hardly applicable in practice. The third claim suggests that the fact that the concept of the advance directive is not universally shared does not mean that it should not become so, but never as the only option in managing incompetent patients. A way to proceed is to prioritize work on developing higher standards in managing incompetent patients and on progressing towards the realization of universal human rights in the sphere of bioethics, by advocating a universal, legally binding international convention that would outlaw human rights violations in end-of-life decision-making. [source]

Approaches and perspectives in social and environmental accounting: an overview of the conceptual landscape

Judy Brown
Abstract In recent years there has been a marked resurgence of interest in the areas of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and social and environmental accounting (SEA) among business, governments, public policymakers, investors, unions, environmentalists and others. While at one level there appears to be widespread agreement that CSR and SEA are worthy topics of attention, different groups have very different understandings of these fields. This article provides an analysis of these differences by comparing three broad approaches to SEA: the business case, stakeholder-accountability and critical theory approaches. It also responds to concerns a number of commentators have expressed regarding the current dominance of ,business case' perspectives. While not seeking to impose on readers a ,correct' way of viewing SEA and CSR, exposure to competing perspectives is viewed as one way of challenging us to think more reflectively about the frames available to us and their implications for the social realities we construct, embed or seek to change. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]