Different Cultivars (different + cultivar)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


QUANTITATIVE DESCRIPTIVE SENSORY ANALYSIS OF FIVE DIFFERENT CULTIVARS OF SWEET POTATO TO DETERMINE SENSORY AND TEXTURAL PROFILES

JOURNAL OF SENSORY STUDIES, Issue 1 2010
C.S. LEIGHTON
ABSTRACT A trained sensory panel was used to establish terminology for describing the sensory attributes of different cultivars orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) and white-fleshed sweet potato (WFSP). Quantitative descriptive analysis was applied to evaluate the samples in terms of the aroma, texture, flavor and aftertaste attributes. Thirteen attributes were identified. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to identify any factors differentiating between the sweet potato cultivars. The findings indicated that the main differences were, in PC1, the flavor and density and adhesive textural characteristics, and, in PC2, the grainy and firm textural characteristics of the different cultivars. OFSP displayed a more dense and pasty texture, which was most intense in the Resisto cultivar. W119 had a more grainy texture when compared with the other cultivars tested. WFSP was more moist and fibrous. Therefore, OFSP differed in color, was sweeter and displayed flavor characteristics of yellow vegetables (such as butternut and pumpkin) when compared with WFSP. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Although standard sensory evaluation techniques were used in this project, the materials used were sweet potatoes, which are of interest. Sweet potato is a root vegetable, and in this project, a lexicon for the textural properties, as well as a flavor profile of sweet potato, was developed. Such information can be used for sensory evaluation of other root vegetables. The shear force of the sweet potatoes was measured, and the methodology to determine shear forces and its contribution to the overall evaluation of the texture of sweet potatoes is included in the article. Furthermore, white-fleshed sweet potatoes are commonly known, and the flavor of WFSP is compared with that of orange-fleshed sweet potatoes. [source]


Aphid parasitoids detect that an alien plant was present nearby during their development

PHYSIOLOGICAL ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 3 2002
H. F. Van Emden
Abstract Glasshouse and laboratory experiments were conducted with Aphidius rhopalosiphi parasitizing Metopolophium dirhodum to test whether the presence in the same environment of another plant species (tomato or marigold) induced aerial allelopathy in wheat plants. Emerging parasitoids were offered the choice of two odours of wheat plants in an olfactometer , wheat grown alone and wheat grown in the presence of the second plant species. Female parasitoids responded more strongly than males, but both sexes preferred the odour of wheat grown in the environment in which they had developed (i.e. with or without the second plant species present). Moving the tomato plants from the cages where they had been placed with wheat to the cages that had previously had wheat alone just before the aphid mummy formed showed that the odour environment the emerging parasitoid responded to was that of the mummy rather than that of the developing parasitoid larva. From this it was concluded that the parasitoids in the olfactometer were responding not only to wheat volatiles, but also to tomato volatiles absorbed on the surface of the mummy and encountered by the emerging adult parasitoid. By excising the parasitoid pupa from the mummy formed on one wheat cultivar, and offering the emerging parasitoids the surface of aphid mummies formed on a different cultivar, it was confirmed that olfactometer responses represented a learning of the chemistry of the surface of the mummy encountered at or after emergence. [source]


Lignan profile in seeds of modern and old Italian soft wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars as revealed by CE-MS analyses

ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 22 2007
Giovanni Dinelli Professor
Abstract The health-promoting effects of whole-grain consumption have been attributed in part to their unique phytochemical contents and profiles. Wheat is an important component of the human diet; however, little is known about the phytochemical profiles of different wheat varieties, especially of old wheats. The objective of this study was to investigate the distribution of lignans, a class of phytochemicals with proved health benefit effects, of four modern and six old Italian soft wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars. In this work, we describe the first analytical method involving CE coupled to MS (CE-MS) used to identify and quantify lignan compounds in grains of different cultivars of wheat. Total lignan content determined by CE-ESI-MS was 2.60,±,0.21 and 5.00,±,1.30,,g/g dry seed weight for modern and old cultivars, respectively. Secoisolariciresinol and pinoresinol were detected in all ten investigated soft wheat cultivars, whereas arctigenin, hinokinin, and syringaresinol were exclusively detected in old genotypes. Significant differences between modern and old cultivars were also observed for the number of glycosidic forms. Results highlighted the high content and unique composition in lignans of old cultivars suggesting their uses into a wide range of regular and speciality food products naturally enriched with health-promoting compounds. [source]


Molecular biology of aromatic plants and spices.

FLAVOUR AND FRAGRANCE JOURNAL, Issue 5 2010
A review.
Abstract In recent years, molecular tools have been used to help to elucidate some aspects of genetic diversity in aromatic species, the genetic relationships between different cultivars and comparisons of molecular marker analysis to the chemical composition of plants. In this review, an explanation of the most important techniques involving molecular markers is given. A literature survey on molecular markers is presented, with some examples from aromatic plants and spices. However, understanding what controls flavour and aroma production in plants is not an easy task to accomplish. Several aspects of plant secondary metabolism, in particular volatiles production in aromatic plants, are still unknown. The route from genomics to proteomics is not well documented, although some research with model plants has already been performed. To address the question of the synthesis of volatiles, two different approaches are possible and summarized in this review: first, the biochemical and genetic approach; and second, approaches involving functional genomics. Finally, a brief survey of bioinformatics resources is presented. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Aroma of minor tropical fruits

FLAVOUR AND FRAGRANCE JOURNAL, Issue 4 2005
M. R. B. Franco
Abstract Publications on the volatile composition of some minor tropical fruits, i.e. acerola, cupuaçu, soursop, bacuri, genipap, umbu-cajá, araçá-boi, camu-camu, umbu, murici and cashew apple, are reviewed. Differences observed in the volatile composition of a same fruit could be due to the methodology and[sol ]or to different cultivars or geographical regions. Bound volatiles can also be liberated during the extraction procedures under drastic conditions. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons. Ltd. [source]


The effect of sward structure as influenced by ryegrass genotype on bite dimensions and short-term intake rate by dairy cows

GRASS & FORAGE SCIENCE, Issue 1 2003
P. D. Barrett
Abstract The effects of genotypic variation in ryegrasses on sward structure, bite dimensions and intake rate by dairy cows were investigated. Two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, swards were in a vegetative state whereas, in Experiment 2, they were partly reproductive and were taller with higher herbage mass but lower leaf proportion than in Experiment 1. Applicability of relationships between sward structure and bite characteristics, previously established from artificial or hand-constructed swards, to field conditions were tested. Additional short-term intake rates and/or sward structural characteristics were considered as indicators of potential intake for use in protocols for the evaluation of grass varieties. Four cultivars were studied: AberElan, Twins (diploid and tetraploid perennial ryegrasses respectively), Polly, a hybrid ryegrass (perennial × Italian ryegrass) and Multimo (Italian ryegrass), each established in 200-m2 plots in four replicated blocks. Herbage intake rate was determined by short-term liveweight change (taking account of insensible weight loss) using 16 dairy cows allocated to four balanced groups with each plot grazed by one group for a 1-h assessment period. One block was grazed per day, over a 4-d experimental period, with each group grazing each variety in a complete crossover design. Sward characteristics and bite rate were also measured in both experiments. Bite dimensions were subsequently estimated, with bite depth being determined as a function of extended tiller height (ETH) in both experiments. Within both experiments, bite mass and intake rate did not differ significantly between swards of different cultivars despite swards containing Multimo generally having a higher ETH and water-soluble carbohydrate concentration and lower green leaf mass, sward bulk density and neutral-detergent fibre concentration than the other swards. However, bite depth was significantly higher (P < 0·01) in swards containing Multimo swards than in the others and, in Experiment 1, bite depth, as a proportion of ETH, was higher in swards containing Multimo and lower in those containing Twins than in the other two cultivars, whereas there was no difference in Experiment 2. Taking both experiments together, the mean bite depth was 0·5 of ETH with sward bulk density accounting for almost half the variance in the relationship between bite depth and ETH. The bulk density of the bite (bite mass per unit bite volume), measured in Experiment 2, followed a similar pattern to sward bulk density, increasing in the order Multimo, Polly, AberElan and Twins. It is concluded that the relationships between sward characteristics and bite dimensions, derived from artificial swards, are applicable to field swards, although the range in natural ryegrass sward characteristics is usually not as wide as in experiments using artificial swards. Lack of precision in the measurement of short-term intake and in sward-based measurements is likely to preclude their use in the evaluation of grass varieties. [source]


Yield and Forage Quality of Different ×Festulolium Cultivars in Winter

JOURNAL OF AGRONOMY AND CROP SCIENCE, Issue 4 2006
W. Opitz v. Boberfeld
Abstract ×Festulolium ssp. are of particular interest as autumn-saved herbage in the winter grazing system, but information concerning their performance in this low-input system is not available. To this end, we examined dry matter (DM) yield and forage quality in winter of four different cultivars of ×Festulolium ssp. (×Festulolium pabulare, Festulolium braunii), either with festucoid or loloid attributes, compared with Festuca arundinacea Schreb. Furthermore, pre-utilization (accumulation since June or July) and date of winter harvest (December or January) were varied examining the influence of different sward management. DM yield, crude protein, metabolizable energy (ME) (in vitro rumen fermentation technique), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and ergosterol concentration were determined. Within all years, the festucoid cultivars (mean 3.4 t ha,1) attained significant higher yields during winter than the loloid cultivars (mean 1.6 t ha,1), but their yields were comparable with F. arundinacea (mean 3.0 t ha,1). Crude protein was decisively influenced by the different yield levels of the cultivars resulting in higher values for the loloid cultivars. Energy concentrations decreased with later winter harvest, whereas ADF as well as ergosterol concentrations frequently increased from December to January. The greatest differences between festucoid and loloid cultivars were generally observed during severe winters. Obviously, the festucoid cultivars were better adapted to a utilization as autumn-saved herbage than the cultivars with rather loloid attributes. However, the hybrids did not surpass F. arundinacea regarding yield and quality. [source]


PHENOLIC COMPOUND CONTENT, ANTIOXIDANT AND RADICAL-SCAVENGING PROPERTIES OF METHANOLIC EXTRACTS FROM THE SEED COAT OF CERTAIN THAI TAMARIND CULTIVARS

JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 5 2010
MANEEWAN SUKSOMTIP
Methanolic extracts from the seed coats of five major tamarinds (Srichomphu, Sithong-nak, Sithong-bao, Priao-yak and Khanti) cultivated in Thailand were investigated for their content of phenolic compounds and their antioxidative properties. Antioxidative properties were evaluated by various different methods: scavenging effect on the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical, anti-lipid peroxidation and reducing power assay. The phenolic compound contents were determined by spectrophotometric methods. Extract of Priao-yak with the highest tannin content showed the strongest reducing power, while extract of Khanti with the highest proanthocyanidin content revealed high scavenging ability on both DPPH and hydroxyl radicals. Stronger antioxidative activity measured by most assays was noted for the extract of Sithong-bao with a high content of total phenols, proanthocyanidin and tannins. The results suggest that specific phenolic constituents in the extract could be responsible for the different antioxidant properties observed in different cultivars. Furthermore, seed coat extract of Sithong-bao may be a potential source of natural antioxidant to be developed into nutraceuticals. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Components of Tamarindus indica L., a tree indigenous to India and South-East Asia, have long been used as a spice, food component and traditional medicine. According To traditional medicine, the tamarind pulp is used as a digestive, carminative, laxative, expectorant and blood tonic; the seeds are used as an anthelmintic, antidiarrheal and emetic. In addition, the seed coat is used to treat burns and aid wound healing as well as as an antidysenteric. Recent studies have demonstrated polyphenolic constituents with more potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of T. indica seed coat extract. Therefore, seed coat extracts of T. indica have economic potential for development into health promotion products as well as natural preservatives to increase the shelf life of food by preventing lipid peroxidation. [source]


EFFECTS OF KERNEL PROPERTIES AND POPPING METHODS ON POPCORN QUALITY OF DIFFERENT CORN CULTIVARS

JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESS ENGINEERING, Issue 4 2009
NILGÜN ERTA
ABSTRACT Three popcorn genotypes, Koç Cin (composite), Nermin Cin and Ant Cin-98 (hybrid) were investigated for the effects of kernel size (4 < D < 5 and 5 < D < 6), popping methods (conventional and microwave) and moisture content (10, 12 and 14%) on popcorn quality. The relationships between physical kernel properties and popping characteristics were also researched. The Nermin Cin popcorn cultivar had the highest expansion volume, flake size and the lowest percentage of unpopped kernel values among genotypes. 5 > D > 6 mm kernel fraction and the conventional method produced higher popcorn quality in all popcorn cultivars. The optimum moisture levels for the highest expansion volume changed between 12 and 14% for different cultivars. The correlation coefficient between kernel properties (width, sphericity, L, a and b) and expansion volume were found significant (P < 0.01) in microwave popping method. Color a had high direct effects on expansion volume in conventional and microwave popping methods according to path coefficient analysis. L values of popcorn cultivars negatively correlated with expansion volume in both popping methods. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Physical parameters like width, sphericity and color values were found important in predicting popping quality. Color values should be used to predict expansion volume instead of classic physical properties for ease ofmeasurement. Conventional popping method, 5 > D > 6 kernel size and 12,14% moisture content parameters should be used for optimum popcorn quality. [source]


Antioxidative Ability, Dioscorin Stability, and the Quality of Yam Chips from Various Yam Species as Affected by Processing Method

JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 2 2009
Y.-M. Liu
ABSTRACT:, The antioxidative ability, stability of storage protein dioscorin, and the quality of fried yam chips from different cultivars of Chinese yams influenced by various processing treatments were investigated. Total phenolic content and DPPH free radical scavenging effect were found to be the highest in Mingchien (MC) and the lowest in Keelung (KL) yam. Following processing, freeze-dried yams of all varieties showed the least decrease in total phenolic compounds and DPPH radical scavenging effect, while boiling caused the greatest decrease in both. Fresh yams of all varieties contained the highest dioscorin contents comparing with their counterparts. Boiling and deep-frying caused severe protein denaturation resulting in loss of dioscorin solubility after purification. Freeze-drying resulted in increase in protein surface hydrophobicity (So); nonetheless, it attained higher total phenol content, antioxidative capacity, and dioscorin stability of yams compared with other processing treatments. The peroxide values of all yam chips increased during the initial stage, then declined with advanced storage. Fracturability of all yam chips gradually decreased, due to the absorption of moisture, with increasing storage time. [source]


Parental relationships among three grape varieties studied by MALDI of grape seed protein profiles,

JOURNAL OF MASS SPECTROMETRY (INCORP BIOLOGICAL MASS SPECTROMETRY), Issue 9 2010
Antonella Bertazzo
Abstract Two Raboso cultivars, i.e. Raboso Veronese and Raboso Piave, are two black Vitis vinifera varieties. A genetic study suggested that Raboso Veronese is the progeny of a spontaneous cross between Raboso Piave and Marzemina Bianca cultivars. Parental relationships are usually investigated by genetic studies, which are effective to establish genetic links among different cultivars. Considering that proteome is the genome expression, in this article we evaluated the power of seed protein profiles obtained by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)/MS for parentage investigation. The three cultivars lead to very similar spectra with differences in the relative intensity of the most abundant species and the presence of very weak specific ions. In order to evaluate the analytical significance of these aspects, the variability due to instrumental factors and due to different harvesting areas and years of the same cultivars have been considered and measured by the calculation of discrepancy factor values. On one hand, the results obtained can be considered a valid confirmation of the genomic findings, whereas on the other hand, the results provide evidence for the ability of MALDI/MS to individuate minor differences in protein profiles of complex protein mixtures. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Occurrence, Symptom Expression and Characterization of Phytoplasma Associated with Pear Decline Disease in Catalonia (Spain)

JOURNAL OF PHYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 11-12 2003
M. Garcia-Chapa
Abstract A total area of 1500 ha of commercial plots was surveyed to study the extent of pear decline disease and its relative importance in northeastern Spain. A preliminary evaluation indicated that around 7% of the plots had symptoms of the disease. At the same time, pear decline incidence was evaluated in 45 plots, by visual inspection of 500 trees in each plot. In September, the incidence of trees with symptoms ranged from 8 to 59% depending on the cultivar selected. The presence of pear decline (PD) phytoplasma in these plots was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of phytoplasma DNA with universal or group-specific primers. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses also showed the presence of a unique phytoplasma strain. The symptom expression of PD disease in different cultivars was evaluated throughout the year. The relationship between the presence of symptoms and detection of PD by PCR in these cultivars was also studied. Results showed that the nested-PCR, using specific primers to detect the DNA from PD phytoplasma, is the most accurate method to identify the total percentage of affected trees. [source]


Genetic and Pathogenic Variation Among Tobacco Black Shank Strains of Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae from the Main Tobacco Growing in China

JOURNAL OF PHYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 5 2003
X. G. Zhang
Abstract Pathogenic and genetic variability among seven populations of Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae from individual tobacco fields (Yunnan, Shandong, Henan, Heilongjiang, Shanxi, Fujian and Sichuan provinces) were investigated using pathogenicity and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses; 63 strains were isolated from different fields of seven tobacco growing regions, using tobacco cv. Hongda as a baiting host. Pathogenic variability was evaluated in greenhouse studies using five tobacco cultivars that have different levels of resistance to tobacco black shank; 75 and 73% of the strains were pathogenic on M3 and M4, 29 and 33% on M1 and M2, and 94% were pathogenic on M5, respectively. Disease severity incited by different strains varied significantly on individual tobacco cultivars. The percentage of strains pathogenic on different cultivars varied among locations. Genotypic variation among 63 strains was evaluated by RAPD analysis. Ten primers detected 89 polymorphic bands. Cluster and principal coordinates analysed cluster groups. the minor group contained 26 strains, and major group contained 37 strains. Estimates of genetic diversity based on RAPD analysis ranged from 0.24 to 0.34 within populations to 0.36 among all strains from all populations. Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae populations were genotypically and phenotypically variable, but no distinct genotypic differences were identified among populations from the seven locations. [source]


Rapid identification of pseudomonas avellanae field isolates, causing hazelnut decline in central italy, by repetitive PCR genomic fingerprinting

JOURNAL OF PHYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 3 2000
M. Scortichini
Pseudomonas avellanae is the main cause of hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) decline, the so called ,moria', in central Italy where it has already killed more than 30 000 trees. Its current identification is very long requiring biochemical, physiological and nutritional tests as well as pathogenicity tests and takes not less than 6 months for its completion. In the present study the reliability of the repetitive polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) technique for a rapid and accurate identification of such a pathogen was compared with the traditional identification method. In order to assess the variability of the pathogen, REP, BOX and ERIC primer sets were used in preliminary work to generate genomic fingerprints of 60 P. avellanae reference strains previously isolated from different areas of hazelnut cultivation. ERIC primers yielded the most discriminative clustering of strains that were grouped according to their geographic origin. Sixty field isolates collected from hazelnut orchards of central Italy, planted with different cultivars, during the years 1996,98 were submitted to either the traditional identification methods or to rep-PCR by using ERIC primers. The latter technique accurately identified all the isolates that were also identified by the traditional methods. Whole-cell protein analysis by means of sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis confirmed this achievement. Rep-PCR can be successfully adopted for the rapid and accurate identification of P. avellanae in central Italy and it constitutes a very useful tool for the sanitation of the area. Zusammenfassung Eine schnelle Bestimmung von Pseudomonas avellanae -Feldisolaten, dem Erreger einer HaselnuIapoplexie in Zentralitalien, durch rep-PCR genomisches Fingerprinting [source]


QUANTITATIVE DESCRIPTIVE SENSORY ANALYSIS OF FIVE DIFFERENT CULTIVARS OF SWEET POTATO TO DETERMINE SENSORY AND TEXTURAL PROFILES

JOURNAL OF SENSORY STUDIES, Issue 1 2010
C.S. LEIGHTON
ABSTRACT A trained sensory panel was used to establish terminology for describing the sensory attributes of different cultivars orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) and white-fleshed sweet potato (WFSP). Quantitative descriptive analysis was applied to evaluate the samples in terms of the aroma, texture, flavor and aftertaste attributes. Thirteen attributes were identified. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to identify any factors differentiating between the sweet potato cultivars. The findings indicated that the main differences were, in PC1, the flavor and density and adhesive textural characteristics, and, in PC2, the grainy and firm textural characteristics of the different cultivars. OFSP displayed a more dense and pasty texture, which was most intense in the Resisto cultivar. W119 had a more grainy texture when compared with the other cultivars tested. WFSP was more moist and fibrous. Therefore, OFSP differed in color, was sweeter and displayed flavor characteristics of yellow vegetables (such as butternut and pumpkin) when compared with WFSP. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Although standard sensory evaluation techniques were used in this project, the materials used were sweet potatoes, which are of interest. Sweet potato is a root vegetable, and in this project, a lexicon for the textural properties, as well as a flavor profile of sweet potato, was developed. Such information can be used for sensory evaluation of other root vegetables. The shear force of the sweet potatoes was measured, and the methodology to determine shear forces and its contribution to the overall evaluation of the texture of sweet potatoes is included in the article. Furthermore, white-fleshed sweet potatoes are commonly known, and the flavor of WFSP is compared with that of orange-fleshed sweet potatoes. [source]


Cadmium concentration in durum wheat grain (Triticum turgidum) as influenced by nitrogen rate, seeding date and soil type

JOURNAL OF THE SCIENCE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE, Issue 5 2010
Patrizia Perilli
Abstract BACKGROUND: Cadmium (Cd) is a trace element that has been associated with various human health problems. Cd enters plants, either by direct absorption through leaves or by uptake from soils, allowing Cd into the food chain. Nitrogen (N) fertilizer management is important in optimizing crop yield and protein content of durum wheat, but may influence Cd availability and hence Cd concentration in crops, with the effects being strongly influenced by environmental conditions and crop cultivar. RESULTS: In field studies, Cd and protein concentration in durum wheat grain differed between cultivars and were strongly affected by N application, with only minor effects of N occurring on concentration and uptake of P and Zn. Protein content increased significantly with N application in five of six site-years, with the response being generally independent of cultivar and seeding data. Cd concentration also increased with N application in five of six seeding dates, with the response being greater in AC Melita than Arcola in three of the six site-years. There were large differences in Cd concentration from year to year and with seeding date, indicating a strong environmental influence. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that different cultivars accumulate different levels of Cd in the grain and that seeding date and nitrogen fertilizer management can influence grain Cd concentration, with the magnitude of effects varying with environmental factors. In the future we may be able to manipulate management practices to optimize protein concentration and minimize Cd concentration in durum wheat, which could help to address the health and safety concerns of consumers. © Society of Chemical Industry and Her Majesty the Queen in right of Canada [source]


Ellagic acid content in strawberries of different cultivars and ripening stages

JOURNAL OF THE SCIENCE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE, Issue 8 2003
María R Williner
Abstract Ellagic acid is a phenolic compound which occurs naturally in strawberries. Interest in ellagic acid has increased during the past few years owing to its properties as a micronutrient. The objective of this study was to determine the ellagic acid content in strawberries compared with that in other common fruits and to evaluate its variability, the effects of ripening stage, and the tissue and seasonal variability in selected cultivars widely grown in Argentina. Strawberries showed significantly higher levels of ellagic acid than many other fruits of economic importance, ranging from 0.16 to 2.07 mg g,1 dry weight. The ellagic acid content was highest in green fruit, intermediate in mid-ripe fruit and lowest in full-ripe fruit. Cultivars ,Chandler' and ,Camarosa' contained the highest amounts of ellagic acid in strawberries with edible value (0.78 and 0.70 mg g,1 dry weight respectively), while ,Oso Grande' and ,Milsei' exhibited the lowest (0.35 and 0.31 mg g,1 dry weight respectively). Moreover, the level of this phytochemical was found to be higher when considering pulp with achenes compared with pulp without achenes. Copyright © 2003 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


Development of DNA microsatellite markers in the Andean root crop arracacha: Arracacia xanthorrhiza Banc. (Apiaceae)

MOLECULAR ECOLOGY RESOURCES, Issue 4 2004
E. MORILLO
Abstract A microsatellite-enriched library was constructed in the Andean root crop arracacha (Arracacia xanthorriza B). Of 18 loci tested, 14 were found to be polymorphic after screening for diversity in different cultivars and related wild forms. Allelic diversity in the crop was low but the transferability of the primers to closely related wild forms was good. The loci reported here are the first genetic markers to be published for this species and will be useful for future germplasm characterization and studies of genetic diversity. [source]


Genomic and cDNA microsatellites from apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.)

MOLECULAR ECOLOGY RESOURCES, Issue 4 2004
L. S. HAGEN
Abstract We developed primers for the amplification of 24 polymorphic nuclear microsatellites in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.). Thirteen loci originated from three genomic libraries enriched for TC, TG and AAG motifs. Eight loci were developed from three fruit EST (Expressed-Sequence-Tag) libraries and three from a leaf cDNA microsatellite-enriched library. There were up to nine alleles per polymorphic locus in 12 different cultivars. No difference in allele numbers were shown between cDNA and genomic-source loci. Mean expected heterozygosity was 0.65 (range: 0.15,0.87). Mendelian segregation was confirmed for all loci. These markers should be helpful for diversity studies, genome mapping and cultivar identification in apricot and related species. [source]


Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellites for assessment of genetic variation of hops (Humulus lupulus L.)

MOLECULAR ECOLOGY RESOURCES, Issue 2 2004
A. M. Hadonou
Abstract Hop (Humulus lupulus L.) cultivars are vegetatively propagated and it is difficult to differentiate them during the process of propagation. Fingerprinting with molecular markers based on DNA could be a useful means of identifying different cultivars. Simple sequence repeats, or microsatellite markers, are the most suitable marker for genetic fingerprinting because they are multi-allelic and co-dominant. For this purpose, we have developed primers for 10 new polymorphic microsatellite loci that are suitable for genetic fingerprinting in hop. [source]


Influence of imidacloprid seed treatments on rice germination and early seedling growth

PEST MANAGEMENT SCIENCE (FORMERLY: PESTICIDE SCIENCE), Issue 3 2008
Mark M Stevens
Abstract BACKGROUND: Seed treatments with the chloronicotinyl insecticide imidacloprid (Gaucho® 600 FS) were evaluated to determine whether differences in concentration and exposure regime influence the germination and early growth of rice. RESULTS: Continuous exposure to imidacloprid (4 days at 2000 mg AI L,1) significantly (P < 0.001) reduced normal germination by an average of 18% across the 15 cultivars examined. Nine days after sowing, plants showed no adverse effects from continuous imidacloprid treatment during germination, with shoot lengths and root system dry weights equalling, or occasionally exceeding (P < 0.05), those of untreated plants. Short-term imidacloprid exposure (2 h at 2000 mg L,1) at initial seed wetting did not affect germination (P > 0.05), and short-term (1 h) exposure of 48 h pregerminated seed to imidacloprid (2000 mg L,1) similarly had no significant effect on early subsequent growth. Plants arising from 48 h pregerminated seed exposed to imidacloprid (1 h) at concentrations up to 4000 mg L,1 immediately before sowing were not significantly different from control plants at either 9 or 25 days post-sowing. CONCLUSION: Results show that imidacloprid will have no adverse effects on plant growth if applied to pregerminated rice shortly before sowing. Continuous exposure of seed during germination had more pronounced effects, and the initial response of different cultivars was highly variable. Cultivars with high levels of sensitivity (such as IR72) require further testing before continuous exposure to imidacloprid during germination can be recommended. Copyright © 2007 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


Fluorescence in situ hybridization polymorphism using two repetitive DNA clones in different cultivars of wheat

PLANT BREEDING, Issue 5 2003
A. Schneider
Abstract Twenty-two wheat cultivars and a wheat line were analysed with two-colour fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using the pSc119.2 and pAs1 repetitive DNA clones to detect if polymorphism could be observed in the hybridization patterns of different wheat cultivars. The FISH hybridization pattern of ,Chinese Spring' was compared with wheat cultivars of different origins. Differences were observed in the hybridization patterns of chromosomes 4A, 5A, 1B, 2B, 3B, 5B, 6B, 7B, 1D, 2D, 3D and 4D. Although a low level of polymorphism exists in the FISH pattern of different wheat cultivars, it is possible to identify 17 pairs of chromosomes according to their hybridization patterns with these two probes. This study will help to predict the expected variation in the FISH pattern when analysing wheat genetic stocks of different origin. It is presumed that variation in hybridization patterns are caused by chromosome structural rearrangements and by differences in the amount and location of repetitive sequences in the cultivars analysed. [source]


Haplotype diversity of Tilletiopsis spp. causing white haze in apple orchards in Northern Italy

PLANT PATHOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
S. Baric
White haze (WH), a manifestation of extensive colonization of anamorphic smut fungi of the genus Tilletiopsis on the surface of apple fruit, has recently been described as a new postharvest disorder of the cultivar Elstar. This study shows that these fungi can also affect apple fruit of different cultivars prior to harvest, and therefore seriously compromise the quality of the produce in Northern Italy. In order to identify the Tilletiopsis taxa involved in the induction of WH in this region, 48 isolates, mainly derived from fruit samples, were analysed by DNA sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region. Six haplotypes were identified that could be assigned to three different phylogenetic lineages, the T. washingtonensis group, the T. pallescens group and the Entylomataceae. More than 40% of the isolates were classified as T. washingtonensis which had not previously been associated with WH. Furthermore, this is the first study that reports the occurrence of this species on field-grown fruit samples. The extensive overgrowth of apple fruit by Tilletiopsis spp., appearing erratically in the last decade, may be a consequence of moist weather conditions and novel cultural practices, such as the use of hail nets and the intensive application of foliar nutrients. [source]


Cultivar preference exhibited by two sympatric and genetically distinct populations of the soybean fungal pathogen Phialophora gregata f.sp. sojae

PLANT PATHOLOGY, Issue 2 2005
X. Meng
Phialophora gregata f.sp. sojae, a soilborne vascular pathogen causing brown stem rot of soybean, has been divided into A and B populations based on variation in the intergenic spacer region of nuclear rDNA (rDNA marker). The A and B populations correlate with defoliating and nondefoliating pathotypes, respectively. In this study, eight additional polymorphic anonymous marker loci (five inter simple sequence repeat loci and three long-primer random amplified polymorphic DNA loci) were identified and applied to a total of 189 isolates. Alleles of these eight loci were invariant within, but different between the A and B populations, providing further evidence that the rDNA marker identifies genetically distinct populations. The two populations were sympatric, residing not only in the same field, but also in the same plants under field conditions. Representative strains of the two populations, when used individually in inoculations, infected both resistant cv. Bell and susceptible cv. Sturdy. However, when the same representatives of the two populations were mixed in a 1 : 1 ratio and used as a mixed inoculum in a competitive bioassay, differential cultivar preference was revealed using PCR detection of populations in infected plants. Population A was detected significantly more often (18 out of 24 plants) in the susceptible cv. Sturdy, whereas population B was detected significantly more often (17 out of 24 plants) in the resistant cv. Bell, corroborating earlier field studies. This is the first controlled experiment to demonstrate a differential host preference of P. gregata f.sp. sojae toward different cultivars of the same host species. Unification of terminologies used in P. gregata f.sp. sojae is discussed. [source]