Different Cultural Backgrounds (different + cultural_background)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Battery for assessment of neuropsychological status (RBANS) in schizophrenia: a pilot study in the Spanish population,

Juan C. Sanz
Objectives:, The aims of this study were to research the following issues in a Spanish population of patients with schizophrenia. (a) The sensitivity and reliability of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) to detect cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. (b) The convergent validity of RBANS on a larger battery of neuropsychological tests sensitive to the cognition disorders typically observed in schizophrenia. (c) The correlates of poor performance in RBANS with clinical features and illness severity. Method:, Thirty schizophrenia patients, 30 non-psychotic patients and 30 healthy participants were assessed using RBANS (form A). We administered a battery of neuropsychological tests and four scales to evaluate patient's clinical status. Results:, Schizophrenia patients and non-psychotic patients performed significantly worse than healthy controls on RBANS, and schizophrenia patients performed slightly worse than non-psychiatric controls, but this difference was not significant. Good inter-test reliability and concurrent validity were found. Only a moderate correlation between RBANS performance and illness severity was observed. Conclusions:, RBANS revealed coherence in identifying cognitive impairment in schizophrenia patients of a different cultural background, and it is shown to be a sensitive, valid and easy-to-perform tool for the neuropsychological assessment of Spanish patients with schizophrenia. [source]

Identifying the core components of cultural competence: findings from a Delphi study

Maria Jirwe
Aim., To identify the core components of cultural competence from a Swedish perspective. Background., The cultural diversity of Swedish society raises challenges for nursing practice. Nurses need to be culturally competent, i.e. demonstrate the effective application of knowledge, skills and attitudes to practice safely and effectively in a multicultural society. Existing frameworks of cultural competence reflect the socio-cultural, historical and political context they were developed in. To date, there has been no research examining cultural competence within a Swedish context. Design., A Delphi survey. Methods., A purposeful sample of 24 experts (eight nurses, eight researchers and eight lecturers) knowledgeable in multicultural issues was recruited. Interviews were undertaken to identify the knowledge, skills and attitudes that formed the components of cultural competence. Content analysis yielded statements which were developed into a questionnaire. Respondents scored questionnaire items in terms of perceived importance. Statements which reached consensus were removed from questionnaires used in subsequent rounds. Three rounds of questionnaires were distributed during 2006. Results., A total of 118 out of 137 components reached a consensus level of 75%. The components were categorised into five areas, cultural sensitivity, cultural understanding, cultural encounters, understanding of health, ill-health and healthcare and social and cultural contexts with 17 associated subcategories. Conclusions., There are some similarities between the issues raised in the current study and existing frameworks of cultural competence from the USA and the UK. However, Swedish experts placed less emphasis on ethnohistory and on developing skills to challenge discrimination and racism. Relevance to clinical practice., This study identified the core components of cultural competence important to nurses practising within a multicultural society such as Sweden. Acquisition of the knowledge, skills and attitudes identified should enable nurses to meet the needs of patients from different cultural backgrounds. The components of cultural competence can form the basis of nursing curricula. [source]

Measuring the intensity of pregnancy planning effort

Pascale Morin
Summary This study validated a measure of pregnancy planning effort based on Miller's conceptual framework in two clinical settings. The questionnaire's main items deal with general behaviour with regard to pregnancy, timing and proception (proception being the reverse of contraception). Values for these three items are added to yield a continuous score ranging from 0 to 12. The study population comprised 448 women of different cultural backgrounds recruited in prenatal, fertility and family planning clinics in Quebec and North Carolina. The results indicate that the internal consistency between the three items pertaining to pregnancy planning was excellent (Cronbach's alpha of 0.83). Test,retest reliability after a 4-week interval was excellent, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.86 for the planning score. The planning score median for women attending family planning clinics (1.00) was significantly lower than that for those recruited in fertility clinics (11.00), confirming the discriminant ability of the instrument. Path analysis shows that the conceptual model corroborates the observed data and explains 53% of the pregnancy planning variability. In conclusion, this is the first questionnaire specifically designed to assess the intensity of pregnancy planning effort, a potentially important variable in epidemiological studies and clinical practice. [source]

Complexities of conflict: the importance of considering social factors for effectively resolving human,wildlife conflict

A. J. Dickman
Abstract Human,wildlife conflict is one of the most critical threats facing many wildlife species today, and the topic is receiving increasing attention from conservation biologists. Direct wildlife damage is commonly cited as the main driver of conflict, and many tools exist for reducing such damage. However, significant conflict often remains even after damage has been reduced, suggesting that conflict requires novel, comprehensive approaches for long-term resolution. Although most mitigation studies investigate only the technical aspects of conflict reduction, peoples' attitudes towards wildlife are complex, with social factors as diverse as religious affiliation, ethnicity and cultural beliefs all shaping conflict intensity. Moreover, human,wildlife conflicts are often manifestations of underlying human,human conflicts, such as between authorities and local people, or between people of different cultural backgrounds. Despite evidence that social factors can be more important in driving conflict than wildlife damage incurred, they are often ignored in conflict studies. Developing a broader awareness of conflict drivers will advance understanding of the patterns and underlying processes behind this critical conservation issue. In this paper, I review a wide variety of case studies to show how social factors strongly influence perceptions of human,wildlife conflict, and highlight how mitigation approaches should become increasingly innovative and interdisciplinary in order to enable people to move from conflict towards coexistence. [source]

Soothing methods used to calm a baby in an Arab country

Yousef Mohamed Abdulrazzaq
Abstract This study was undertaken to determine how mothers soothed their crying infants. A total of 1137 mothers of different cultural backgrounds were approached, 998 agreed to participate in the study, but only 716 completed the questionnaire through a telephone interview. Analysis was restricted to 702 mothers from the UAE nationality, other Arabs, other Muslims, Indians and Philippinos. The questionnaire contained 23 questions on different soothing methods. The most common soothing method was breast-feeding (99.1%), followed by holding and carrying the infant (96.9%), letting infant suck on his thumb or finger (87.3%), herbal tea (65%), night bottle (42.1%) and swaddling infant (19.5%). Over 90% of mothers of all nationalities, preferred not to use pacifiers. Soothing herbs were often used, with the commonest being anise (165 mothers used anise). Fennel tea was also used by a substantial number of mothers (75), with gripe water (64), cumin (33), chamomile (32), mint (22) and fenugreek (16) making up most of the rest. Conclusion: Mothers' ethnicity and nationality strongly impacted on the soothing methods used, with Arabs more often using herbal tea, prone positioning and swaddling to calm infants and illustrate the importance of culture in the upbringing of children from a very early age. [source]

Vulnerability factors in OCD symptoms: cross-cultural comparisons between Turkish and Canadian samples

Orçun Yorulmaz
Abstract Recent findings have suggested some potential psychological vulnerability factors for development of obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms, including cognitive factors of appraisal and thought control, religiosity, self-esteem and personality characteristics such as neuroticism. Studies demonstrating these associations usually come from Western cultures, but there may be cultural differences relevant to these vulnerability factors and OC symptoms. The present study examined the relationship between putative vulnerability factors and OC symptoms by comparing non-clinical samples from Turkey and Canada, two countries with quite different cultural characteristics. The findings revealed some common correlates such as neuroticism and certain types of metacognition, including appraisals of responsibility/threat estimation and perfectionism/need for certainty, as well as thought,action fusion. However, culture-specific factors were also indicated in the type of thought control participants used. For OC disorder symptoms, Turkish participants were more likely to utilize worry and thought suppression, while Canadian participants tended to use self-punishment more frequently. The association with common factors supports the cross-cultural validity of some factors, whereas unique factors suggest cultural features that may be operative in cognitive processes relevant to OC symptoms.,Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key Practitioner Message: , Despite cross-cultural validity in the cognitive accounts for OCD, there are some evidences implying the impact of cultural characteristics on some cognitive factors across different cultures. Thus, it is important for clinicians who work with people from different cultural backgrounds to be vigilant for possible variations in the cognitive processes during psychotherapy and psychological assessment. [source]