Different Cultures (different + culture)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Terms modified by Different Cultures

  • different culture condition
  • different culture media

  • Selected Abstracts

    The Insecure Social Protection of Migrant Workers From the Maghreb

    Abdellah Boudahrain
    Is it possible to speak of just and equitable social protection for the active populations of poor countries which suffer from development problems and are dominated by an international order in which only the law of the strongest prevails, especially when those populations emigrate to seek work in order to live or merely to survive? Universal standards that are supposed to ensure some measure of international coordination of national legislation and practice in social security between developed countries and the so-called developing countries suffer from this somewhat original form of inequality. The adaptation of such standards at the bilateral, regional and multilateral levels only reflects the discrimination and selfish interests of States and of the rich and powerful, and indeed of broad sectors of their civil society who reject others simply because of their different culture and traditions. The debate is more involved than at first it may seem. By accepting others as being like oneself one can imagine a better world in which, when people move freely - including migrant workers and their families - they enjoy effective protection through social security. A study of the situation of Maghreb migrants employed and residing in western Europe and the Gulf States has much to teach us in this respect, especially in determining whether any form of solidarity is plausible or achievable in some not too distant future. [source]

    How to be a good global communicator

    Dinah Payne
    Are you a good global communicator? With the rise in global mergers, outsourcing, and crossborder business, this issue can be critical to your success. We don't all "speak the same language," even if we're all using English. Each country has a different culture, with different expectations and customs. The authors look at how culture, decision styles, and technology can affect your international business transactions,and how to avoid problems. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Quality of life of patients with ovarian cancer in Taiwan: validation and application of the Taiwan Chinese version of the EORTC QLQ-OV28

    PSYCHO-ONCOLOGY, Issue 7 2010
    Wei-Chu Chie
    Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Taiwan Chinese Version of the EORTC QLQ-OV28. Methods: The authors translated the questionnaire according to the guideline of the EORTC. A total of 96 patients with ovarian cancer in National Taiwan University Hospital were interviewed with the questionnaire and the EORTC QLQ-C30 between September 2004 and September 2007. Answer distribution and psychometric properties of the EORTC QLQ-OV28 were examined. Results: The mean age of the patients was 54 (standard deviation 12 years). Most of the patients were in FIGO stages III or IV. Two thirds were on-treatment (chemotherapy). Items for gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, menopausal symptoms, and sexuality showed more flooring effects than others. Missing values were frequent in further questions about sexual activity. After excluding conditional questions, the Cronbach's alpha coefficients of most scales were satisfactory (0.74,0.89), except other chemotherapy side effects (0.63) and menopausal symptoms (0.39). The item-to-own and item-to-other scales correlation showed satisfactory results. Patients who were on-treatment had significantly poorer quality of life (QoL) scores in most symptom scales. Conclusions: The EORTC QLQ-OV28 is a valid instrument to assess QoL issues of patients with ovarian cancer in Taiwan, a country of a different culture. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Culture and psychiatric symptoms in Puerto Rican children: longitudinal results from one ethnic group in two contexts

    Cristiane S. Duarte
    Background:, The development of youth psychopathology may be associated with direct and continuous contact with a different culture (acculturation) and to distress related to this process (cultural stress). We examine cultural experiences of Puerto Rican families in relation to youth psychiatric symptoms in two different contexts: one in which migrant Puerto Ricans reside on the mainland as an ethnic minority and another in which they reside in their place of origin. Methods:,Sample: Probability samples of 10- to 13-year-old youth of Puerto Rican background living in the South Bronx, New York City (SB) and in the San Juan Metropolitan area in Puerto Rico (PR) (N = 1,271) were followed over time. Measures: Three assessments of internalizing psychiatric symptoms (elicited through the DISC-IV) and of antisocial behaviors (ASB) quantified through a six-point index were carried out. Independent variables included scales of adult and child acculturation and cultural stress, and other putative correlates. Data analysis: Within each study site, multilevel linear regression models were examined. Results:, Parental acculturation was associated with ASB in youth at both sites, but youth acculturation itself was not related to psychiatric symptoms. At both contexts, cultural stress was a more consistent correlate of youth psychiatric symptoms than acculturation after controlling for nativity, maternal education, child gender, stressful life events and parental psychopathology. However, the strength of the youth cultural stress association decreased over time. Conclusion:, The association between cultural factors and child psychiatric symptoms is not restricted to contexts where an ethnic group is a minority. [source]

    A Justification, after the Postmodern Turn, of Universal Ethical Principles and Educational Ideals1

    Mark Mason
    Abstract The implementation of education programmes in different cultures invites the question whether we are justified in doing so in cultures that may reject the programmes' underlying principles. Are there indeed ethical principles and educational ideals that can be justified as applicable to all cultures? After a consideration of Zygmunt Bauman's postmodern rejection of the possibility of universal ethics, , cite and extend Harvey Siegel's defence of multiculturalism as a transcultural ethical ideal. I conclude the paper with a justification of the transcultural normative reach of moral principles that I have elsewhere defended as the ethics of integrity. The paper's significance lies in its justification of educational interventions founded in these principles across different cultures. [source]

    Development of an in vitro blood,brain barrier model to study the effects of endosulfan on the permeability of tight junctions and a comparative study of the cytotoxic effects of endosulfan on rat and human glial and neuronal cell cultures

    Melissa P. L. Chan
    Abstract Endosulfan, an organochlorine (OC) insecticide that belongs to the cyclodiene group, is one of the most commonly used pesticides to control pests in vegetables, cotton, and fruits. Porcine brain microvascular endothelial cells were used to develop a model to study the effects of endosulfan on the permeability of tight junctions in the blood,brain barrier (BBB). BBB permeability, measured as transendothelial electrical resistance, decreased in a dose- and time-dependent manner when treated with ,-endosulfan, ,-endosulfan, or endosulfan sulfate. Cytotoxicity testing revealed that the three endosulfans did not cause cell death at concentrations of 10 ,M and below. The ratio of the average permeability of the filter-grown endothelial cell monolayer to 14C-endosulfan (Pe) going from the outer to the inner compartments with that going from the inner to the outer compartments was approximately 1:1.2,2.1 after exposure to concentrations of 0.01,10 ,M. ,-Endosulfan, ,-endosulfan, and endosulfan sulfate had cytotoxic effects on rat glial (C6) and neuronal (PC12) cell cultures as well as on human glial (CCF-STTG1) and neuronal (NT2) cell cultures. The effects of ,-endosulfan were highly selective, with a wide range of LC50 values found in the different cultures, ranging from 11.2 ,M for CCF-STTG1 cells to 48.0 ,M for PC12 cells. In contrast, selective neurotoxicity was not so manifest in glial and neuronal cell cultures after exposure to endosulfan sulfate, as LC50 values were in the range of 10.4,21.6 ,M. CCF-STTG1 cells were more sensitive to ,-endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate, whereas NT2 cells were more sensitive to ,-endosulfan. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 21: 223,235, 2006. [source]

    Cross-cultural assessment of eating disorders: psychometric properties of a Spanish version of the Bulimia Test-Revised,

    Mayra N. Berrios-Hernandez
    Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a Spanish version of the Bulimia Test-Revised (BULIT-R). The goal was to test the factor-structure equivalence of the BULIT-R across two samples of college students from two different cultures, Spain and the US. Researchers using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) have reported different model solutions for the factor-structure of the BULIT-R: a one-factor model, a four-factor model, a five-factor model and a six-factor model. For the two samples, CFA did not support any of the models previously reported in the literature. EFA supported a six- and a four-factor models for the US and Spanish samples, respectively. © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

    Personality traits of Russians from the observer's perspective

    Jüri Allik
    Abstract Data were collected by the members of the Russian character and personality survey from 39 samples in 33 administrative areas of the Russian Federation. Respondents (N,=,7065) identified an ethnically Russian adult or college-aged man or woman whom they knew well and rated the target using the Russian observer rating version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory, which measures neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness and conscientiousness. Factor analyses within samples showed that the factor structure of an international sample combining data from 50 different cultures was well replicated in all 39 Russian samples. Sex differences replicated the known pattern in all samples, demonstrating that women scored higher than men on most of the neuroticism, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness facet scales. Cross-sectional analyses demonstrated consistent age differences for four factors: Older individuals compared to younger ones were less extraverted and open but more agreeable and conscientious. The mean levels of traits were similar in all 39 samples. Although in general personality traits in Russians closely followed the universal pattern, some reliable culture-specific effects were also found that future studies can help interpret. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Agentic and communal bias in socially desirable responding

    Jan-Erik Lönnqvist
    Abstract This research was designed to investigate Paulhus' communion management (CM) and self-deceptive enhancement (SDE), socially desirable responding (SDR) scales as measures of general SDR, communal bias and agentic bias. The CM and SDE scales, as well as the Schwartz values survey (SVS), were administered to four samples drawn from different cultures and subcultures (N,=,900). Participants completed the questionnaires in ,honest' and ,fake good' conditions. Although conceptions of which values were desirable varied strongly between samples and instructional sets, the CM scale was consistently related to general SDR and to communal bias. In contrast, the SDE scale was only related to general SDR. Contrary to expectations, neither scale could identify participants who ,faked good' under normal instructions. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Personality terms of abuse in three cultures: type nouns between description and insult

    Boele De Raad
    In this study terms of abuse are investigated in three different cultures. Spontaneous verbal aggression is to a certain extent reminiscent of the values of a certain culture. One hundred and ninety-two male subjects from Spain, Germany and the Netherlands were asked to write down terms of abuse that they would use given a certain stimulus situation, and in addition to give their rating of the offensive character of those terms. A total set of 830 useful expressions was thus collected. The frequencies of the expressions were established, and the total list of expressions was categorized in terms of what they were about. In Spanish abusive language is typically about family and relations, in Germany it is typically about anal aspects, and in the Netherlands it is mainly about genitals. Explanations are provided in terms of dimensions on which the three cultures differ. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    An Odd Couple with Promise: Researchers and Practitioners in Evaluation Settings,

    FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 3 2000
    Judith A. Myers-Walls
    Evaluation of programs for families continues to grow in importance. The best evaluation studies involve collaborations between evaluation researchers and practitioners, but the two groups represent different cultures. Cultural differences are seen in temporal orientation, cognitive resources, values and definitions of excellence, patterns of communication, daily life styles, and use of tools. The author provides eight suggested steps to improve collaboration through the determination of shared goals, clarification of boundaries, and improved communication. [source]

    Influence of starter culture type and incubation temperatures on rheology and microstructure of low fat set yoghurt

    The effects of different cultures and incubation temperatures on the physical properties of low fat yoghurts were investigated. The samples were incubated with exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing and non-EPS-producing cultures at 37, 42 and 45°C. All measured parameters except firmness were influenced by culture type and incubation temperature. Firmness, G, and G, were maximised at 42°C for both cultures. Increased incubation temperature and EPS culture led to a higher water-holding capacity but lower syneresis, G, and G,. The EPS treatment incubated at 37°C showed even lower syneresis than non-EPS treatments incubated at higher temperatures. [source]

    Validation analysis of informant's ratings of cognitive function in African Americans and Nigerians

    Jianzhao Shen
    Abstract Objectives To examine informant validity using the Community Screening Interview for Dementia (CSI ,D') both cross-sectionally and longitudinally in two very different cultures and to explore the effects of informants and study participants' characteristics on the validity of informants' reports. Methods Elderly African Americans age 65 years and older residing in Indianapolis, USA and elderly Yoruba Nigerians age 65 years and older residing in Ibadan, Nigeria were assessed on cognitive functioning using the CSI ,D' at baseline (1992,1993) and five-year follow-up (1997,1998). At baseline, the informant validity in both samples was evaluated against participants' cognitive tests using Pearson correlation and regular regression models. At follow-up, informants ratings on cognitive decline were assessed against participants' cognitive decline scores from baseline to follow-up using biserial correlation and logistic regressions. Results At baseline, informants' reports on cognitive functioning significantly correlated with cognitive scores in both samples (Indianapolis:r,=,,0.43, p,<,0.001; Ibadan:r,=,,0.47, p,<,0.001). The participant,informant relationships significantly affected the informants' reports in the two samples with different patterns (p,=,0.005 for Indianapolis and p,<,0.001 for Ibadan) at a given level of cognitive functioning. African Americans spouses reported more cognitive problems, while siblings reported more problems for the Yoruba Nigerians. At follow-up, informants' ratings on cognitive decline significantly correlated with the cognitive decline scores (Indianapolis r,=,0.38, p,<,0.001; Ibadan r,=,0.32, p,<,0.001). The characteristics of study participants and informants had little impact on the informants' ratings on cognitive decline. Conclusions Informant reports are valid in assessing the cognitive functioning of study participants both cross-sectionally and longitudinally in two very different cultures, languages and environments. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Medieval big cat remains from the Royal Menagerie at the Tower of London

    H. O'Regan
    Abstract Big cats have been regarded as a symbol of power in different cultures throughout history. Here we present a study of the only known big cat remains from the Royal Menagerie at the Tower of London. They were excavated in 1937 but have not previously been published. Our radiocarbon dating has established that they range in date from the 13th,17th centuries, making them the earliest post-Pleistocene big cat remains in Britain. We provide a description of the specimens,two lion skulls, a fragmentary leopard, plus 19 dog crania,and discuss the partially occluded foramen magnum of one of the lions. This anomaly has also been noted in captive and unprovenanced cat skulls from the early 20th century, indicating that it is a condition with a long history. We discuss the remains, the history of the menagerie, and the uses of the animals, in the light of our knowledge of conditions for captive animals at the time. Zooarchaeological studies such as these may also provide insights for modern conservation of zoo animals, and this aspect of the work is also considered. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Care dependency of hospitalized children: testing the Care Dependency Scale for Paediatrics in a cross-cultural comparison

    Hanan Tork
    Abstract Title.,Care dependency of hospitalized children: testing the Care Dependency Scale for Paediatrics in a cross-cultural comparison. Aim., This paper is a report of a study to examine the psychometric properties of the Care Dependency Scale for Paediatrics in Germany and Egypt and to compare the care dependency of school-age children in both countries. Background., Cross-cultural differences in care dependency of older adults have been documented in the literature, but little is known about the differences and similarities with regard to children's care dependency in different cultures. Method., A convenience sample of 258 school-aged children from Germany and Egypt participated in the study in 2005. The reliability of the Care Dependency Scale for Paediatrics was assessed in terms of internal consistency and interrater reliability. Factor analysis (principal component analysis) was employed to verify the construct validity. A Visual Analogue Scale was used to investigate the criterion-related validity. Findings., Good internal consistency was detected both for the Arabic and German versions. Factor analysis revealed one factor for both versions. A Pearson's correlation between the Care Dependency Scale for Paediatrics and Visual Analogue Scale was statistically significant for both versions indicating criterion-related validity. Statistically significant differences between the participants were detected regarding the mean sum score on the Care Dependency Scale for Paediatrics. Conclusion., The Care Dependency Scale for Paediatrics is a reliable and valid tool for assessing the care dependency of children and is recommended for assessing the care dependency of children from different ethnic origins. Differences in care dependency between German and Egyptian children were detected, which might be due to cultural differences. [source]

    Nursing students' perceptions of the importance of caring behaviors

    Zahra Khademian
    Abstract Title.,Nursing students' perceptions of the importance of caring behaviours Aim., This paper is a report of a study to determine the nursing students' perceptions of the importance of caring behaviours. Background., Caring has been considered as the essence of nursing. It is believed that caring enhances patients' health and well-being and facilitates health promotion. Nursing education has an important role in educating the nurses with adequate caring abilities. Method., Ninety nursing students (response rate 75%) responded to a questionnaire consisting of 55 caring behaviours adapted from items on Caring Assessment Questionnaire (Care-Q). Behaviours were ranked on a 5-point Likert-type scale. The caring behaviours were categorized in seven subscales: ,accessibles', ,monitors and follows through', ,explains and facilitates', ,comforts', ,anticipates', ,trusting relationship' and ,spiritual care'. Data were collected in Iran in 2003. Findings., The students perceived ,monitors and follows through' (mean = 4·33, SD = 0·60) as the most and ,trusting relationship' (mean = 3·70, SD = 0·62) as the least important subscales. ,To give patient's treatments and medications on time' and ,to do voluntarily little things,' were the most and least important caring behaviours, respectively. ,Explains and facilitates' statistically and significantly correlated with age (r = 0·31, P = 0·003) and programme year (r = 0·28, P = 0·025). Gender had no statistically significant influence on students' perceptions of caring behaviours. Conclusion., Further research is needed, using longitudinal designs, to explore nursing students' perceptions of caring behaviours in different cultures, as well as evaluation studies of innovations in curriculum and teaching methods to improve learning in relation to cultural competence and caring concepts. [source]

    Cross-cultural interview studies using interpreters: systematic literature review

    Anne-Marie Wallin MA RN
    Aim., This paper reviews how the interpreter's role is described in empirically based, qualitative cross-cultural interview studies and how trustworthiness is determined. Background., Increased immigration during the past decades has created a multiethnic society in many countries. This development poses a challenge to healthcare staff, in that they need to understand how people from different cultures experience health and illness. One way to assess immigrants' experiences is through cross-cultural interview studies, involving an interpreter. Thorough knowledge of the interpreter's role is needed in order to increase the trustworthiness of this kind of nursing research. Method., Literature searches were conducted from October to November 2004 using PubMed, CINAHL, Psycinfo, Sociological abstract, Your Journals@ovid, and Eric databases. Qualitative interview studies written in English and performed with an interpreter were included. The Matrix Method was used to review the literature. Findings., In almost all of the 13 relevant papers found, the role of the interpreter(s) in the research process was only sparsely described. In addition, all studies except one employed different techniques to established trustworthiness. The most common techniques were prolonged engagement, member check or triangulation, the latter performed either on the data, investigators or methods. Conclusion., Methodological issues with respect to interpreters have received only limited attention in cross-cultural interview studies. Researchers in the field of nursing need to consider (1) the interpreter's role/involvement in the research process; (2) the interpreter's competence and the style of interpreting; (3) the interpreter's impact on the findings. This information is a prerequisite when trying to determine the trustworthiness of a cross-cultural study. [source]

    Korean mothers' psychosocial adjustment to their children's cancer

    Hae-Ra Han PhD RN
    Background., During the course of adjustment to their child's illness and medical treatment, parents of children with cancer may experience numerous challenges and difficulties. Although parental adjustment has been a research topic for many years, little research has been conducted among families in different cultures and countries. Aim., To identify factors that influence maternal psychosocial adjustment to childhood cancer using a new cultural group: Korean. Methods., A sample of 200 Korean mothers of children with cancer was included in the study. Guided by the double ABCX model of family adjustment and adaptation, a series of variables (i.e. maternal stress, coping, social support and selected illness-related and demographic questions) were examined for their relationships with maternal psychosocial adjustment to childhood cancer. Results., Using a hierarchical multiple regression, we found perceived level of stress, coping, social support, and time since diagnosis to be significant correlates of maternal psychosocial adjustment. Stress accounted for most (50%) of the total variance explained (56%) in maternal adjustment. Conclusion., The results suggest that the stress-coping framework may be appropriate in explaining maternal responses to childhood cancer across cultures. [source]

    Intercultural Communication on Web sites: A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Web sites from High-Context Cultures and Low-Context Cultures

    Elizabeth Würtz
    The aim of this study is to explore and identify the strategies used by high-context cultures in utilizing the Internet,a largely low-context medium,for communication and marketing purposes. It is hypothesized that individuals in high-context cultures are more likely to adopt the visual effects offered by the Internet to convey their messages efficiently than their low-context counterparts. How might high-context cultures make the most of the potentials offered by the Internet generation of today? Assuming that visual communication is a high priority in the design of high-context Web sites, how do the visual methods used on Web sites vary according to the communication styles in different cultures? Using Hall's high- and low-context dimensions as the main parameters, an exploratory analysis of McDonald's Web sites identified five different strategies by which visual communication is used to support high-context communication traits. [source]

    Cross-cultural Comparisons of Online Collaboration

    Kyong-Jee Kim
    This study investigated two interconnected conferences formed by students and instructors from two different cultures,Finland and the United States,to discuss case situations or problems in school observations, in order to examine cross-cultural differences in online collaborative behaviors among undergraduate preservice teachers. A conference for Korean students in the following semester was added and analyzed for more diverse cross-cultural comparisons. In terms of the first part of this study, computer log data indicated that there were more cross-cultural postings in the Finnish conference by U.S. students than Finnish visitors within the U.S. conference. In addition, student postings made up nearly 80 percent of these discussions. Qualitative content analyses of computer transcripts were conducted to compare their collaborative behaviors with the conferences. Results revealed some cross-cultural differences in the participants' online collaborative behaviors. Korean students were more social and contextually driven online, Finnish students were more group-focused as well as reflective and, at times, theoretically driven, and U.S. students more action-oriented and pragmatic in seeking results or giving solutions. The U.S. and Finnish students spent much time sharing knowledge and resources and also providing cross-cultural feedback. Findings indicate that instructors who facilitate online collaboration among multicultural students need to be aware of cultural differences in the learners' online collaborative behaviors, and such differences need to be taken into account to foster online collaboration among culturally diverse learners. Some data from post-collaboration questionnaires, student interviews, and videoconferencing further informed these findings. [source]

    Corruption, Culture and Transferability: What Can Be Learned From Australia?

    Peter Larmour
    The Asian financial crisis is often blamed on ,corruption'. International banks and aid donors now promote technical assistance and training in corruption prevention, referring to the international best practice of Independent Commissions Against Corruption in Hong Kong or Sydney. However, it is often also argued that what counts as corruption is culturally specific, and that the incidence of petty corruption is related to low salaries. So lessons drawn from corruption prevention in Australia, for example, may not be transferable to other countries with different cultures and levels of income. This paper reflects on the experience of designing and teaching a course on corruption prevention for officials from developing countries in the Asia-Pacific region. It considers what counts as ,corruption', identifies different approaches towards prevention, and draws some conclusions about the transferability of Australian expertise. [source]

    Society and Housing Form: Home-Centredness in England vs.

    Family-Centredness in Japan
    This paper demonstrates some of the ways in which culture affects house form by considering the premise that increased privatised living leads to increased demarcation of private living space. Historical data from England and Japan make it evident that Japanese privatised living was family-centred as compared with English home-centredness, and was reflected in observable differences in the evolution of house forms. While supporting the premise that cultural values influence house forms, the paper concludes that the original framework is too simple, but can be developed to accommodate data from different cultures. [source]

    The Effects of Lighting on Consumers' Emotions and Behavioral Intentions in a Retail Environment: A Cross-Cultural Comparison

    Nam-Kyu Park Ph.D.
    ABSTRACT As an important component of a retail store's atmospherics, lighting can affect the emotional responses that influence consumer shopping behavior. The purpose of this study is to examine, through cross-cultural comparison, the effect of the color quality of light in a retail environment on consumers' emotional states, behavioral intentions, and perceptions. The experimental research followed a 2 times 2 × 2 factorial design with repeated measures to identify the impact of culture group, color rendering index, and color temperature. The results of this study indicate that consumers are aroused and pleased by certain lighting effects and that cultural differences influence perceptions as well as the behavioral intentions of "approach-avoid" in a retail environment. Practical implications of this study could include application of store lighting techniques that enhance visual perceptions of consumers, induce emotional states of arousal and pleasure, and appeal to consumers from different cultures. [source]

    An extract of Lannea microcarpa: composition, activity and evaluation of cutaneous irritation in cell cultures and reconstituted human epidermis

    P. Picerno
    Lannea microcarpa (Anacardiaceae) is a tropical tree used in African folk medicine and commercial dermopharmaceutical formulations. Fractionation and analysis of its polar extract allowed the identification of 4,-methoxy-myricetin 3- O -,- l -rhamnopyranoside, myricetin 3- O -,- l -rhamnopyranoside, myricetin 3- O -,- d -glucopyranoside, vitexin, isovitexin, gallic acid and epi-catechin, as the major constituents. In-vivo assay (the croton oil ear test in mice) showed that the extract had significant anti-inflammatory effect (ID50 = 900 ,g cm2) but ten times lower than that of indometacin (ID50 = 93 ,g cm2), the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used as reference. Cytotoxicity and cutaneous irritation of the extract and its constituents were investigated. The crude extract and its major components did not affect cell viability in-vitro either in three different cultures (J774.A1, WEHI-164 and HEK-293) of cells grown in monolayers or in the reconstituted human epidermis (RHE, 3D model), nor did they cause release of pro-inflammatory mediators (IL-1,) or histomorphological modification of RHE. [source]

    From medicalization to hybridization: a postcolonial discourse for psychiatric nurses

    P. E. Wilkin RMN MA
    I begin with an Orwellian dilemma [Orwell G. (1968)The Collected Essays, Journalism and Letters of George Orwell, Vol. 1, p. 239. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, New York]: do I ,shoot the elephant' (by writing the abstract) to impress the editor? Or, with the courage of my postmodern convictions, do I lay down my rifle and disregard such suppressive editorial instructions? Bang! My words strafe the paper and the elephant is dead. How difficult it is to stay standing against the powerful currents of the dominant tradition. How easy it is to disavow the inequalities and injustices of that tradition when your livelihood (and your ego) depends upon it. So goes the theme of my paper, that, despite the clarion calls of the illustrious minority to reject the patriarchal model of medical psychiatry, psychiatric nurses continue to be propelled by the twin engines of illness and diagnosis. Yet as soon as psychiatry encounters the ,other' it becomes, in Homi K. Bhabha's words, ,hybridized': a pregnant pause created from the seeds of two different cultures. In this sense, every psychiatric moment becomes a golden opportunity for the psychiatric nurse to abdicate her role as medical factotum. Freed from these contractual obligations, she can join the ,other' and share in his experiences, sustaining rather than negating him within a truly therapeutic alliance. In similar fashion, this article has become a mixture of rhetorical fluidity and structured reality: a hybridized compromise which acknowledges the journal's publication boundaries yet still revels, at times, in the freedom of an open and lyrical text. [source]

    Something more than skill: What are parties really seeking in a mediator?

    Christopher Honeyman
    Christopher Honeyman, of Madison, Wis., shows how studying mediation in different cultures produces common characteristics that shed light on, among other things, why local improvement efforts may not be working. [source]

    Learning models in different cultures

    Jin Li
    The beliefs about learning that different cultures have,that is, cultural models of learning,may influence the meanings children construct for learning and achievement. [source]

    Irish nursing students' experiences of service learning

    Dympna Casey rgn
    Abstract Service learning is a teaching tool that facilitates students' ability to link theory to practice while simultaneously providing a needed service to the community. This paper describes Irish nursing students' experiences of a service learning placement undertaken in a developing country. The students complete 30 h of theoretical content, which includes lectures and workshops on such topics as personal safety, health, and human rights, as well as the preparation of students for the emotional impact of the experience. All the content is underpinned by a commitment to developing reciprocal relationships with the service learning communities. To explore these students' experiences, a descriptive qualitative study was conducted. The data were collected using interviews and were analyzed by thematic analysis. Four main themes were identified: developing cultural sensitivity, caring for people in different cultures, learning/knowing more, and the potential impact on nursing practice. The findings suggest that the students are more culturally aware and are becoming more responsible citizens. [source]

    Lessons from Kipling and Rao: How to Re-Appropriate Another Culture

    ORBIS LITERARUM, Issue 4 2002
    Ian Almond
    This brief study will examine Anglo-Indian Rudyard Kipling and Indo-Anglian Raja Rao's, attempts to re-appropriate a foreign culture in terms of their own wills. The novelist Rao's conviction of India's position as the origin of all Western culture, alongside Kipling's own curious tale of a tribe of distant "Englishmen" rediscovered in Northwest Afghanistan, both offer examples of attempts to re-describe and ultimately re-locate radically different cultures within the authors' own more familiar vocabularies. How does this cultural re-appropriation take place, and what happens to the author's parent culture when something as radically ,other' as an Afghan tribe or a medieval French heresy is suddenly and unexpectedly re-incorporated into the ,family'? The often unsettling consequences of this operation are considered as they manifest themselves in both texts in similar ways, advancing the possibility that cultural-appropriation affects the appropriator as much as the appropriated. And so strong is the inclination that is rooted in Mankind to the Love of their Country, that some learned and witty Men , have used great Art and Industry to represent them with such advantage to the World, as though Paradise were but another Name for their native Country. Bishop Stillingfleet1 [source]

    Global organizations and e-learning: Leveraging adult learning in different cultures

    Edward P. Nathan
    This article examines a number of issues regarding the leveraged use of global training within multinational organizations. Given a common purpose and using technology that may minimize cultural differences, is it possible for these organizations to overcome some of the cultural barriers to adult learning? In examining this concept, this article discusses issues of cultural differences, adult cognition, technology, developing global courseware, and measuring its impact. [source]