Different Depths (different + depth)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Selected Abstracts


María Florencia Colombo-Pallotta
Macrocystis pyrifera (L.) C. Agardh is a canopy-forming species that occupies the entire water column. The photosynthetic tissue of this alga is exposed to a broad range of environmental factors, particularly related to light quantity and quality. In the present work, photosynthetic performance, light absorption, pigment composition, and thermal dissipation were measured in blades collected from different depths to characterize the photoacclimation and photoprotection responses of M. pyrifera according to the position of its photosynthetic tissue in the water column. The most important response of M. pyrifera was the enhancement of photoprotection in surface and near-surface blades. The size of the xanthophyll cycle pigment pool (XC) was correlated to the nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) of chl a fluorescence capacity of the blades. In surface blades, we detected the highest accumulation of UV-absorbing compounds, photoprotective carotenoids, ,XC, and NPQ. These characteristics were important responses that allowed surface blades to present the highest maximum photosynthetic rate and the highest PSII electron transport rate. Therefore, surface blades made the highest contribution to algae production. In contrast, basal blades presented the opposite trend. These blades do not to contribute significantly to photosynthetate production of the whole organism, but they might be important for other functions, like nutrient uptake. [source]

Patterns of damage in igneous and sedimentary rocks under conditions simulating sea-salt weathering

C. Cardell
Abstract A saline-spray artificial ageing test was used to simulate the effects produced in granites and sedimentary rocks (calcarenites, micrites and breccia) under conditions in coastal environments. Three main points were addressed in this study: the durability of the different kinds of rock to salt decay, the resulting weathering forms and the rock properties involved in the weathering processes. For this, mineralogical and textural characterization of each of the different rocks was carried out before and after the test. The soluble salt content at different depths from the exposed surfaces was also determined. Two different weathering mechanisms were observed in the granite and calcareous rocks. Physical processes were involved in the weathering of granite samples, whereas dissolution of calcite was also involved in the deterioration of the calcareous rocks. We also showed that microstructural characteristics (e.g. pore size distribution), play a key role in salt damage, because of their influence on saline solution transport and on the pressures developed within rocks during crystallization. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The effects of torsion and motion coupling in site response estimation

Mohammad R. Ghayamghamian
Abstract Soil amplification characteristics are investigated using data from the Chibaken-Toho-Oki earthquake and its aftershocks recorded at Chiba dense array in Japan. The frequency-dependent amplification function of soil is calculated using uphole-to-downhole spectral ratio analysis, considering the horizontal components of shear wave. The identified spectral ratios consistently demonstrate the splitting of peaks in their resonance frequencies and low amplification values in comparison with a 1D model. The torsional behaviour and horizontal ground motion coupling are clarified as the reasons for these phenomena at the site. To prove the hypothesis, the torsional motion is directly evaluated using the data of the horizontal dense array in different depths at the site. The comparison between Fourier spectra of torsional motion and identified transfer functions reveals the peaks at the same frequencies. The wave equation including torsion and horizontal motion coupling is introduced and solved for the layered media by applying wave propagation theory. Using the developed model, the effects of torsional motion with horizontal motion coupling on soil transfer function are numerically examined. Splitting and low amplification at resonance frequencies are confirmed by the results of numerical analysis. Furthermore, the ground motion in two horizontal directions at the site is simulated using site geotechnical specification and optimizing the model parameters. The simulated and recorded motions demonstrate good agreement that is used to validate the hypothesis. In addition, the spectral density of torsional ground motions are compared with the calculated one and found to be well predicted by the model. Finally, the results are used to explain the overestimation of damping in back-calculation of dynamic soil properties using vertical array data in small strain level. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Woody plants modulate the temporal dynamics of soil moisture in a semi-arid mesquite savanna,

ECOHYDROLOGY, Issue 1 2010
Daniel L. Potts
Abstract Climate variability and human activities interact to increase the abundance of woody plants in arid and semi-arid ecosystems worldwide. How woody plants interact with rainfall to influence patterns of soil moisture through time, at different depths in the soil profile and between neighboring landscape patches is poorly known. In a semi-arid mesquite savanna, we deployed a paired array of sensors beneath a mesquite canopy and in an adjacent open area to measure volumetric soil water content (,) every 30 min at several depths between 2004 and 2007. In addition, to quantify temporally dynamic variation in soil moisture between the two microsites and across soil depths we analysed , time-series using fast Fourier transforms (FFT). FFT analyses were consistent with the prediction that by reducing evaporative losses through shade and reducing rainfall inputs through canopy interception of small rainfall events, the mesquite canopy was associated with a decline in high-frequency (hour-to-hour and day-to-day) variation in shallow ,. Finally, we found that, in both microsites, high-frequency , variation declined with increasing soil depth as the influence of evaporative losses and inputs associated with smaller rainfall events declined. In this case, we argue that the buffering of shallow soil moisture against high-frequency variations can enhance nutrient cycling and alter the carbon cycle in dryland ecosystems. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Sulfate-reducing bacteria in marine sediment (Aarhus Bay, Denmark): abundance and diversity related to geochemical zonation

Julie Leloup
Summary In order to better understand the main factors that influence the distribution of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), their population size and their metabolic activity in high- and low-sulfate zones, we studied the SRB diversity in 3- to 5-m-deep sediment cores, which comprised the entire sulfate reduction zone and the upper methanogenic zone. By combining EMA (ethidium monoazide that can only enter damaged/dead cells and may also bind to free DNA) treatment with real-time PCR, we determined the distributions of total intact bacteria (16S rDNA genes) and intact SRB (dsrAB gene), their relative population sizes, and the proportion of dead cells or free DNA with depth. The abundance of SRB corresponded in average to 13% of the total bacterial community in the sulfate zone, 22% in the sulfate,methane transition zone and 8% in the methane zone. Compared with the total bacterial community, there were relatively less dead/damaged cells and free DNA present than among the SRB and this fraction did not change systematically with depth. By DGGE analysis, based on the amplification of the dsrA gene (400 bp), we found that the richness of SRB did not change with depth through the geochemical zones; but the clustering was related to the chemical zonation. A full-length clone library of the dsrAB gene (1900 bp) was constructed from four different depths (20, 110, 280 and 500 cm), and showed that the dsrAB genes in the near-surface sediment (20 cm) was mainly composed of sequences close to the Desulfobacteraceae, including marine complete and incomplete oxidizers such as Desulfosarcina, Desulfobacterium and Desulfococcus. The three other libraries were predominantly composed of Gram-positive SRB. [source]

Phylogenetic analyses of ribosomal DNA-containing bacterioplankton genome fragments from a 4000 m vertical profile in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre

Vinh D. Pham
Summary High-throughput identification of rRNA gene-containing clones in large insert metagenomic libraries is difficult, because of the high background of host ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and rRNA genes. To address this challenge, a membrane hybridization method was developed to identify all bacterial small subunit rRNA-containing fosmid clones of microbial community DNA from seven different depths in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. Out of 101,376 clones screened, 751 rDNA-containing clones were identified that grouped in ,60 different clades. Several rare sequences only remotely related to known groups were detected, including a Wolbachia -related sequence containing a putative intron or intervening sequence, as well as seven sequences from Order Myxococcales not previously detected in pelagic habitats. Stratified, depth-specific population structure was evident within both cultured and uncultured lineages. Conversely, some eurybathyal members of the genera Alcanivorax and Rhizobium shared identical small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences that were distributed from surface waters to the 4000 m depth. Comparison with similar analyses in Monterey Bay microbial communities revealed previously recognized, as well as some distinctive, depth-stratified partitioning that distinguished coastal from open ocean bacterioplankton populations. While some bias was evident in fosmid clone recovery in a few particular lineages, the overall phylogenetic group recovery and distributions were consistent with previous studies, as well as with direct shotgun sequence data from the same source DNA. [source]

Vertical profiles of methanogenesis and methanogens in two contrasting acidic peatlands in central New York State, USA

Hinsby Cadillo-Quiroz
Summary Northern acidic peatlands are important sources of atmospheric methane, yet the methanogens in them are poorly characterized. We examined methanogenic activities and methanogen populations at different depths in two peatlands, McLean bog (MB) and Chicago bog (CB). Both have acidic (pH 3.5,4.5) peat soils, but the pH of the deeper layers of CB is near-neutral, reflecting its previous existence as a neutral-pH fen. Acetotrophic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis could be stimulated in upper samples from both bogs, and phylotypes of methanogens using H2/CO2 (Methanomicrobiales) or acetate (Methanosarcinales) were identified in 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses using a novel primer/restriction enzyme set that we developed. Particularly dominant in the upper layers was a clade in the Methanomicrobiales, called E2 here and the R10 or fen group elsewhere, estimated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction to be present at ,108 cells per gram of dry peat. Methanogenic activity was considerably lower in deeper samples from both bogs. The methanogen populations detected by T-RFLP in deeper portions of MB were mainly E2 and the uncultured euryarchaeal rice cluster (RC)-II group, whereas populations in the less acidic CB deep layers were considerably different, and included a Methanomicrobiales clade we call E1-E1,, as well as RC-I, RC-II, marine benthic group D, and a new cluster that we call the subaqueous cluster. E2 was barely detectable in the deeper samples from CB, further evidence for the associations of most organisms in this group with acidic habitats. [source]

Mechanical behavior of bovine periodontal ligament under tension-compression cyclic displacements

Tatsuya Shibata
In the present study, the mechanical response of bovine periodontal ligament (PDL) subjected to displacement-controlled tension,compression harmonic oscillations and subsequent rupture was examined. Specimens including dentine, cementum, PDL, and alveolar bone were extracted from different depths and locations of bovine first molars. They were immersed in a saline solution at room temperature and clamped on their bone and dentine extremities. The samples were tested at ±35% of the PDL's width, with a frequency of 1 Hz. The mechanical parameters evaluated were hysteresis, phase lag, and the modulus of the stress,stretch ratio curves in tension and compression. The tensile strength and the corresponding stretch ratio were also recorded. Stress,stretch ratio curves indicated a non-linear, time-dependent response with hysteresis and preconditioning effects. The hysteresis and phase lag in compression were much higher than in tension, suggesting that the dissipated energy was higher in compression than in tension. The root depth and location did not play essential roles for the tension or compression data, with the exception of limited statistical differences for tensile strength and corresponding stretch ratio. Thus, biological variability in the specimens, as a result of different bone contours, PDL width, and fiber orientation, did not affect the energy-absorbing capacity of the PDL. The evolution of the stress rate with stress demonstrated a constant increase of stiffness with stress. The stiffness values were twofold higher in tension than in compression. The data also showed that the stiffness of the PDL was comparable with data reported for other soft tissues. [source]

Fate of airborne metal pollution in soils as related to agricultural management.


Summary The fate of airborne metal pollutants in soils is still relatively unknown. We studied the incorporation of such airborne metal pollution in two soils under long-term permanent pasture (PP) and conventional arable land (CA). Both soils were located at an almost equal distance from a former zinc smelter complex and developed under comparable pedogenetic conditions. Profiles of total concentrations of Zn, chosen as a mobile, and Pb as a little- or non-mobile element, were examined and compared with macro- and micromorphological soil characteristics (soil colour, biological activity). The two soils showed different profiles of total Zn and Pb concentrations, with a marked decrease of concentrations of both elements under the plough layer in CA, whereas the decrease was more progressive in PP. However, the stocks of Zn and Pb for the 1-m soil profiles of CA and PP were comparable. Correlation of Zn and Pb concentration at different depths with total Fe contents and comparison with estimated data for the local geochemical background (LGCB), suggests transport of Zn from the surface to depth in CA and PP, and Pb movement in PP. In CA, 53% of Zn and 92.5% of Pb stocks derived from airborne metal pollution were located at depths < 26 cm. In PP, only 40% of Zn and 82% of Pb, derived from airborne pollution, were found in the A11 and A12 horizons (< 26 cm), the remaining 18% of the Pb stock being incorporated until 50 cm depth; one-third of total Zn stock ascribed to airborne pollution was found at depths > 50 cm. Studies of the composition of gravitational water collected in soils from the same study area suggest two mechanisms for metal movement. First, mobile metal ions (Zn2+) move in the soil solution and are intercepted by iron-clay complexes in deeper soil horizons. Second, observed only in PP, simultaneous movement of Zn and Pb is ascribed to bioturbation by earthworms. [source]

High vertical and low horizontal diversity of Prochlorococcus ecotypes in the Mediterranean Sea in summer

Laurence Garczarek
Abstract Natural populations of the marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus exist as two main ecotypes, inhabiting different layers of the ocean's photic zone. These so-called high light- (HL-) and low light (LL-) adapted ecotypes are both physiologically and genetically distinct. HL strains can be separated into two major clades (HLI and HLII), whereas LL strains are more diverse. Here, we used several molecular techniques to study the genetic diversity of natural Prochlorococcus populations during the Prosope cruise in the Mediterranean Sea in the summer of 1999. Using a dot blot hybridization technique, we found that HLI was the dominant HL group and was confined to the upper mixed layer. In contrast, LL ecotypes were only found below the thermocline. Secondly, a restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of PCR-amplified pcb genes (encoding the major light-harvesting proteins of Prochlorococcus) suggested that there were at least four genetically different ecotypes, occupying distinct but overlapping light niches in the photic zone. At comparable depths, similar banding patterns were observed throughout the sampled area, suggesting a horizontal homogenization of ecotypes. Nevertheless, environmental pcb gene sequences retrieved from different depths at two stations proved all different at the nucleotide level, suggesting a large genetic microdiversity within those ecotypes. [source]

Analysis of the behaviour of the structural concrete after the fire at the Windsor Building in Madrid

E. Menéndez
Abstract The analysis of the concrete subjected to high temperatures is usually undertaken by means of tests specifically designed and carried out in the laboratory, or by using theoretical approaches using standardized curves for theoretical fires. An analysis by different techniques has been carried out on structural concrete to real fire of Windsor Building in Madrid, which was severally damaged by a fire in 2005. These techniques are X-ray diffraction, differential thermal and thermogravimetric analysis and backscattered electron microscopy with dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Samples of the concrete were taken from different floors in the building and analyses were carried out at different depths starting from the surface exposed to the fire itself. The analysis allows the damaged area to be limited as well as situating the 500,C isotherm in the concrete element. In accordance with the results obtained, the damage is limited to just a few centimeters from the surface exposed to the fire itself, in spite of its prolonged exposure to the fire. This would justify that the concrete has demonstrated a suitable resistant behaviour. Likewise, it can be deduced from the results obtained that the fire, to which the concrete was subjected, can be qualified as severe. Also, these results can confirm that the calculation hypothesis in the project is correct in relation to the fire resistance exigencies of the concrete. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Linking the flame-retardant mechanisms of an ethylene-acrylate copolymer, chalk and silicone elastomer system with its intumescent behaviour

Anna Hermansson
Abstract In this paper the flame-retardant mechanisms of a flame-retardant system consisting of ethylene-acrylate copolymer, chalk and silicone elastomer are linked to its foaming process and to its formation of a final intumescent structure. Thermocouples were placed inside and at the surface of cone calorimeter test specimens in order to measure the temperature at different depths during the formation of the intumescent structure. The temperature and visual observations of the foaming process were then linked to chemical reactions seen with thermogravimetric analysis and also coupled with earlier knowledge of the flame-retardant mechanism. A correlation is seen between the chemical reactions, the temperature (inside and at the surface of a cone calorimeter test specimen) as measured by thermocouples and visual observations in the intumescent process. Further, the outcome of this study provides useful information for achieving a deeper understanding of the flame-retardant mechanisms of the ethylene-acrylate copolymer, chalk and silicone elastomer system. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

A New Multilevel Ground Water Monitoring System Using Multichannel Tubing

Murray D. Einarson
A new multilevel ground water monitoring system has been developed that uses custom-extruded flexible 1.6-inch (4.1 cm) outside-diameter (O.D.) multichannel HOPE tubing (referred to as Continuous Multichannel Tubing or CMT) to monitor as many as seven discrete zones within a single borehole in either unconsolidated sediments or bedrock. Prior to inserting the tubing in the borehole, ports are created that allow ground water to enter six outer pie-shaped channels (nominal diameter = 0.5 inch [1.3 cm]) and a central hexagonal center channel (nominal diameter = 0.4 inch [1 cm]) at different depths, facilitating the measurement of depth-discrete piezometric heads and the collection of depth-discrete ground water samples. Sand packs and annular seals between the various monitored zones can be installed using conventional tremie methods. Alternatively, bentonite packers and prepacked sand packs have been developed that are attached to the tubing at the ground surface, facilitating precise positioning of annular seals and sand packs. Inflatable rubber packers for permanent or temporary installations in bedrock aquifers are currently undergoing site trials. Hydraulic heads are measured with conventional water-level meters or electronic pressure transducers to generate vertical profiles of hydraulic head. Ground water samples are collected using peristaltic pumps, small-diameter bailers, inertial lift pumps, or small-diameter canister samplers. For monitoring hydrophobic organic compounds, the CMT tubing is susceptible to both positive and negative biases caused by sorption, desorption, and diffusion. These biases can be minimized by: (1) purging the channels prior to sampling, (2) collecting samples from separate 0.25-inch (0.64 cm) O.D. Teflon sampling tubing inserted to the bottom of each sampling channel, or (3) collecting the samples downhole using sampling devices positioned next to the intake ports. More than 1000 CMT multilevel wells have been installed in North America and Europe to depths up to 260 feet (79 m) below ground surface. These wells have been installed in boreholes created in unconsolidated sediments and bedrock using a wide range of drilling equipment, including sonic, air rotary, diamond-bit coring, hollow-stem auger, and direct push. This paper presents a discussion of three field trials of the system, demonstrating its versatility and illustrating the type of depth-discrete data that can be collected with the system. [source]

Recharge, upflux and water table response for shallow water table conditions in southwest Florida

Fouad H. Jaber
Abstract A disproportionate increase or decrease in water table in response to minor water input or drainage is observed in shallow water table conditions inside drainage lysimeters. This increase happens because the capillary fringe of the shallow water table reaches up to or near the surface (Wieringermeer effect). The correlations between water table level changes and rainfall, seepage irrigation, drip irrigation, and drainage were analysed. Correlations with rainfall, seepage irrigation, and drainage were high (R2 ranged from 0·46 to 0·97). Drip irrigation had low correlations due to the low rates of application (R2 ranged from 0·26 to 0·44). Conventional methods of calculating recharge, such as multiplying the specific yield with the water table fluctuations, cannot be used for Wieringermeer effect situations. A method using water balance data and soil moisture at different depths in the lysimeters was developed to estimate recharge and upflux. The recharge results were used to develop the apparent specific yield Sya, which could be used to calculate consequent recharge events from water table fluctuation data. Combining the water table fluctuation relationships developed with the Sya value will allow the prediction of recharge from rainfall and irrigation events without the need for soil moisture equipment. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Laboratory experimental check of a conceptual model for infiltration under complex rainfall patterns

Florisa Melone
Abstract Experimental evidence of the accuracy of the model proposed by Corradini et al. (1997, Journal of Hydrology192: 104,124) for local infiltration,redistribution,reinfiltration in homogeneous soils is given. The model provides infiltration through the time evolution of the soil water content vertical profile, which is described by an ordinary differential equation in any stage of a given rainfall event. A nearly horizontal laboratory slope was used for the experiments performed over both a medium- and a coarse-textured soil. During each experiment characterized by a complex rainfall pattern, the soil water content , at different depths was continuously monitored using the time-domain reflectometry method. Our results indicate that the model simulated the experimental vertical profiles of , accurately, particularly during the infiltration and reinfiltration stages separated by a rainfall hiatus with redistribution of soil water. These results indicate the reliability of the model in computing the local effective rainfall for hydrological response. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Determination of upward/downward groundwater fluxes using transient variations of soil profile temperature: test of the method with Voyons (Aube, France) experimental data

Hocine Bendjoudi
Abstract The temperature variations recorded at several points of a vertical shallow-depth profile are governed both by conductive and convective heat transfers and can be used to calculate the vertical component of the Darcy velocity and thermal diffusivity in the soil. This paper describes such calculations when transient variations over tens of days are considered and tests them using data collected at Voyons (Aube, France). The temperature was recorded during a year and a half period with a 1 h sampling time step at three different depths: 0·2, 0·4 and 0·75 m. By processing the annual variation of temperature, we obtained a value of the Darcy velocity in good agreement with the value of actual/potential evapotranspiration ratio. By processing transient variations, despite the limitation of the calculations due to the lack of sensitivity of the sensors, results obtained at Voyons were in good correlation with tensiometric data. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Wave propagation in nonlinear one-dimensional soil model

J. Ahn
Abstract The objective of the research conducted by the authors is to explore the feasibility of determining reliable in situ values of shear modulus as a function of strain. In this paper the meaning of the material stiffness obtained from impact and harmonic excitation tests on a surface slab is discussed. A one-dimensional discrete model with the nonlinear material stiffness is used for this purpose. When a static load is applied followed by an impact excitation, if the amplitude of the impact is very small, the measured wave velocity using the cross-correlation indicates the wave velocity calculated from the tangent modulus corresponding to the state of stress caused by the applied static load. The duration of the impact affects the magnitude of the displacement and the particle velocity but has very little effect on the estimation of the wave velocity for the magnitudes considered herein. When a harmonic excitation is applied, the cross-correlation of the time histories at different depths estimates a wave velocity close to the one calculated from the secant modulus in the stress,strain loop under steady-state condition. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Simulation of the soil wetting shape under porous pipe sub-irrigation using dimensional analysis,

Shu Qiaosheng
analyse dimensionnelle; tuyau poreux; forme de mouillage du sol; irrigation soutterraine Abstract Based on the discharge characteristics test for a porous pipe used widely in greenhouse sub-irrigation in west Liaoning Province, China, Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) was applied to monitor the process of soil water movement during sub-irrigation. A model to determine the soil wetting shape was developed using a dimensional analysis method. Statistical analysis revealed that this model has a high accuracy in simulating the wetted soil shape, demonstrating that there was no significant difference between predicted and observed soil wetted width under different depths. It showed that one simple model could also be used to simulate the shape of the wetting area under a porous pipe sub-irrigation system, which was expected to provide aids for deciding depth and intervals of pipes and designing a sub-irrigation scheme. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. A partir des tests de débit caractéristique d'un tuyau poreux largement utilisé en irrigation souterraine sous serre dans l'ouest de la Province de Liaoning, une Réflectométrie dans le Domaine Temporel (TDR) a été utilisée pour surveiller le processus du mouvement de l'eau dans le sol pendant l'irrigation. Un modèle pour déterminer la forme de mouillage du sol a été développé en utilisant une méthode d'analyse dimensionnelle. L'analyse statistique a révélé que ce modèle est d'une très grande précision dans la simulation de la forme mouillée du sol, car il n'y avait aucune différence significative entre la prévision et l'observation de largeur de sol mouillé à différentes profondeurs. Elle a montré qu'un modèle simple pouvait aussi être utilisé pour simuler la forme de la zone humide en irrigation souterraine à canalisations poreuses, ce qui permet une aide à la décision concernant la profondeur et les intervalles entre tuyaux lors de la conception d'un système d'irrigation souterraine. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Upscaling water savings from farm to irrigation system level using GIS-based agro-hydrological modelling,

Shahbaz Khan
simulation d'irrigation; extrapolation; efficacité d'utilisation de l'eau; économie de l'eau Abstract Irrigation continues to be the main water user on a global scale despite the increase in water use by sectors other than agriculture. More efficient water application technologies and water management practices are ways of realising potential water savings, thus moderating the negative impacts of higher water use on farm incomes and environmental impact on rivers and groundwater systems. This paper describes an integrated approach of agro-hydrological modelling for determining potential water savings achievable by adopting high-tech irrigation technologies at farm level and application of GIS techniques to upscale those benefits at the regional irrigation system level. The SWAP (Soil,Water,Atmosphere,Plant) model was used for the simulation of water use at the farm level. The results are promising, as the potential water saving ranges from 0.1 to 2.2,ML,ha,1 (10,220,mm) for different broad-acre crops, 1.0 to 2.0,ML,ha,1 (100,200,mm) in sprinkler and 2.0 to 3.0,ML,ha,1 (200,300,mm) in drip irrigation for citrus, 1.0 to 1.5,ML,ha,1 (100,150,mm) in sprinkler and up to 4.0,ML,ha,1 (400,mm) in drip irrigation for vineyards and 0.5 to 1.0,ML,ha,1 for vegetables (50,100,mm). SWAP simulations show crop water saving potential of 7% for maize, 15% for soybean, 17% for wheat, 35% for barley, 17% for sunflower and 38% for fababean from the current water use statistics in Australia. Spatial analysis in GIS environment is carried out to investigate the spatial variations of water use for a particular crop under different depths to water table and varying soil types. Maps of water need for all broad-acre crops are drawn and pixel-to-pixel comparison is performed to determine the water saving potential per unit area. The upscaling approach shows that considerable water amounts could be saved both in Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area (MIA) and Coleambally Irrigation Area (CIA) with potential water saving of 36 to 95,GL (MCM) in MIA and 42 to 72,GL (MCM) in CIA. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. L'irrigation reste l'usage principal de l'eau à l'échelle mondiale en dépit de l'augmentation des volumes utilisés par les secteurs autres que l'agriculture. L'amélioration des techniques d'irrigation et des procédures de gestion de l'eau permet de réaliser des économies d'eau potentielles, modérant ainsi les impacts négatifs d'une surconsommation d'eau sur les revenus agricoles et ses incidences sur l'environnement des cours d'eau et des aquifères. Cet article décrit comment un modèle agro-hydrologique intégré peut déterminer les économies d'eau réalisables grâce à l'adoption de technologies de pointe dans l'irrigation au niveau de l'exploitation agricole et à l'application des techniques de SIG à l'extension de ces avantages au niveau d'un système régional d'irrigation. Le modèle SWAP (Sol-Eau-Atmosphère-Plante) a été employé pour simuler l'utilisation de l'eau au niveau de l'exploitation. Les résultats sont prometteurs car l'économie d'eau potentielle va de 100 à 2 200 m3/ha (10 à 220 millimètres) pour différentes cultures de plein champ, de 1 000 à 2 000 m3/ha (100 à 200 millimètres) en aspersion et de 2 000 à 3 000 m3/ha (200 à 300 millimètres) en goutte à goutte sur des citronniers, de 1 000 à 1 500 m3/ha (100 à 150 millimètres) en aspersion et jusqu'à 4 000 m3/ha (400 millimètres) en goutte à goutte sur de la vigne, et de 500 à 1 000 m3/ha pour des légumes (50 à 100 millimètres). Les simulations de SWAP à partir de données statistiques australiennes courantes montrent un potentiel d'économie d'eau de 7% pour le maïs, 15% pour le soja, 17% pour le blé, 35% pour l'orge, 17% pour le tournesol et 38% pour les fèves. Une analyse par SIG permet d'étudier les variations spatiales de l'utilisation de l'eau pour une récolte particulière selon la profondeur de la nappe et le type de sol. Les besoins en eau de toutes les cultures de plein champ sont cartographiés et le potentiel d'économie d'eau par unité de surface est estimé pixel par pixel. L'extrapolation des résultats montre que des volumes d'eau considérables pourraient être économisés dans les zones irriguées de Murrumbidgee (MIA, économie potentielle de 36 à 95 millions de m3) et de Coleambally (CIA, économie potentielle de 42 à 72 m3). Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Concrete canal lining cracking in low to medium plastic soils,

H. Rahimi
sol plastique; gonflement; revêtement bétonique; Iran Abstract Failure of concrete irrigation canal linings in the form of cracking, rupture, uplifting and opening of joints, causes loss of water and money in many countries. Following the appearance of extensive cracking of concrete linings in one of the Shoeybieh sugar cane industry farms in the Khoozestan province of Iran, extensive research work was conducted to identify the main causes. In this paper, the final results of the research are presented. The testing program consisted of laboratory as well as field tests, including identification, chemical and mechanical tests of soil samples taken from the borrow pits and canal embankments. Dispersivity tests were performed using pin-hole and chemical methods. Swelling tests were conducted using the ASTM standard and ISSMFE method. The field test includes measurement of deformations of the concrete lining and embankment of an actual lined canal resulting from the filling of the canal with water. The canal was 60 m in length. The deformations were recorded by surveying the elevations of steel bars driven to different depths under the canal lining and at different points in the canal and its embankment sections. The results of laboratory tests showed the soil to have low to medium plasticity with a classification of CL-ML, having less than 1% soluble content, and being nondispersive. Swelling tests conducted by the ASTM and ISSMFE methods showed completely different results. The ISSMFE method resulted in a high free swell potential, while the ASTM method indicated a low to medium potential. The results of full-scale field tests were all in favor of the ISSMFE method. The greatest difference between the results of the two methods was found to be due to the different compaction methods used during construction of the canal, as well as the moisture content of the soil sample being prepared for the swell tests. The flocculent structure and lower compaction water content of soil samples in the ISSMFE method resulted in much higher free swell. The similarity between compaction methods used in the field and the static effort used in the ISSMFE method, as well as very low soil water content of the canal embankments during lining operations, were found to be the main reasons for swelling of the soil and the eventual cracking of the concrete linings. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. RÉSUMÉ L'écroulement du revêtement bétonique des canaux d'irrigation en forme de fissure, de la rupture, de la sous-pression et de l'ouverture des joints, est la cause de la perte d' eau et par conséquence des fonds publics de plusieurs pays dans le monde entier. Après avoir observé ce phénomène dans des canaux d'irrigation d'un grand projet de canne à sucre à Shoeybieh dans la région de Khozestan, située au sud de l'Iran, une équipe de recherche a été engagée pour trouver les causes principales de cetécroulement. Cet article présente les résultats finaux de cette recherche. Le programme consiste de deux types d'essai, en laboratoire et sur le terrain. Les échantillons du sol pour l'essai mécanique et chimique ont été pris dans des emprunts de terre et la digue du canal. Les essais de dispersivité ont été faits par les méthodes de pin-hole et de chimique. La méthode del ISSMFE et la standard del ASTM ont été utilisés pour les essais de gonflement du sol. Le mesurage de la déformation d'un canal revêté en béton et aussi de digue du canal a été fait par rempliz le canal avee de l'eau. Le canal avait une longueur de 60 m. La déformation a été observée en examinant les élévations à plusieurs points sur la profondeur du canal en dessous de la partie revêtée et aussi la digue du canal par un instrument spécifique. Les résultats des essais de laboratoire montrent que les sols qui ont une plasticité entre petite et moyenne situés dans la classification de CL-ML ayant moins d'un pour cent de contenude soluble sont non-dispersifes. Les essais de gonflement par les méthodes de l'ASTM et l'ISSME montrent des résultats tout à fait différents. La méthode ISSMFE montre un potentiel de gonflement assez élevé, tandis que la méthode ASTM montre un potentiel entre petit et moyen. Les résultats des essais en champs d'étude confirme la méthode ISSMFE. La plus grande différence entre le résultat de deux méthodes est à cause d'usage de plusieurs méthodes de compaction dans la période de la construction du canal. La structure floculée du sol ayant une humidité moins compactée dans la méthode ISSMFE montre un gonflement plus élevée du sol. Les méthodes similaires de compaction utilisées dans le champs d'étude et énergie statique utilisée par la méthode ISSFE, et aussi une petite humidité de digue du canal en période de revêtement sont les causes principales de gonflement et éventuellement de fissure. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Eclogites from the Chinese continental scientific drilling borehole, their petrology and different P-T evolutions

ISLAND ARC, Issue 4 2007
Yong-Feng Zhu
Abstract Four phengite-bearing eclogites, taken from different depths of the Chinese continental scientific drilling (CCSD) borehole in the Sulu ultrahigh pressure terrane, eastern China, were studied with the electron microprobe. The compositional zonations of garnet and omphacite are moderate, whereas phengite compositions generally vary significantly in a single sample from core to rim by decrease of the Si content. Various geothermobarometric methods were applied to constrain the P-T conditions of these eclogites on the basis of the compositional variability of the above minerals. The constrained P-T path for sample B218 is characterized by pressure decrease from ca 3.0 GPa (ca 600°C) to 1.3 GPa (ca 550°C). Eclogite B310 yielded P-T conditions of 3.0 GPa and 750°C. The path for eclogite B1008 starts at about 650°C and 3.6,3.9 GPa (stage I) followed by a pressure decrease to 2.8,3.0 GPa and a significant temperature rise (stages II and IIIa, 750,810°C). Afterwards, this rock cooled down to 620,660°C at still high pressures (2.5,2.7 GPa, stage IIIb). Retrograde conditions were about 670°C and 1.3 GPa (stage IV). Eclogite B1039 yielded a P-T path starting at ca 600°C and 3.3,3.9 GPa (stage I). A pressure decrease to about 3.0 GPa (stage II, 590,610°C) and then a moderate isobaric temperature increase to ca 630°C (stage III) followed. Stage IV is characterized by temperatures of 650°C at pressures close to 1.3 GPa. During and after this stage (hydrous) fluids partially rich in potassium penetrated the rocks causing minor changes. Relatively high oxygen fugacities led to andradite and magnetite among the newly formed minerals. We think that the above findings can be best explained by mass flow in a subduction channel. Thus, we conclude that the assembly of UHP rocks of the CCSD site, eclogites, quartzofeldspathic rocks, and peridotites, cannot represent a crustal section that was already coherent at UHP conditions as it is the common belief currently. The coherency was attained after significant exhumation of these UHP rocks. [source]

Prograde eclogites from the Tonaru epidote amphibolite mass in the Sambagawa Metamorphic Belt, central Shikoku, southwest Japan

ISLAND ARC, Issue 3 2005
Yasuo Miyagi
Abstract Prograde eclogites occur in the Tonaru epidote amphibolite mass in the Sambagawa Metamorphic Belt of central Shikoku. The Tonaru mass is considered to be a metamorphosed layered gabbro, and occurs as a large tectonic block (approximately 6.5 km × 1 km) in a high-grade portion of the Sambagawa schists. The Tonaru mass experienced high- P/low- T prograde metamorphism from the epidote-blueschist facies to the eclogite facies prior to its emplacement into the Sambagawa schists. The estimated P,T conditions are T = 300,450°C and P = 0.7,1.1 GPa for the epidote-blueschist facies, and the peak P,T conditions for the eclogite facies are T = 700,730°C and P , 1.5 GPa. Following the eclogite facies metamorphism, the Tonaru mass was retrograded to the epidote amphibolite facies. It subsequently underwent additional prograde Sambagawa metamorphism, together with the surrounding Sambagawa schists, until the conditions of the oligoclase,biotite zone were reached. The high- P/low- T prograde metamorphism of the eclogite facies in the Tonaru mass and other tectonic blocks show similar steep dP/dT geothermal gradients despite their diverse peak P,T conditions, suggesting that these tectonic blocks reached different depths in the subduction zone. The individual rocks in each metamorphic zone of the Sambagawa schists also recorded steep dP/dT geothermal gradients during the early stages of the Sambagawa prograde metamorphism, and these gradients are similar to those of the eclogite-bearing tectonic blocks. Therefore, the eclogite-bearing tectonic blocks reached greater depths in the subduction zone than the Sambagawa schists. All the tectonic blocks were ultimately emplaced into the hanging wall side of the later-subducted Sambagawa high-grade schists during their exhumation. [source]

In vitro degradation of articular cartilage: does trypsin treatment produce consistent results?

H. R. Moody
Abstract It is common practice in laboratories to create models of degraded articular cartilage in vitro and use these to study the effects of degeneration on cartilage responses to external stimuli such as mechanical loading. However, there are inconsistencies in the reported action of trypsin, and there is no guide on the concentration of trypsin or the time to which a given sample can be treated so that a specific level of proteoglycan depletion is achieved. This paper argues that before any level of confidence can be established in comparative analysis it is necessary to first obtain samples with similar properties. Consequently, we examine the consistency of the outcome of the artificial modification of cartilage relative to the effects of the common enzyme, trypsin, used in the process of in vitro proteoglycan depletion. The results demonstrate that for a given time and enzyme concentration, the action of trypsin on proteoglycans is highly variable and is dependent on the initial distribution and concentration of proteoglycans at different depths, the intrinsic sample depth, the location in the joint space and the medium type, thereby sounding a note of caution to researchers attempting to model a proteoglycan-based degeneration of articular cartilage in their experimental studies. [source]

Tufted ducks Aythya fuligula do not control buoyancy during diving

Lewis G. Halsey
Work against buoyancy during submergence is a large component of the energy costs for shallow diving ducks. For penguins, buoyancy is less of a problem, however they still seem to trade-off levels of oxygen stores against the costs and benefits of buoyant force during descent and ascent. This trade-off is presumably achieved by increasing air sac volume and hence pre-dive buoyancy (Bpre) when diving deeper. Tufted ducks, Aythya fuligula, almost always dive with nearly full oxygen stores so these cannot be increased. However, the high natural buoyancy of tufted ducks guarantees a passive ascent, so they might be expected to decrease Bpre before particularly deep, long dives to reduce the energy costs of diving. Body heat lost to the water can also be a cause of substantial energy expenditure during a dive, both through dissipation to the ambient environment and through the heating of ingested food and water. Thus dive depth (dd), duration and food type can influence how much heat energy is lost during a dive. The present study investigated the relationship between certain physiological and behavioural adjustments by tufted ducks to dd and food type. Changes in Bpre, deep body temperature (Tb) and dive time budgeting of four ducks were measured when diving to two different depths (1.5 and 5.7 m), and for two types of food (mussels and mealworms). The hypothesis was that in tufted ducks, Bpre decreases as dd increases. The ducks did not change Bpre in response to different diving depths, and thus the hypothesis was rejected. Tb was largely unaffected by dives to either depth. However, diving behaviour changed at the greater dd, including an increase in dive duration and vertical descent speed. Behaviour also changed depending on the food type, including an increase in foraging duration and vertical descent speed when mussels were present. Behavioural changes seem to represent the major adjustment made by tufted ducks in response to changes in their diving environment. [source]

Incidence and severity of marine borer attack at different depths at Mtongwe Jetty Pontoon Mombasa, Kenya

P. K. Sirmah
Abstract The activity of marine borers was investigated at Mtongwe Jetty Pontoon, Mombasa, Kilindini harbour using untreated panels of Pinus patula (Schlecht) submerged to different depths. Twenty test panels replicated over 7 months were each strung in three ladder-like frames using nylon twine and suspended vertically, in such a way that the top most panels were 25 cm below the water surface at low and high tide. Monthly observations were made between January and July for the vertical incidence and extent of marine borer attack following the technique of Bobat (1995). Marine borers were collected from test panels, identified and counted. In addition, the percentage weight loss for panels at different depths was determined at the end of 7 months. Teredo fulleri (Clapp) was dominant on panels near water surface while Martesia striata (Linne) and Lyrodus pedicellatus (Quatrefages) were predominant at the bottom. The results showed that attack began within the first month of exposure and was severest by the seventh month. The vertical incidence and extent of attack decreased with increasing depth of panel exposure and was negatively correlated with depth. This is attributed to changes in hydrographic conditions. Résumé L'activité des foreurs marins a étéétudiée dans le Ponton de Mtongwe Jetty, Mombasa, dans le port de Kilindini, en utilisant des panneaux de Pinus patula (Schlecht) non traités, plongés à différentes profondeurs. Vingt panneaux tests identiques ont été attachés avec des cordes de nylon pour former trois cadres ressemblant à des échelles et suspendus pendant sept mois verticalement de façon à ce que les panneaux supérieurs se trouvent à 25 cm sous la surface à marée basse et haute. L'on a fait des observations mensuelles entre janvier et juillet de l'occurrence verticale et l'étendue de l'attaque des foreurs marins en utilisant la technique de Bobat (1995). Les foreurs marins ont été collectés sur les panneaux tests, identifiés et comptés. De plus, on a déterminé le pourcentage de la perte de poids des panneaux aux différentes profondeurs à la fin des sept mois. Teredo fulleri (Clapp) était dominant sur les panneaux situés près de la surface de l'eau alors que Martesia striata (Linné) et Lyrodus pedicellatus (Quatrefages) étaient prédominants en profondeur. Les résultats ont montré que l'attaque a commencé dès le premier mois et que c'est alors qu'elle fut la plus sévère. L'occurrence verticale et l'étendue de l'attaque diminuaient quand le panneau était plus profond et étaient négativement liées à la profondeur. Cela est attribué aux changements des conditions hydrographiques. [source]


María Florencia Colombo-Pallotta
Macrocystis pyrifera (L.) C. Agardh is a canopy-forming species that occupies the entire water column. The photosynthetic tissue of this alga is exposed to a broad range of environmental factors, particularly related to light quantity and quality. In the present work, photosynthetic performance, light absorption, pigment composition, and thermal dissipation were measured in blades collected from different depths to characterize the photoacclimation and photoprotection responses of M. pyrifera according to the position of its photosynthetic tissue in the water column. The most important response of M. pyrifera was the enhancement of photoprotection in surface and near-surface blades. The size of the xanthophyll cycle pigment pool (XC) was correlated to the nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) of chl a fluorescence capacity of the blades. In surface blades, we detected the highest accumulation of UV-absorbing compounds, photoprotective carotenoids, ,XC, and NPQ. These characteristics were important responses that allowed surface blades to present the highest maximum photosynthetic rate and the highest PSII electron transport rate. Therefore, surface blades made the highest contribution to algae production. In contrast, basal blades presented the opposite trend. These blades do not to contribute significantly to photosynthetate production of the whole organism, but they might be important for other functions, like nutrient uptake. [source]

Interpenetrating Polymer Networks with Spatially Graded Morphology Controllable by UV-Radiation Curing

Hideyuki Nakanishi
Abstract Interpenetrating Polymer Networks (IPNs) composed of polystyrene (PS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) were synthesized from a precursor mixture by using dissimilar photo-cross-link reactions. When the reation yields exceeded a certain threshold, the mixture was quenched from one-phase region into two-phase region, leading to phase separation. Upon irradiation with strong UV-light, an intensity gradient was formed along the propagating direction of the exciting light, generating a gradient of quench depth via the spatial inhomogeneity of the cross-link reactions. As a consequence, a gradient of the characteristic length scales was continuously generated from the top to the bottom of the mixture. The resulting three-dimensional (3-D) morphology was in-situ observed at different depths of the mixture by using a laser-scanning confocal microscope (LSCM). From this 3-D observation, it was found that phase separation was accelerated at the bottom of the mixture and proceeded in an autocatalytic fashion. The mechanism for the formation of the graded morphology was discussed in conjunction with the kinetics of the autocatalytic phase separation. [source]

Variability in the structure of epiphytic assemblages of the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica in relation to depth

MARINE ECOLOGY, Issue 3 2009
Ugo Nesti
Abstract The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the variability in the structure of the epiphytic assemblages of leaves and rhizomes of the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica differed between depths at a large spatial scale. A hierarchical sampling design was used to compare epiphytic assemblages at two different depths (10 and 20 m) in terms of both species composition and abundance and patterns of spatial variability in the Tuscan Archipelago (North Western Mediterranean Sea, Italy). Results showed significant differences in the structure of assemblages on rhizomes and leaves at different depths. These differences were related to species composition and abundance; differences were not significant for total biomass, total percentage cover and percentage cover of animals and algae. Whereas the higher variability was observed among shoots in all the studied systems, patterns of spatial variability at the other spatial scales investigated differed between the two studied depths. Moreover, in the present study, analogous patterns between depths resulted for both the assemblages of leaves and rhizomes, suggesting that factors that change with depth can be responsible for the spatial variability of both the assemblages (leaves and rhizomes), and operate regardless of the microclimatic conditions and the structure of assemblages. [source]

Living on the edge: feeding of subtropical open ocean copepods

MARINE ECOLOGY, Issue 2 2006
Gustav-Adolf Paffenhöfer
Abstract The objective of this study was to provide quantitative information on environmental feeding rates of warm water oceanic epipelagic copepods. We determined clearance rates at 23 °C for various particle size ranges in shipboard studies in the western oligotrophic subtropical Atlantic Ocean for females of the calanoid species Clausocalanus furcatus and Mecynocera clausii. These in situ clearance rates were then applied to the various particle size ranges of environmental particle spectra of auto- and heterotrophs at different depths from three stations in the western Atlantic. After calculating the metabolic demands of each of these two copepod species and applying an assimilation efficiency of 90%, we determined that C. furcatus meets its metabolic demands in all six cases, and M. clausii in two of six cases. Clausocalanus furcatus would also meet its energy demands at 25 °C, where it is often found, while M. clausii at 20 °C, where it is regularly found, would cover its metabolic needs in four of six cases. It is hypothesized that these species, and most likely most of the other co-occurring copepod species, are limited in their abundance by food availability, or, better said, are ,living on the edge' in relation to food abundance. [source]

3D models of radiatively driven colliding winds in massive O + O star binaries , III.

Thermal X-ray emission
ABSTRACT The X-ray emission from the wind,wind collision in short-period massive O + O star binaries is investigated. The emission is calculated from 3D hydrodynamical models which incorporate gravity, the driving of the winds, orbital motion of the stars and radiative cooling of the shocked plasma. Changes in the amount of stellar occultation and circumstellar attenuation introduce phase-dependent X-ray variability in systems with circular orbits, while strong variations in the intrinsic emission also occur in systems with eccentric orbits. The X-ray emission in eccentric systems can display strong hysteresis, with the emission softer after periastron than at corresponding orbital phases prior to periastron, reflecting the physical state of the shocked plasma at these times. Our simulated X-ray light curves bear many similarities to observed light curves. In systems with circular orbits the light curves show two minima per orbit, which are identical (although not symmetric) if the winds are identical. The maxima in the light curves are produced near quadrature, with a phase delay introduced due to the aberration and curvature of the wind collision region. Circular systems with unequal winds produce minima of different depths and duration. In systems with eccentric orbits the maxima in the light curves may show a very sharp peak (depending on the orientation of the observer), followed by a precipitous drop due to absorption and/or cooling. We show that the rise to maximum does not necessarily follow a 1/dsep law. Our models further demonstrate that the effective circumstellar column can be highly energy dependent. Therefore, spectral fits which assume energy-independent column(s) are overly simplified and may compromise the interpretation of observed data. To better understand observational analyses of such systems we apply Chandra and Suzaku response files, plus Poisson noise, to the spectra calculated from our simulations and fit these using standard xspec models. We find that the recovered temperatures from two- or three-temperature mekal fits are comparable to those from fits to the emission from real systems with similar stellar and orbital parameters/nature. We also find that when the global abundance is thawed in the spectral fits, subsolar values are exclusively returned, despite the calculations using solar values as input. This highlights the problem of fitting oversimplified models to data, and of course is of wider significance than just the work presented here. Further insight into the nature of the stellar winds and the wind,wind collision region in particular systems will require dedicated hydrodynamical modelling, the results of which will follow in due course. [source]