Different Dependence (different + dependence)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Gas Classification of Particles Using a Packed Bed

Wei Yang
Abstract Gas classification of particles using a packed bed is, for the first time, proposed and tested for two materials, i.e., glass ballotini and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). A 2,m long column with 9.5,mm diameter is packed with 2,mm spherical particles. The particles to be classified are injected into the inlet of the packed bed by a carrier gas. Measurements of the breakthrough curves of the particles are carried out at the outlet of the packed bed. The results show that the particle elution order is particle size dependent with large particles elutriated faster than small ones. Taking the particle size into account, the retention time of irregular MCC particles is much longer than that of spherical glass beads and the difference is attributed to the particle shape and cohesiveness. Based on the findings, binary mixtures of both, glass and MCC beads are injected into the packed bed for the classification experiments. The results show different dependence on the superficial gas velocity of the particle classification efficiency. The particle classification efficiency of glass particles increases with decreasing superficial gas velocity, whereas that of MCC particles increases with increasing superficial gas velocity. [source]

Microscopic theory for intersubband spontaneous emission

M. F. Pereira Jr.
Abstract The amplified spontaneous emission spectra of quantum-cascade laser structures is computed with a Keldysh Green's functions theory. We show that the emission spectra are sharpened in comparison to gain spectra due to wave guide propagation. In addition the different dependence on level occupation causes moderate differences between gain and emission peak positions. Our fit-parameter-free theory is valid in ranges of strong nonequilibrium, where fit-parameters do not even exist. ( 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

The NOAO Fundamental Plane Survey , III.

Variations in the stellar populations of red-sequence galaxies from the cluster core to the virial radius
ABSTRACT We analyse absorption line-strength indices for ,3000 red-sequence galaxies in 94 nearby clusters to investigate systematic variations of their stellar content with location in the host cluster. The data are drawn from the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) Fundamental Plane Survey. Our adopted method is a generalization of that introduced by Nelan et al. to determine the global age,mass and metallicity,mass relations from the same survey. We find strong evidence for a change in galaxy properties, at fixed mass, over a range from the cluster centre to the virial radius, R200. For example, red-sequence galaxies further out in the clusters have weaker Mgb5177 (at ,8, significance) and stronger H, and H, absorption (,3,, ,4,) than galaxies of the same velocity dispersion in the cluster cores. The Fe5270 and Fe5335 indices show only very weak trends with radius. Using a total of 12 indices, the pattern of cluster-centric gradients is considered in light of their different dependences on stellar age and chemical composition. The measured gradients for all 12 indices can be reproduced by a model in which red-sequence galaxies at ,1 R200 have on average younger ages (by 15 4 per cent) and lower ,-element abundance ratios (by 10 2 per cent) than galaxies of the same velocity dispersion but located near the cluster centres. For the total metallicity, Z/H, no significant gradient is found (2 3 per cent larger at R200 than in the cores). There are hints that the age trend may be stronger for galaxies of lower mass and/or for galaxies with more discy morphology. We show, however, that the trends cannot be driven primarily by changes in the morphological mix as a function of radius. The cluster-centric age and [,/Fe] gradients are in the sense expected if galaxies in the cluster core were accreted at an earlier epoch than those at larger radii, and if this earlier accretion contributed to an earlier cessation of star formation. The size of the observed age trend is comparable to predictions from semi-analytic models of hierarchical galaxy formation. [source]

Loading Dependence of Self-Diffusivities of Gases in Zeolites

R. Krishna
Abstract Experimental data on the self-diffusivities, Di,self, of a variety of gases (CH4, N2, Kr, C2H6, and C3H8) in three different zeolites, LTA, FAU, and MFI, show different dependences on the molar loading, qi. In LTA, Di,self appears to increase with qi for all molecules except N2. In FAU and in MFI the Di,self shows a sharp decrease with increasing qi. In order to gain insights into the causes behind the loading dependences, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were carried out to determine the self-diffusivities of seven gases (CH4, N2, Kr, C2H6, C3H8, Ar, and Ne) in six different all-silica zeolite structures (MFI, AFI, FAU, CHA, DDR, and LTA). The simulation results show that the variation of Di,self with qi is determined by a variety of factors that include molecular size and shape, and degree of confinement within the zeolite. For one-dimensional channels (AFI) and intersecting channel structures (MFI), the Di,self invariably decreases with increasing qi. For zeolite structures that consist of cages separated by windows (FAU, CHA, DDR, LTA), the size of the windows is an important determinant. When the windows are wide (FAU), the Di,self decreases with qi for all molecules. If the windows are narrow (CHA, DDR and LTA), the Di,self often exhibits a sharp increase with qi, reaches a maximum and reduces to near-zero values at saturation. The sharpness with which Di,self increases with qi, is dictated by the degree of confinement at the window. Weakly confined molecules, such as Ne, do not exhibit an increase of Di,self with qi. [source]