Different Data (different + data)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by Different Data

  • different data set
  • different data source

  • Selected Abstracts


    Stack unit mapping of coastal aquifer to predict and control sea water intrusion using remote sensing and a geographical information system

    HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES, Issue 17 2003
    J. Moses Edwin
    Abstract Aquifers are inherently susceptible to contamination and coastal aquifers in specific are highly vulnerable to sea water intrusion. For efficient planning and management of coastal aquifers in Kayalpattu and Tiruchopuram villages, which extend over 4·05 km2, it is essential to delineate and predict the extent of intrusion into the shallow aquifer. Management of ground water in coastal aquifers is composed of major elements that should be properly evaluated, and special attention is given to the sea water intrusion problem. Different data, like hydro-geomorphological and depth-wise iso-apparent resistivity, are integrated spatially using a geographical information system. The stack-unit mapping approach is used to delineate the zones with iso-apparent resistivity of less than 10 , m have been found to be increasing in areal extent with reference to depth. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    A comparative study of 3D scanning in engineering, product and transport design and fashion design education

    COMPUTER APPLICATIONS IN ENGINEERING EDUCATION, Issue 3 2009
    A. Kus
    Abstract The aim of this paper is to evaluate the use of three-dimensional (3D) scanning technologies for design and engineering courses. This paper will provide a comparative discussion of the current 3D scanning technologies; and then describes three experimental studies in engineering, transport design and fashion design. Using 3D scanner technology the experiments tested the transferral of a variety of different data from scanned organic 3D shapes to 3D CAD packages for learning and teaching in undergraduate education. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Comput Appl Eng Educ 17: 263,271, 2009; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com); DOI 10.1002/cae.20213 [source]


    Thermodynamic Analysis of Energy Transfer in Acidogenic Cultures

    ENGINEERING IN LIFE SCIENCES (ELECTRONIC), Issue 5 2008
    J.-R. Bastidas-Oyanedel
    Abstract A global thermodynamic analysis, normally used for pure cultures, has been performed for steady-state data sets from acidogenic mixed cultures. This analysis is a combination of two different thermodynamic approaches, based on tabulated standard Gibbs energy of formation, global stoichiometry and medium compositions. It takes into account the energy transfer efficiency, ,, together with the Gibbs free energy dissipation, ,Go, analysis of the different data. The objective is to describe these systems thermodynamically without any heat measurement. The results show that , is influenced by environmental conditions, where increasing hydraulic retention time increases its value all cases. The pH effect on , is related to metabolic shifts and osmoregulation. Within the environmental conditions analyzed, , ranges from 0.23 for a hydraulic retention time of 20,h and pH,4, to 0.42 for a hydraulic retention time of 8,h and a pH ranging from 7,8.5. The estimated values of ,Go are comparable to standard Gibbs energy of dissipation reported in the literature. For the data sets analyzed, ,Go ranges from ,1210,kJ/molx, corresponding to a stirring velocity of 300,rpm, pH,6 and a hydraulic retention time of 6,h, to ,20744,kJ/molx for pH,4 and a hydraulic retention time of 20,h. For average conclusions, the combined approach based on standard Gibbs energy of formation and global stoichiometry, used in this thermodynamic analysis, allows for the estimation of Gibbs energy dissipation values from the extracellular medium compositions in acidogenic mixed cultures. Such estimated values are comparable to the standard Gibbs energy dissipation values reported in the literature. It is demonstrated that , is affected by the environmental conditions, i.e., stirring velocity, hydraulic retention time and pH. However, a relationship that relates this parameter to environmental conditions was not found and will be the focus of further research. [source]


    Context-aware environments: from specification to implementation

    EXPERT SYSTEMS, Issue 5 2007
    Patrick Reignier
    Abstract: This paper deals with the problem of implementing a context model for a smart environment. The problem has already been addressed several times using many different data- or problem-driven methods. In order to separate the modelling phase from implementation, we first represent the context model by a network of situations. Then, different implementations can be automatically generated from this context model depending on user needs and underlying perceptual components. Two different implementations are proposed in this paper: a deterministic one based on Petri nets and a probabilistic one based on hidden Markov models. Both implementations are illustrated and applied to real-world problems. [source]


    There's more to life than money: Exploring the levels/growth paradox in income and health,

    JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT, Issue 1 2009
    Charles Kenny
    Abstract This paper discusses historical and recent cross-country evidence relating income to measures of health. After a review of the literature on income and the quality of life, the paper looks at long-term historical evidence on the link between income change and health indicators. Using data on life expectancy, infant mortality and income for a small subset of largely wealthy countries over the 1913,1999 period, the paper examines correlations between income and health at period start and end as well as using the growth of the variables. Using a larger set of data over the period 1975,2000, the paper repeats these tests, as well as looking for any evidence of a larger impact of income, when different data are used or the sample is split. Results suggest a strong cross-country link between income and health and considerable evidence of global improvements over time, but a comparatively weak relationship between improvements in income and improvements in health, even over the very long term. The paper discusses a model based on technology and institutions that might account for such results as well as some preliminary evidence in favour of such a model. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Monophyletic groups within ,higher land birds', comparison of morphological and molecular data

    JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGICAL SYSTEMATICS AND EVOLUTIONARY RESEARCH, Issue 4 2003
    G. Mayr
    Abstract The relationships within the ,higher land birds' and putatively related taxa are analysed in a study using 89 morphological characters and DNA sequences of three nuclear, protein-coding genes, c- myc, RAG-1, and myoglobin intron II. Separate analyses of the different data sets and a ,total evidence' analysis in which the data sets of the morphological and molecular analyses were combined are compared. All three analyses support the hitherto disputed sister group relationship between Pici (Ramphastidae, Indicatoridae and Picidae) and Galbulae (Galbulidae and Bucconidae). Previously unrecognized osteological synapomorphies of this clade are presented. All analyses further resulted in monophyly of the taxon [Aegothelidae + (Apodidae/Hemiprocnidae + Trochilidae)]. Analysis of the morphological data and of the combined data set also supported monophyly of the taxon [Strigiformes + (Falconidae + Accipitridae)]. The morphological data further support monophyly of the taxon (Upupidae + Bucerotidae). Other placements in the three analyses received either no or only weak bootstrap support. [source]


    Sources of character conflict in a clade of water striders (Heteroptera: Gerridae)

    CLADISTICS, Issue 6 2003
    Jakob Damgaard
    Incongruence among trees reconstructed with different data may stem from historical (gene tree-species tree conflict) or process (character change biases) phenomena. Regardless of the source, incongruent data, as determined with "global" measures of homoplasy, have often been excluded from parsimony analysis of the combined data. Recent studies suggest that these homoplasy measures do not predict the contribution of each character to overall tree structure. Branch support measures identify, on a character to node basis, sources of support and conflict resulting from a simultaneous analysis of the data. We implement these branch support measures to identify sources of character conflict in a clade of water striders consisting of Gerris Fabricius, Aquarius Schellenberg, and Limnoporus Stål species. Separate analyses of morphology, mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI), large mitochondrial ribosomal subunit (16SrRNA), and elongation factor-1, (EF-1,) data resulted in cladograms that varied in resolution and topological concordance. Simultaneous analysis of the data resulted in two trees that were unresolved for one node in a strict consensus. The topology agreed with current classification except for the placements of Aquarius chilensis and the Aquarius remigis species group closer to Gerris than to congeneric species. Branch support measures indicated that support derived from each data set varied among nodes, but COI had an overall negative effect on branch support. However, Spearman rank correlation of partitioned branch support values indicated no negative associations of branch support between any data sets and a positive association between EF-1, and 16SrRNA. Thus incongruence among data sets was not drastic and the gene-tree versus species tree phenomenon was not implicated. Biases in character change were a more likely reason for incongruence, although saturation curves and incongruence length difference for COI indicated little potential for homoplasy. However, a posteriori inspection of COI nucleotide change with reference to the simultaneous analysis tree revealed AT and codon biases. These biases were not associated with branch support measures. Therefore, it is difficult to predict incongruence or identify its cause. Exclusion of data is ill advised because every character is potentially parsimony informative. [source]


    The gracilis muscle and its use in clinical reconstruction: An anatomical, embryological, and radiological study

    CLINICAL ANATOMY, Issue 7 2008
    V. Macchi
    Abstract The gracilis muscle is used widely in reconstructive surgery, as a pedicled or as a free microsurgical flap, for soft tissue coverage or as a functioning muscle transfer. Many studies, based on cadaver dissections, have focused on the vascular anatomy of the gracilis muscle and provided different data about the number, origin, and caliber of its vascular pedicles. Computed tomographic (CT) angiography of both thighs of 40 patients (35 males and 5 females, mean age: 63 years) have been analyzed to provide a detailed anatomical description of the arterial supply of the gracilis muscle. The gracilis muscle had a mean length of 41 ± 2.1 cm. The principal pedicle enters the gracilis muscle at a mean distance (±SD) of 10 ± 1 cm from the ischiopubic attachment of the muscle. Its caliber shows a mean value of 2.5 ± 0.5 mm, and it is statistically larger when originating directly from the deep femoral artery (45%) than from its muscular branch supplying the adductors, i.e., the "artery to the adductors" (46%) (P < 0.01). A significant correlation between the caliber of the artery of the main pedicle and the volume of the gracilis muscle was found (P < 0.01). The mean number of distal accessory pedicles is 1.8 (range, 1,4,) and the artery of the first of these pedicles shows a mean caliber of 2.0 mm. There is no correlation between either the number or the caliber of the artery of the accessory pedicles and the volume of the gracilis muscle. CT angiography, providing detailed images of the muscular and vascular structures of the thigh of each patient, could be a useful preoperative study for the reconstructive surgeon. It would allow a personalized planning of a gracilis flap, reducing the risk of iatrogenic damage. Clin. Anat. 21:696,704, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]