Different Days (different + day)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Epilepsy Can Be Diagnosed When the First Two Seizures Occur on the Same Day

EPILEPSIA, Issue 9 2000
Peter Camfield
Summary: Purpose: Experts have suggested that when the first two (or more) unprovoked seizures occur on the same day, they should be considered as a single event and the diagnosis of epilepsy await a further seizure. We have studied the subsequent clinical course of children with their first two seizures on the same day ("same day" group) compared with children with their first two seizures separated by more than one day ("different day" group). Method: The Nova Scotia childhood epilepsy database documented all newly diagnosed children with epilepsy from 1977 to 1985 with follow-up in 1990 and 1991. Epilepsy was defined as two or more unprovoked seizures regardless of the interval between seizures provided that consciousness fully returned between seizures. All patients had their first seizure between the ages of 1 month and 16 years. Seizure types were restricted to partial, generalized tonic-clonic, and partial with secondary generalization. Results: Of the 490 children with partial or generalized tonic-clonic seizures and follow-up of more than 2 years, 70 had their first two or more seizures on the same day and 420 had their first two seizures on different days. Eighty percent (56 of 70) of the "same day" group subsequently had one or more further seizures with (n = 14) or without (n = 42) medication; 80.9% (340 of 420) of the "different day" group had one or more further seizures with (n = 115) or without (n = 225) medication. Seizure types were nearly identical. Cause was the same (except for fewer idiopathic "genetic" cases in the "same day" group: 1 of 70 vs. 42 of 420; p = 0.02). Rates of mental handicap and previous febrile seizures were the same. Children in the "same day" group were younger on average (60 vs. 84 months; p = 0.001) and were somewhat more likely to have neurological impairment. Outcome after 7 years average follow-up was the same: 58% of the "same day" group and 56% of the "different day" group were in remission. Conclusion: If two or more unprovoked seizures (with normal consciousness between) occur on the same day, the child appears to have epilepsy and will have a clinical course identical to that of the child with a longer time interval between the first two seizures. [source]

Post-Partum Involution of the Canine Uterus , Gross Anatomical and Histological Features

DC Orfanou
Contents We aimed to study the normal puerperium in the bitch. Ovariohysterectomy was performed in nine bitches, each at a different day after normal whelping; their genital tract was subject to gross anatomical examination, as well as to histological examination and electron microscopy scanning. Corpora albicans were evenly distributed in the left and right ovaries and placental sites were evenly distributed among left and right uterine horns. Placental sites were initially of dark green to grey colour, later becoming dark brown; their length and height progressively decreased. Height of the myometrium and diameter of the uterine glands progressively decreased. Trophoblast-like cells were consistently observed at the placental sites and on the surface of the interplacental areas, at all time points where hysterectomy had been performed. It is suggested that involution of the canine genital tract can last up to 3 months and is slow. Continuous (up to D84 post-partum) presence of prominent placental sites should be considered a normal feature of canine uterine post-partum involution. [source]

Police officers ability to detect deception in high stakes situations and in repeated lie detection tests

Aldert Vrij
Thirty-seven police officers, not identified in previous research as belonging to groups that are superior in lie detection, attempted to detect truths and lies told by suspects during their videotaped police interviews. In order to measure consistency in their ability, the officers each participated in four different tests, each of which was on a different day. They were asked to indicate their confidence in being able to distinguish between truths and lies prior to the first test and after completing all four tests. We predicted that accuracy rates would be higher than those typically found in research with police officers; that good or poor performances on an individual test would be partly caused by luck, and, consequently, participants' accuracy scores were likely to progress towards the mean if their performance on all four tests was to be combined; and that officers would underestimate their own performance. These hypotheses were supported. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Effects of textual response prompts for adolescents in a substance abuse treatment program

Sarah Ann Taylor
Adolescents in a drug and alcohol treatment facility had behavioral deficits in having essential items ready for organized group adventure activities. Checklists (i.e., textual response prompts) were introduced. The data from five participants showed increases in the percentage of required items ready. Generalization was demonstrated across checklists for different activities, across staff and peer leaders, and a different day of the week. Performance was also maintained when the checklist was removed. It was concluded that the use of checklists can be a reliable and efficient strategy to improve performance in adolescents with a substance abuse history. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Reproducibility evaluation of gross and net walking efficiency in children with cerebral palsy

Merel-Anne Brehm MSc
In evaluating energy cost (EC) of walking, referred to as walking efficiency, the use of net measurement protocols (i.e. net=gross-resting) has recently been recommended. However, nothing is known about the comparative reproducibility of net protocols and the commonly used gross protocols. Ten minutes of resting and 5 minutes of walking at a self-selected speed were used to determine gross and net EC in 13 children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP; seven males, six females; mean age 8y 7mo [SD 3y 4mo], range 4y 1mo,13y) and in 10 children (three males, seven females) with typical development. In the former, their Gross Motor Function Classification System levels ranged from Level I to Level III; and seven had hemiplegia and six diplegia. There were four repeated sessions on different days, with periods of 1 week between sessions. Reproducibility was assessed for speed, and gross and net EC, by using the standard error of measurement. The results of this preliminary study showed that EC measurements were more variable for children with CP than for children with typical development. Furthermore, in both groups there was considerably more variability in the net measurements than in the gross measurements. We conclude that, on the basis of the methodology used, the use of gross EC, rather than net EC, seems a more sensitive measure of walking efficiency to detect clinically relevant changes in an individual child with CP. [source]

Use of poly(vinyl alcohol)-coated capillaries for separation of amino-terminated polyamidoamine dendrimers

Britton Carter
Abstract Characterization of amino-terminated polyamidoamine dendrimers by CE suffers from a lack of resolution for higher generations and poor between-day reproducibility of retention times. Under optimal conditions of temperature, voltage, and sample amount, 0,5,generations of dendrimers could be resolved with a bare fused-silica capillary. However, reproducibility was poor due to potential interactions of the polycationic dendrimers with the uncoated quartz capillary wall. Use of a poly(vinyl alcohol)-coated capillary significantly decreased the migration times of the nanomolecules without compromising resolution. Dendrimer mixtures containing generations,0,5 are separated as discrete, nonoverlapping peaks in about 15,min. In addition, the between-day precision of retention times was dramatically improved without the need for internal standards or data normalization. Dendrimers of various generations and cores run on different days showed an RSD of retention times of less than 4%. The poly(vinyl alcohol) coating was very stable as shown by the excellent precision of migration times obtained on a capillary used for a month with more than 100,injections. Similar to PAGE, separation of polyamidoamine dendrimers on a bare fused-silica and poly(vinyl alcohol)-coated capillary showed an exponential relationship between migration times and calculated charge density of the nanomolecules. [source]

Sensitive and simultaneous analysis of five transgenic maizes using multiplex polymerase chain reaction, capillary gel electrophoresis, and laser-induced fluorescence

Virginia García-Cañas
Abstract The benefits of using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by capillary gel electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence (CGE-LIF) for the simultaneous detection of five transgenic maizes (Bt11, T25, MON810, GA21, and Bt176) are demonstrated. The method uses a hexaplex PCR protocol to amplify the five mentioned transgenic amplicons plus the zein gene used as reference, followed by a CGE-LIF method to analyze the six DNA fragments. CGE-LIF was demonstrated very useful and informative for optimizing multiplex PCR parameters such as time extension, PCR buffer concentration and primers concentration. The method developed is highly sensitive and allows the simultaneous detection in a single run of percentages of transgenic maize as low as 0.054% of Bt11, 0.057% of T25, 0.036% of MON810, 0.064% of GA21, and 0.018% of Bt176 in flour obtaining signals still far from the detection limit (namely, the signal/noise ratios for the corresponding DNA peaks were 41, 124, 98, 250, 252, and 473, respectively). These percentages are well below the minimum threshold marked by the European Regulation for transgenic food labeling (i.e., 0.5,0.9%). A study on the reproducibility of the multiplex PCR-CGE-LIF procedure was also performed. Thus, values of RSD lower than 0.67 and 6.80% were obtained for migration times and corrected peak areas, respectively, for the same sample and three different days (n = 12). On the other hand, the reproducibility of the whole procedure, including four different multiplex PCR amplifications, was determined to be better than 0.66 and 23.3% for migration times and corrected peak areas, respectively. Agarose gel electrophoresis (AGE) and CGE-LIF were compared in terms of resolution and sensitivity for detecting PCR products, demonstrating that CGE-LIF can solve false positives induced by artifacts from the multiplex PCR reaction that could not be addressed by AGE. Moreover, CGE-LIF provides better resolution and sensitivity. To our knowledge, these results demonstrate for the first time that multiplex PCR-CGE-LIF is a solid alternative to determine multiple genetically modified organisms in maize flours in a single run. [source]

Epilepsy Can Be Diagnosed When the First Two Seizures Occur on the Same Day

EPILEPSIA, Issue 9 2000
Peter Camfield
Summary: Purpose: Experts have suggested that when the first two (or more) unprovoked seizures occur on the same day, they should be considered as a single event and the diagnosis of epilepsy await a further seizure. We have studied the subsequent clinical course of children with their first two seizures on the same day ("same day" group) compared with children with their first two seizures separated by more than one day ("different day" group). Method: The Nova Scotia childhood epilepsy database documented all newly diagnosed children with epilepsy from 1977 to 1985 with follow-up in 1990 and 1991. Epilepsy was defined as two or more unprovoked seizures regardless of the interval between seizures provided that consciousness fully returned between seizures. All patients had their first seizure between the ages of 1 month and 16 years. Seizure types were restricted to partial, generalized tonic-clonic, and partial with secondary generalization. Results: Of the 490 children with partial or generalized tonic-clonic seizures and follow-up of more than 2 years, 70 had their first two or more seizures on the same day and 420 had their first two seizures on different days. Eighty percent (56 of 70) of the "same day" group subsequently had one or more further seizures with (n = 14) or without (n = 42) medication; 80.9% (340 of 420) of the "different day" group had one or more further seizures with (n = 115) or without (n = 225) medication. Seizure types were nearly identical. Cause was the same (except for fewer idiopathic "genetic" cases in the "same day" group: 1 of 70 vs. 42 of 420; p = 0.02). Rates of mental handicap and previous febrile seizures were the same. Children in the "same day" group were younger on average (60 vs. 84 months; p = 0.001) and were somewhat more likely to have neurological impairment. Outcome after 7 years average follow-up was the same: 58% of the "same day" group and 56% of the "different day" group were in remission. Conclusion: If two or more unprovoked seizures (with normal consciousness between) occur on the same day, the child appears to have epilepsy and will have a clinical course identical to that of the child with a longer time interval between the first two seizures. [source]

On the reliability of a dental OSCE, using SEM: effect of different days

M. Schoonheim-Klein
Abstract Aim:, The first aim was to study the reliability of a dental objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) administered over multiple days, and the second was to assess the number of test stations required for a sufficiently reliable decision in three score interpretation perspectives of a dental OSCE administered over multiple days. Materials and methods:, In four OSCE administrations, 463 students of the year 2005 and 2006 took the summative OSCE after a dental course in comprehensive dentistry. The OSCE had 16,18 5-min stations (scores 1,10), and was administered per OSCE on four different days of 1 week. ANOVA was used to test for examinee performance variation across days. Generalizability theory was used for reliability analyses. Reliability was studied from three interpretation perspectives: for relative (norm) decisions, for absolute (domain) and pass,fail (mastery) decisions. As an indicator of reproducibility of test scores in this dental OSCE, the standard error of measurement (SEM) was used. The benchmark of SEM was set at <0.51. This is corresponding to a 95% confidence interval (CI) of <1 on the original scoring scale that ranged from 1 to 10. Results:, The mean weighted total OSCE score was 7.14 on a 10-point scale. With the pass,fail score set at 6.2 for the four OSCE, 90% of the 463 students passed. There was no significant increase in scores over the different days the OSCE was administered. ,Wished' variance owing to students was 6.3%. Variance owing to interaction between student and stations and residual error was 66.3%, more than two times larger than variance owing to stations' difficulty (27.4%). The SEM norm was 0.42 with a CI of ±0.83 and the SEM domain was 0.50, with a CI of ±0.98. In order to make reliable relative decisions (SEM <0.51), the use of minimal 12 stations is necessary, and for reliable absolute and pass,fail decisions, the use of minimal 17 stations is necessary in this dental OSCE. Conclusions:, It appeared reliable, when testing large numbers of students, to administer the OSCE on different days. In order to make reliable decisions for this dental OSCE, minimum 17 stations are needed. Clearly, wide sampling of stations is at the heart of obtaining reliable scores in OSCE, also in dental education. [source]

Thermal pain thresholds are decreased in the migraine preattack phase

T. Sand
Background and purpose:, Migraine patients may have cutaneous allodynia during attacks. In order to investigate if pain physiology changes in the preattack phase we estimated heat pain and cold pain detection threshold (HPT and CPT) on three different days in 41 migraine patients and 28 controls. Methods:, A thermode was applied at four sites bilaterally: forehead, face, neck, and hand. A subgroup of 11 migraine patients had been tested within 24 h before their next attack and in the interictal phase. Results:, In the preattack phase, HPT was lower compared with the paired interictal recording for the hand (44.8°C vs. 45.9°C, P = 0.009), neck (46.8°C vs. 48.2°C, P = 0.02), and forehead (45.1°C vs. 46.3°C, P = 0.02). Neck and hand CPT were higher in the preattack phase than interictally (10°C vs. 7.3°C, P = 0.01 and 11.6°C vs. 9.4°C, P = 0.06, respectively). Preattack forehead changes were most apparent on the headache side of the subsequent attack. Discussion:, Subclinical preattack thermal pain hypersensitivity seems to be a feature of the process that leads to a migraine attack. [source]

Cortical control of thermoregulatory sympathetic activation

M. Fechir
Abstract Thermoregulation enables adaptation to different ambient temperatures. A complex network of central autonomic centres may be involved. In contrast to the brainstem, the role of the cortex has not been clearly evaluated. This study was therefore designed to address cerebral function during a whole thermoregulatory cycle (cold, neutral and warm stimulation) using 18-fluordeoxyglucose-PET (FDG-PET). Sympathetic activation parameters were co-registered. Ten healthy male volunteers were examined three times on three different days in a water-perfused whole-body suit. After a baseline period (32°C), temperature was either decreased to 7°C (cold), increased to 50°C (warm) or kept constant (32°C, neutral), thereafter the PET examination was performed. Cerebral glucose metabolism was increased in infrapontine brainstem and cerebellar hemispheres during cooling and warming, each compared with neutral temperature. Simultaneously, FDG uptake decreased in the bilateral anterior/mid-cingulate cortex during warming, and in the right insula during cooling and warming. Conjunction analyses revealed that right insular deactivation and brainstem activation appeared both during cold and warm stimulation. Metabolic connectivity analyses revealed positive correlations between the cortical activations, and negative correlations between these cortical areas and brainstem/cerebellar regions. Heart rate changes negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the anterior cingulate cortex and in the middle frontal gyrus/dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and changes of sweating with glucose metabolism in the posterior cingulate cortex. In summary, these results suggest that the cerebral cortex exerts an inhibitory control on autonomic centres located in the brainstem or cerebellum. These findings may represent reasonable explanations for sympathetic hyperactivity, which occurs, for example, after hemispheric stroke. [source]

Acute Hypervolaemia Improves Arterial Oxygen Pressure in Athletes with Exercise-Induced Hypoxaemia

Gerald S. Zavorsky
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of acute plasma volume expansion on arterial blood-gas status during 6.5 min strenuous cycling exercise comparing six athletes with and six athletes without exercise-induced arterial hypoxaemia (EIAH). We hypothesized that plasma volume expansion could improve arterial oxygen pressure in a homogeneous sample of athletes - those with EIAH. In this paper we have extended the analysis and results of our recently published surprising findings that lengthening cardiopulmonary transit time did not improve arterial blood-gas status in a heterogeneous sample of endurance cyclists. One 500 ml bag of 10% Pentastarch (infusion condition) or 60 ml 0.9% saline (placebo) was infused prior to exercise in a randomized, double-blind fashion on two different days. Power output, cardiac output, oxygen consumption and arterial blood gases were measured during strenuous exercise. Cardiac output and oxygen consumption were not affected by acute hypervolaemia. There were group × condition interaction effects for arterial oxygen pressure and alveolar-arterial oxygen pressure difference, suggesting that those with hypoxaemia experienced improved arterial oxygen pressure (+4 mmHg) and lower alveolar-arterial oxygen pressure difference (-2 mmHg) with infusion. In conclusion, acute hypervolaemia improves blood-gas status in athletes with EIAH. The impairment of gas exchange occurs within the first minute of exercise, and is not impaired further throughout the remaining duration of exercise. This suggests that arterial oxygen pressure is only minimally mediated by cardiac output. [source]

Renal Response to Arginine Vasopressin During the Oestrous Cycle in the Rat: Comparison of Glucose and Saline Infusion Using Physiological Doses of Vasopressin

David E. Hartley
The renal response to arginine vasopressin in the rat has been shown to depend on reproductive status. However there is no consensus as to when the kidney is most responsive. The varying results could depend on the protocol and the dose of hormone used. A study has been performed, with physiological doses of vasopressin, comparing the responses during infusion of hypotonic saline and glucose. After an equilibration period of 150 min, conscious rats were infused on each of the four days of the oestrous cycle with either isotonic saline (0.077 M) or 0.14 M glucose for a control period of 45 min. Vasopressin was then infused at 10-40 fmol min,1 for 1 h, followed by a recovery period of 90 min. Timed urine samples were collected for determination of volume, sodium concentration and osmolality. During the control period urine flow was greatest at oestrus and dioestrus day 2 and sodium excretion on dioestrus day 2 irrespective of the infusate. Vasopressin concentrations achieved lay within the physiological range and no difference was observed between the different days for a given dose. Infusion of vasopressin in both saline and glucose produced a dose-dependent antidiuresis, the greatest responses being seen of pro-oestrus and dioestrus day 2. It was only with the highest rate of infusion that a significant increase in sodium excretion was seen on each day of the cycle and the greatest responses were seen on pro-oestrus and dioestrus day 1 for both infusates. Thus the kidney shows the greatest response to physiological doses of vasopressin at pro-oestrus and dioestrus day 1 irrespective of the infusate employed. [source]

Cytotoxic factor-autoantibodies: possible role in the pathogenesis of dengue haemorrhagic fever

U.C. Chaturvedi
Abstract During dengue virus infection a unique cytokine, cytotoxic factor (hCF), is produced that is pathogenesis-related and plays a key role in the development of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF). However, what regulates the adverse effects of hCF is not known. We have previously shown that anti-hCF antibodies raised in mice, neutralise the pathogenic effects of hCF. In this study we have investigated the presence and levels of hCF-autoantibodies in sera of patients with various severity of dengue illness (n=136) and normal healthy controls (n=50). The highest levels of hCF-autoantibodies (mean±S.D.=36±20 U ml,1) were seen in patients with mild illness, the dengue fever (DF), and 48 out of 50 (96%) of the sera were positive. On the other hand the hCF-autoantibody levels declined sharply with the development of DHF and the levels were lowest in patients with DHF grade IV (mean±S.D.=5±2 U ml,1; P=<0.001 as compared to DF). Only one of the 13 DHF grade IV patients had an antibody level above the ,cut-off' value (mean plus 3 S.D. of the control sera). The analysis of data with respect to different days of illness further showed that the highest levels of hCF-autoantibodies were present in DF patients at >9 days of illness. Moreover, the DF patients at all time points, i.e. 1,4, 5,8 and >9 days of illness had significantly higher levels of hCF-autoantibodies (P<0.001) than patients with DHF grade I, II, III and IV. In addition DHF grade I and grade II patients had significantly more positive specimens than DHF grade III and grade IV patients at all time points. These results suggest that elevated levels of hCF-autoantibodies protect the patients against the development of severe forms of DHF and, therefore, it may be useful as a prognostic indicator. [source]

Dynamic Assessment of Abnormalities in Central Pain Transmission and Modulation in Tension-type Headache Sufferers

HEADACHE, Issue 2 2000
Jonathan D. Neufeld PhD
Objective.,To examine and compare central pain processing and modulation in young tension-type headache sufferers with that of matched healthy controls using an induced headache "challenge" paradigm. Background.,Recent research has suggested that abnormalities in central pain processing and descending pain modulation may contribute to chronic tension-type headache. These abnormalities, if they contribute to headache pathogenesis, should be present in young adult tension-type headache sufferers. Recent research using static measures of physiological variables, such as muscle tenderness and exteroceptive suppression, has identified chronic muscle tenderness as a characteristic of young tension-type headache sufferers, but other central nervous system functional abnormalities may require a dynamic "challenge" to be observed. Methods.,Twenty-four young women meeting the International Headache Society diagnostic criteria for tension-type headache (headache-prone) and a matched group of 24 healthy women who reported fewer than 10 problem headaches per year (control) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Subjects completed jaw clenching and a placebo condition on different days in counterbalanced order. Pericranial muscle tenderness, pressure-pain thresholds on the temporalis, and exteroceptive suppression periods were assessed before and after each procedure. Head pain was recorded for 12 to16 hours following each condition. Results.,Headache-prone subjects were more likely than controls to experience headaches after both the jaw clenching and placebo procedures, but neither group was significantly more likely to experience headaches following jaw clenching than placebo. In pretreatment measurements, headache-prone subjects exhibited greater muscle tenderness than controls, but pressure-pain detection thresholds and exteroceptive suppression periods did not differ in the two groups. Control subjects showed increases in muscle tenderness and exteroceptive suppression periods following both the clenching and placebo procedures, whereas headache-prone subjects exhibited no significant changes in any of the physiological measures following either experimental manipulation. Conclusions.,These results confirm previous findings indicating abnormally high pericranial muscle tenderness in young tension headache sufferers even in the headache-free state. In addition, the results suggest that the development of headaches following noxious stimulation is more strongly related to headache proneness and associated abnormalities in central pain transmission or modulation (indexed by pericranial muscle tenderness and exteroceptive suppression responses) than muscle strain induced by jaw clenching. [source]

Sensitivity analysis of neural network parameters to improve the performance of electricity price forecasting

Paras Mandal
Abstract This paper presents a sensitivity analysis of neural network (NN) parameters to improve the performance of electricity price forecasting. The presented work is an extended version of previous works done by authors to integrate NN and similar days (SD) method for predicting electricity prices. Focus here is on sensitivity analysis of NN parameters while keeping the parameters same for SD to forecast day-ahead electricity prices in the PJM market. Sensitivity analysis of NN parameters include back-propagation learning set (BP-set), learning rate (,), momentum (,) and NN learning days (dNN). The SD parameters, i.e. time framework of SD (d=45 days) and number of selected similar price days (N=5) are kept constant for all the simulated cases. Forecasting performance is carried out by choosing two different days from each season of the year 2006 and for which, the NN parameters for the base case are considered as BP-set=500, ,=0.8, ,=0.1 and dNN=45 days. Sensitivity analysis has been carried out by changing the value of BP-set (500, 1000, 1500); , (0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2), , (0.1, 0.2, 0.3) and dNN (15, 30, 45 and 60 days). The most favorable value of BP-set is first found out from the sensitivity analysis followed by that of , and ,, and based on which the best value of dNN is determined. Sensitivity analysis results demonstrate that the best value of mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) is obtained when BP-set=500, ,=0.8, ,=0.1 and dNN=60 days for winter season. For spring, summer and autumn, these values are 500, 0.6, 0.1 and 45 days, respectively. MAPE, forecast mean square error and mean absolute error of reasonably small value are obtained for the PJM data, which has correlation coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.7758 between load and electricity price. Numerical results show that forecasts generated by developed NN model based on the most favorable case are accurate and efficient. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Male,male combats in a polymorphic lizard: residency and size, but not color, affect fighting rules and contest outcome

Roberto Sacchi
Abstract Theoretical models predict that the outcome of dyadic agonistic encounters between males is influenced by resource-holding potential, resource value, and intrinsic aggressiveness of contestants. Moreover, in territorial disputes residents enjoy a further obvious competitive advantage from the residency itself, owing to the intimate familiarity with their territory. Costs of physical combats are, however, dramatically high in many instances. Thus, signals reliably reflecting fighting ability of the opponents could easily evolve in order to reduce these costs. For example, variation in color morph in polymorphic species has been associated with dominance in several case studies. In this study, we staged asymmetric resident-intruder encounters in males of the common wall lizard Podarcis muralis, a species showing three discrete morphs (white, yellow, and red) to investigate the effects of asymmetries in color morph, residency, and size between contestants on the outcome of territorial contests. We collected aggression data by presenting each resident male with three intruders of different color morph, in three consecutive tests conducted in different days, and videotaping their interactions. The results showed that simple rules such as residency and body size differences could determine the outcome of agonistic interactions: residents were more aggressive than intruders, and larger males were competitively superior to smaller males. However, we did not find any effect of color on male aggression or fighting success, suggesting that color polymorphism in this species is not a signal of status or fighting ability in intermale conflicts. Aggr. Behav. 35:274,283, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Effect of pH on Microstructure and Characteristics of Cream Cheese

R.R. Monteiro
ABSTRACT:, This study evaluated the effect of pH on the microstructure of cream cheese and compared pH-induced changes in its microstructure with concomitant changes in cheese firmness and meltability. On 4 different days, experimental batches of cultured hot pack cream cheese were manufactured and analyzed for initial chemical composition. The cheeses were then sectioned into samples that were randomly assigned to 7 different treatment groups. Three groups were exposed to ammonia vapor for 1, 3, and 5 min to increase the pH; 3 groups were exposed to acetic acid vapor for 30, 60, and 90 min to decrease the pH; and 1 unexposed group served as the control. After equilibration at 4 °C, samples were analyzed for pH, firmness, meltability, and microstructure by scanning electron microscopy. The effects of experimental treatments on cheese pH, firmness, and meltability were analyzed by randomized complete block analysis of variance (ANOVA). Relationships between cheese pH and firmness and meltability were evaluated by regression. Experimental treatments significantly affected cheese pH, firmness, and meltability. Cheese firmness decreased and meltability increased with increasing pH from about pH 4.2 to 6.8. Cheese microstructure also changed dramatically over the same approximate pH range. Specifically, the volume of the protein network surrounding the fat droplets increased markedly with increasing pH, presumably due to casein swelling. These data support the hypothesis that protein-to-water interactions increased as the cheese pH increased, which gave rise to progressive swelling of the casein network, softer texture, and increased meltability. [source]

Hyperpolarized 3He apparent diffusion coefficient MRI of the lung: Reproducibility and volume dependency in healthy volunteers and patients with emphysema

Sandra Diaz MD
Abstract Purpose To measure the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of hyperpolarized (HP) 3He gas using diffusion weighted MRI in healthy volunteers and patients with emphysema and examine the reproducibility and volume dependency. Materials and Methods A total of eight healthy volunteers and 16 patients with emphysema were examined after inhalation of HP 3He gas mixed with nitrogen (N2) during breathhold starting from functional residual capacity (FRC) in supine position. Coronal diffusion-sensitized MR images were acquired. Each subject was imaged on three separate days over a seven-day period and received two different volumes (6% and 15% of total lung capacity [TLC]) of HP 3He each day. ADC maps and histograms were calculated. The mean and standard deviation (SD) of the ADC at different days and volumes were compared. Results The reproducibility of the mean ADC and SD over several days was good in both healthy volunteers and patients (SD range of 0.003,0.013 cm2/second and 0.001,0.009 cm2/second at 6% and 15% of TLC for healthy volunteers, and a SD range of 0.001,0.041 cm2/second and 0.001,0.011 cm2/second, respectively, for patients). A minor but significant increase in mean ADC with increased inhaled gas volume was observed in both groups. Conclusion Mean ADC and SD of HP 3He MRI is reproducible and discriminates well between healthy controls and patients with emphysema at the higher gas volume. This method is robust and may be useful to gain new insights into the pathophysiology and course of emphysema. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Determination of gastrodin and vanillyl alcohol in Gastrodia elata Blume by pressurized liquid extraction at room temperature

Eng Shi Ong
Abstract Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) at room temperature with a laboratory-assembled system was applied for the extraction of gastrodin (GA) and vanillyl alcohol (VA) in Gastrodia elata Blume. The proposed system setup for this current work was simpler as no heating and backpressure regulator was required. Extraction with PLE was carried out dynamically at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min, at room temperature, under an applied pressure of 10,20 bars with an extraction time of 40,50 min. The extraction efficiencies of the proposed method using 20% aqueous ethanol were compared with heating under reflux using organic solvents such as methanol and ethanol/water (20:80) for different batches of medicinal plant materials. For the determination of GA and VA in G. elata Blume, the extraction efficiencies of PLE at room temperature were observed to be comparable with heating under reflux. The method precision was found to vary from 1.6 to 8.6% (RSD, n = 6) on different days. The marker compounds present in the various medicinal plant extracts were determined by gradient elution HPLC and HPLC/MS/MS. Our work demonstrated the possibility of implementation of PLE at room temperature and the advantages of minimizing the use of organic solvents in the extraction process. [source]

The allergen Bet v 1 in fractions of ambient air deviates from birch pollen counts

ALLERGY, Issue 7 2010
J. T. M. Buters
To cite this article: Buters JTM, Weichenmeier I, Ochs S, Pusch G, Kreyling W, Boere AJF, Schober W, Behrendt H. The allergen Bet v 1 in fractions of ambient air deviates from birch pollen counts. Allergy 2010; 65: 850,858. Abstract Background:, Proof is lacking that pollen count is representative for allergen exposure, also because allergens were found in nonpollen-bearing fractions of ambient air. Objective:, We monitored simultaneously birch pollen and the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 in different size fractions of ambient air from 2004 till 2007 in Munich, Germany. Methods:, Air was sampled with a ChemVol® high-volume cascade impactor equipped with stages for particulate matter (PM)>10 ,m, 10 ,m>PM>2.5 ,m, and 2.5 ,m>PM>0.12 ,m. Allergen was determined with a Bet v 1-specific ELISA. Pollen count was assessed with a Burkard pollen trap. We also measured the development of allergen in pollen during ripening. Results:, About 93 ± 3% of Bet v 1 was found in the PM,>,10 ,m fraction, the fraction containing birch pollen. We did not measure any Bet v 1 in 2.5 ,m,>,PM,>,0.12 ,m. Either in Munich no allergen was in this fraction or the allergen was absorbed to diesel soot particles that also deposit in this fraction. Pollen released 115% more Bet v 1 in 2007 than in 2004. Also within 1 year, the release of allergen from the same amount of pollen varied more than 10-fold between different days. This difference was explained by a rapidly increasing expression of Bet v 1 in pollen in the week just before pollination. Depending on the day the pollen is released during ripening, its potency varies. Conclusion:, In general, pollen count and allergen in ambient air follow the same temporal trends. However, because a 10-fold difference can exist in allergen potency of birch pollen, symptoms might be difficult to correlate with pollen counts, but perhaps better with allergen exposure. [source]

Acetylcholine-Induced Vasodilation and Reactive Hyperemia Are Not Affected by Acute Cyclo-Oxygenase Inhibition in Human Skin

Anne Dalle-Ave
Objective: To examine whether prostaglandins are involved in endothelium-dependent vasodilatory responses of the skin microcirculation. Methods: Twenty-three young male volunteers were studied on 2 different days 1,3 weeks apart. On each experimental day the forearm skin blood flow response to iontophoretically applied acetylcholine (Ach, an endothelium-dependent vasodilator) was determined with laser Doppler imaging following the intravenous administration of either the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor lysine acetylsalicylate (L-AS), 900 mg, or the oral intake of indomethacin, 75 mg. Acetylcholine was iontophoresed both in presence and in absence of surface anesthesia. In some subjects, the effects of L-AS on skin reactive hyperemia were also assessed. Results: Acute cyclo-oxygenase inhibition with either drug influenced neither the skin blood flow response to 4 different doses of Ach (0.28, 1.4, 7, and 14 mC/cm2) nor reactive hyperemia. The peak vasodilatory response to Ach was significantly increased by skin anesthesia, regardless of whether the subjects received the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor or not. For example, the mean response (± SD) to the largest dose of Ach (tested in 6 subjects, expressed in perfusion units) were as follows: in absence of anesthesia: L-AS 339 ± 105, placebo 344 ± 68; with anesthesia: L-AS 453 ± 76, placebo 452 ± 65 (p < .01 for effect of anesthesia). Conclusions: These data give no support for a contribution of prostaglandins to acetylcholine-induced vasodilation or to reactive hyperemia in the skin microcirculation. In this vascular bed, local anesthesia seems to amplify acetylcholine-induced vasodilation via a prostaglandin-independent mechanism. [source]

Morphometric characterization of murine articular cartilage,Novel application of confocal laser scanning microscopy

Kathryn S. Stok
Abstract A new technique for characterization of the three-dimensional morphology of murine articular cartilage is proposed. The technique consists of a novel application of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), where the objective was to develop and validate it for cartilage measurements in murine joints. Murine models are used in arthritis research, because they are well-described for manipulating the disease pathophysiology, facilitating our understanding of the disease, and identifying new targets for therapy. A calibration and reproducibility study was carried out to provide a consistent testing methodology for quantification of murine joints. The proximal tibial condyles from male C57BL/6 mice were scanned using a CLS microscope with an isotropic voxel size of 5.8 ,m. Measurements and analyses were repeated three times on different days, and in a second step the analysis was repeated three times for a single measurement. Calculation of precision errors (coefficient of variation) for cartilage thickness and volume was made. The bias of the system was estimated through comparison with histology. This technique showed good precision, with errors in the repeated analysis ranging from 0.63% (lateral thickness) to 3.48% (medial volume). The repeated analysis alone was robust, with intraclass correlations for the different compartments between 0.918 and 0.991. Measurement bias was corrected by scaling the confocal images to 32% of their width to match histology. CLSM provided a fast and reproducible technique for gathering 3D image data of murine cartilage and will be a valuable tool in understanding the efficacy of arthritis treatments in murine models. Microsc. Res. Tech. 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Individual female clutch identification through yolk protein electrophoresis in the communally breeding guira cuckoo (Guira guira)

Mariana O. Cariello
Abstract Avian communal breeding systems generate alternative behavioural strategies for females, resulting in differences in reproductive success. Identifying eggs of different females in such systems is problematic, however, due to egg destruction before incubation, difficulty of capturing adults, and/or inaccuracy of egg identification based on egg morphometry. Here, we describe a technique that uses electrophoresis of yolk proteins to determine egg ownership, which we applied to communally breeding guira cuckoos (Guira guira). Validation of the method included identical yolk protein banding patterns in all eggs of the same female, but different patterns in eggs of different females in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), and identical patterns in yolk follicles of the same females in guira cuckoos. We applied the protocol to 195 guira cuckoo eggs from 34 joint nests in 2 years. All multiple guira cuckoo eggs laid on the same day in single nests had distinct banding patterns of yolk proteins, practically eliminating the possibility of more than one female being represented by the same pattern. Some identical banding patterns were repeated in different days within a nesting bout, indicating that some females laid several eggs in shared nests. Identical patterns occasionally occurred in renestings of groups, indicating that some females lay eggs in consecutive nestings. Yolk protein electrophoresis is a useful tool to identify egg maternity in other circumstances, such as polygynous mating systems with joint nests and intraspecific parasitism. Additionally, it is an alternative method for species where electrophoresis of egg white proteins does not show sufficient polymorphism. [source]

The effect of glucagon-induced gastric relaxation on TLOSR frequency

H. Y. Chang
Abstract This study aimed to determine the effect of glucagon-induced gastric relaxation on the frequency of transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations (TLOSRs). Eight normal subjects (four male, age 18,52 y) were studied after a 6-h fast using a combined manometric barostat assembly. The recording was divided into two 1-h sessions: (1) a baseline period with the barostat set at minimal distending pressure (MDP) + 2 mmHg and (2) a period with continuous glucagon or placebo infusion with barostat set at MDP + 2 mmHg. Patients were studied on two different days and randomly received glucagon (4.8 ,g kg,1 bolus followed by 9.6 ,g kg,1 h,1 infusion) on 1 day and placebo (saline) on another. Lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) pressure, frequency of TLOSRs, and barostat bag volumes were determined for both placebo and glucagon infusion. Glucagon induced significant fundal relaxation compared with placebo (P < 0.05) and significantly decreased baseline LEOS pressure (P < 0.05). The frequency of TLOSRs was not altered by glucagon infusion compared with placebo. Despite causing substantial proximal stomach relaxation, glucagon did not increase TLOSR frequency. This suggests that the relevant gastric mechanoreceptors responsible for triggering TLOSRs do not respond to passive elongation. [source]

The behavioral importance of dynamically activated descending inhibition from the nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis pars alpha. (University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff, United Kingdom) Pain 2001;92:53,62.

PAIN PRACTICE, Issue 4 2001
J. Azami
This study demonstrates the effects of nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis pars alpha (GiA) on the behavioral response during application of standardized noxious stimuli. As this system is activated in response to noxious stimulation, it is possible that chronic pain states may also activate GiA. Therefore, this study investigated this possibility in animals following partial sciatic nerve ligation (an animal model of chronic pain). Male Wistar rats (280,310 g) were anesthetized with halothane (0.5% to 2% in O2). Guide cannulae for microinjections were stereotaxically placed above GiA. In one group of animals the sciatic nerve was partially litigated. Animals were allowed to recover for 4,6 days. The responses of each animal during the formalin test and the tail flick test were recorded on different days. Microinjections (0.5 ,l) of either ,-aminobutyric acid (GABA, 200 mM), D-L homocysteic acid (DLH, 25 mM), or 0.9% saline (as control) into GiA were preformed during these tests in a randomized, blind manner. In animals without sciatic nerve ligation, microinjection of GABA to GiA did not significantly affect the animal's response during the tail flick test. However, microinjection of DLH significantly increased the latency of tail flick from 6.2 ± 0.8 to 8.4 ± 0.5 seconds for up to 15 minutes. Microinjection of GABA to GiA increased the behavioral response to formalin between 10 and 20 minutes postinjection, while microinjection of DLH reduced this response at all time points except 10 minutes postinjection (n = 8, p < 0.05, Mann-Whitney U -test). In animals with sciatic nerve ligation, microinjections (0.5 ,l) of either GABA (200 mM), or saline (as control) into GiA contralateral to the partial sciatic ligation were performed during these tests in a randomized, blind manner. Partial sciatic ligation significantly reduced the behavioral response to contralaterally applied formalin from 15 minutes postinjection onwards, compared to controls without sciatic nerve ligation. Microinjection of GABA GiA significantly increased the behavioral response to formalin from 20 to 50 minutes postinjection. The inactivation of GiA only causes behavioral effects in nociceptive tests of a long enough duration to activate the system (ie, the formalin test but not the tail flick test). Chemical activation of the system affects both tests. Conclude that these data strongly support the concept of an important analgesic system that is activated in response to noxious stimulation, and subsequently acts to reduce behavioral responses to noxious stimuli. Comment by Leland Lou, M.D. This is a rat study that looked at the presence of inhibitory spinal multireceptive cells modifying and decreasing the behavioural response to noxious stimuli. While no direction was given as to the source of noxious stimuli inhibition in chronic pain, great effort was made to report a possible differential response of the C-fiber pain system versus the large sensory fibers. After review it seems that the authors believed that the nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis pars alpha maybe a central processor of the inhibitory response. It is still too early to assess the clinical impact of this study. [source]

Recombinant expression and characterization of a lysozyme from the midgut of Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) in comparison with intestinal muramidase activity

Abstract. Insect c-type lysozymes are antibacterial proteins that are synthesized in different organs with high activity against Gram-positive bacteria. Because lysozymes possess muramidase activity, they also play an important role in the digestion of bacteria in Diptera. Triatomines express lysozyme-encoding genes constitutively in the anterior region (cardia and stomach) of the midgut and the fat body after injection of bacteria into the haemocoel. The present study describes the overexpression of the Triatoma brasiliensis lysozyme 1 (lys1) in Escherichia coli. Recombinant T. brasiliensis Lys1 (TbLys1) is purified after solubilization of the inclusion bodies. The protein refolds successfully, showing muramidase activity against Micrococcus lysodeikticus lyophilized cells, after enterokinase cleavage of its thioredoxin fusion protein. In in-gel zymograms and turbidimetric liquid assays TbLys1 is broadly active under alkaline and acid conditions, indicating a possible digestive function in the two physiologically different midgut regions of the bug: the stomach and small intestine. Muramidase activity is shown in the stomach and small intestine content of unfed bugs and bugs at different days after feeding, respectively. Western blot analysis identifies TbLys1 as lysozyme. [source]

Analytical method for the quantitative determination of urinary ethylenethiourea by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

Cristina Sottani
A direct, rapid and selective method for the quantitative determination of the ethylenethiourea (ETU) in human urine has been validated and is reported in the present study. It allows the accurate quantification of ETU in this complex matrix without the use of any internal standard as the sample cleanup is effective enough for the removal of interferences that could lead to ion suppression in the electrospray ionization (ESI) source. This simple and rapid purification system, based on the use of a Fluorosil phase of a BondElut® column followed by a liquid-liquid extraction procedure, achieves mean extracted recoveries, assessed at three different concentrations (2.5, 10.0, and 25.0,,g/L), always more than 85%. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with positive ion tandem mass spectrometry, operating in selected multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, is used to quantify ETU in human urine. The assay is linear over the range 0,50,,g/L, with a lower limit of quantification (LOQ) of 1.5,,g/L and a coefficient of variation (CV) of 8.9%. The lower limit of detection (LOD) is assessed at 0.5,,g/L. The overall precision and accuracy were determined on three different days. The values for within- and between-day precision are ,,8.3 and 10.1%, respectively, and the accuracy is in the range 97,118%. The relative uncertainties for the LOQ and QC concentrations have been estimated to be 18 and 8%, respectively. The assay was applied to quantify ETU in human urine from growers that regularly handle ethylenebisdithiocarbamate pesticides in large crop plantations. The biological samples were collected at the start and end of the working day, and the ETU urine levels were found to vary between 1.9 and 8.2,,g/L. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Quantitative determination of perfluorooctanoic acid ammonium salt in human serum by high-performance liquid chromatography with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry

Cristina Sottani
A sensitive, specific, accurate and reproducible analytical method was developed and validated to quantify perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in human serum. After initial extraction with an ion-paring reagent, the procedure for quantifying PFOA is based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) interfaced to negative ion tandem mass spectrometry, operating in selected ion monitoring mode. The retention times of PFOA and its internal standard (D,L-malic acid) were 5.85 and 1.70,min, respectively. The assay was linear over the range 0,500,ng/mL, with a lower limit of quantification (LOQ) of 25,ng/mL, and with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 7.3%. The lower limit of detection (LOD) was assessed as 10,ng/mL. The overall precision and accuracy were assessed on three different days. The within- and between-day precision was ,9.7 and 6.8%, respectively, and the accuracy was in the range 96,114%. The mean extracted recovery assessed at three different concentrations (100, 250, and 500,ng/mL) was always more than 85%. With this method no derivatization procedure was needed, thus avoiding possible thermal and chemical decomposition reactions of PFOA. The assay was applied to quantify perfluorooctanoic acid in serum from employees exposed to fluorochemicals commonly used in industrial applications for polymer production. The quantitative results for PFOA blood levels were found to vary between 100 and 982,ng/mL. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

High-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry for the quantitative analysis of a novel taxane derivative (BAY59-8862) in biological samples and characterisation of its metabolic profile in rat bile samples

Cristina Sottani
A sensitive, specific, accurate and reproducible high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analytical method was developed and validated for the quantification of the novel oral taxane analogue BAY59-8862 in mouse plasma and tissue samples. A fully automated solid-phase extraction procedure was applied to the plasma after internal standard (IS) addition, with only 0.2,mL volume of the sample loaded on a CN-Sep-pak cartridge. In the case of the tissues a very simple acetonitrile extraction was used to recover BAY59-8862 and its internal standard from liver. The procedure for the quantification of BAY59-8862 and its IS (IDN5127) is based on high-performance liquid chromatography/ion spray-tandem mass spectrometry, operating in selected ion monitoring mode. The retention times of BAY and IS were 7.21 and 10.36,min, respectively. In both plasma and tissue specimens the assay was linear in the range 50,5000,ng/mL (ng/g). The overall precision and accuracy were assessed on three different days. The results for plasma were within 6.1% (precision) and between 99 and 112% (accuracy), and for the liver samples within 7.3% and between 104 and 118%, respectively. The LOD was 5,ng/mL and 20,ng/g in the plasma and liver, respectively. In addition, the biliary excretion of the compound in rats was studied. The study showed that an oxidative chemical reaction was the preferred metabolic pathway for biliary excretion, and two sets of mono- and dihydroxylated metabolites were detected by LC/ISP-MS/MS experiments. With this method, BAY59-8862 pharmacokinetic was determined in mice. The combined results demonstrate that the methodology can be considered a valid approach to conduct pharmacokinetic and metabolic studies during preclinical and clinical investigations. Copyright © 2001 John7 Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]