Different Surface Chemistries (different + surface_chemistry)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Porous Silicon-Based Optical Microsensors for Volatile Organic Analytes: Effect of Surface Chemistry on Stability and Specificity

Anne M. Ruminski
Abstract Sensing of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and heptane in air using sub-millimeter porous silicon-based sensor elements is demonstrated in the concentration range 50,800 ppm. The sensor elements are prepared as one-dimensional photonic crystals (rugate filters) by programmed electrochemical etch of p++ silicon, and analyte sensing is achieved by measurement of the wavelength shift of the photonic resonance. The sensors are studied as a function of surface chemistry: ozone oxidation, thermal oxidation, hydrosilylation (1-dodecene), electrochemical methylation, reaction with dicholorodimethylsilane and thermal carbonization with acetylene. The thermally oxidized and the dichlorodimethylsilane-modified materials show the greatest stability under atmospheric conditions. Optical microsensors are prepared by attachment of the porous Si layer to the distal end of optical fibers. The acetylated porous Si microsensor displays a greater response to heptane than to IPA, whereas the other chemical modifications display a greater response to IPA than to heptane. The thermal oxide sensor displays a strong response to water vapor, while the acetylated material shows a relatively weak response. The results suggest that a combination of optical fiber sensors with different surface chemistries can be used to classify VOC analytes. Application of the miniature sensors to the detection of VOC breakthrough in a full-scale activated carbon respirator cartridge simulator is demonstrated. [source]

PEI,PEG,Chitosan-Copolymer-Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Safe Gene Delivery: Synthesis, Complexation, and Transfection

Forrest M. Kievit
Abstract Gene therapy offers the potential of mediating disease through modification of specific cellular functions of target cells. However, effective transport of nucleic acids to target cells with minimal side effects remains a challenge despite the use of unique viral and non-viral delivery approaches. Here, a non-viral nanoparticle gene carrier that demonstrates effective gene delivery and transfection both in vitro and in vivo is presented. The nanoparticle system (NP,CP,PEI) is made of a superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (NP), which enables magnetic resonance imaging, coated with a novel copolymer (CP,PEI) comprised of short chain polyethylenimine (PEI) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) grafted to the natural polysaccharide, chitosan (CP), which allows efficient loading and protection of the nucleic acids. The function of each component material in this nanoparticle system is illustrated by comparative studies of three nanoparticle systems of different surface chemistries, through material property characterization, DNA loading and transfection analyses, and toxicity assessment. Significantly, NP,CP,PEI demonstrates an innocuous toxic profile and a high level of expression of the delivered plasmid DNA in a C6 xenograft mouse model, making it a potential candidate for safe in vivo delivery of DNA for gene therapy. [source]

Influence of filler type and content on properties of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) compound reinforced with carbon black or silica

Sung-Seen Choi
Abstract Rubber compounds are filled with reinforcing fillers to improve their physical properties. Carbon black and silica have different surface chemistries to each other. Differences in properties of carbon black- and silica-reinforced styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) compounds were studied. Variation of properties of carbon black- or silica-filled compounds with the filler content was also investigated. The silica-filled compounds without any coupling agent and dispering agent were prepared to investigate the influence of polar materials-adsorption on the silica surface. Viscosity and crosslink density increased with increase of the filler content. Hardness, modulus, tensile strength, and wear property were improved more and more by increasing the filler content. Viscosity of the silica-filled compound was higher than that of the carbon black-filled one. Cure rate of the silica-filled compound became slower as the filler content increased, while that of the carbon black-filled one became faster. Difference in properties between the carbon black- and silica-filled compounds were explained by the poor silica dispersion and the adsorption of cure accelerator on the silica surface. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Equalizer technology , Equal rights for disparate beads

Eva-Maria Keidel
Abstract One major limitation in proteomics is the detection and analysis of low-abundant proteins, i.e. in plasma. Several years ago, a technique to selectively enrich the relative concentration of low-abundant proteins was introduced by Boschetti and co-workers. It is based on a specific and saturable interaction of proteins to a high diversity of binding sites, realized by a hexapeptide library coupled to beads. This technology was commercialized as Equalizer beads or ProteoMiner. However, during application of ProteoMiner beads to plasma samples unexpected results questioned the proposed mode of action. Therefore, ProteoMiner beads were compared with chromatographic beads exhibiting completely different surface chemistry. Sepabeads FP-OD400 octadecyl, FP-DA400 diethylamine, FP-BU400 butyl, FP-HG400 hydroxyl and EXE056 epoxy were used. The results show that ProteoMiner or the different Sepabeads behave surprisingly similarly in the separation of complex protein mixtures. ProteoMiner beads interact with protein mixtures according to a general hydrophobic binding mechanism, where diversity in surface ligands plays only a negligible role. [source]