Different Crops (different + crop)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Agricultural land use and Skylark Alauda arvensis: a case study linking a habitat association model to spatially explicit change scenarios

IBIS, Issue 1 2010
The development of forward scenarios is a useful method of envisaging the environmental implications of potential changes in land use, as a tool for policy development. In this paper, a spatially explicit case study is used to provide insight into the environmental impacts of Common Agricultural Policy reform on Skylark Alauda arvensis, a species which is widespread on arable farmland, breeds in crops and has declined in recent decades. A generalized linear mixed model was used to estimate Skylark breeding population densities in different crops, using survey data collected from farms in the east of England, supplemented by the literature. Model outputs were then used to predict Skylark densities in an East Anglian Joint Character Area dominated by arable cropping. Predicted densities were mapped at field level using GIS, based on actual cropping derived from Integrated Administration and Control System data collected for the administration of subsidy payments. Three future scenarios were then created, based on expert opinion of potential changes in cropping over the next 5 years, and potential changes in Skylark density mapped on the basis of the predicted changes in cropping patterns. Overall, Skylark densities were predicted to decrease on average by 11,14% under ,market-led' (increasing wheat and oilseed rape, reduced set-aside) and ,energy crop' (5% area under short rotation coppice) scenarios, but remained virtually unchanged under an ,environment-led' (diverse cropping) scenario. The ,market-led' scenario is closest to short-term agricultural trajectories, but wider cultivation of biomass energy crops as modelled under the ,energy crop' scenario could occur in the medium term if energy policies are favourable. Appropriate mitigation strategies therefore need to be implemented if a continued decline in the Skylark population on lowland arable farmland is to be averted. The results provide a readily accessible visualization of the potential impacts of land-use change for policy-makers; similar techniques could be applied to visualize effects of changes arising through other drivers, including climate change. [source]

Mineral phosphate solubilization by rhizosphere bacteria and scope for manipulation of the direct oxidation pathway involving glucose dehydrogenase

B. Sashidhar
Summary Microbial biodiversity in the soil plays a significant role in metabolism of complex molecules, helps in plant nutrition and offers countless new genes, biochemical pathways, antibiotics and other metabolites, useful molecules for agronomic productivity. Phosphorus being the second most important macro-nutrient required by the plants, next to nitrogen, its availability in soluble form in the soils is of great importance in agriculture. Microbes present in the soil employ different strategies to make use of unavailable forms of phosphate and in turn also help plants making phosphate available for plant use. Azotobacter, a free-living nitrogen fixer, is known to increase the fertility of the soil and in turn the productivity of different crops. The glucose dehydrogenase gene, the first enzyme in the direct oxidation pathway, contributes significantly to mineral phosphate solubilization ability in several Gram-negative bacteria. It is possible to enhance further the biofertilizer potential of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria by introducing the genes involved mineral phosphate solubilization without affecting their ability to fix nitrogen or produce phytohormones for dual benefit to agricultural crops. Glucose dehydrogenases from Gram-negative bacteria can be engineered to improve their ability to use different substrates, function at higher temperatures and EDTA tolerance, etc., through site-directed mutagenesis. [source]

Molecular Identification of Phytophthora spp.

Affecting some Economically Important Crops in Eastern India through ITS-RFLP, Sequencing of the ITS Region
Abstract Molecular identification of the Phytophthora spp. affecting betelvine (Piper betel), brinjal (Solanum melongena), guava (Psidium guajava), roselle (Hibiscus subdariffa), black pepper (Piper nigrum), sesame (Sesamum indicum), taro (Colocasia esculenta), chilli (Capsicum annuum), pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica), papaya (Carica papaya) was performed through rDNA ITS-RFLP and also additionally by sequencing the Internal Transcriber spacer (ITS) ITS1 and ITS2 regions. Phytophthora nicotianae, Phytophthora capsici, Phytophthora colocasiae, Phytophthora melonis and Phytophthora palmivora isolates from these 10 different crops were accessioned and the ITS sequences were deposited in Genbank. ITS sequences for Phytophthora isolates from most of these crops are being reported here for the first time. In this study, a review of all earlier Indian reports based on morphology from the above crops and their molecular corroboration has been attempted. This study revealed that not only is P. nicotianae the most prevalent species but also there is the presence of both P. nicotianae and P. capsici, but not P. palmivora on betelvine; as well as possible first reports of P. nicotianae on pepper, P. capsici on chilli and P. palmivora on papaya from this vegetable growing Eastern region of the country. Mating type assays and RAPD markers were used to assess the genotypic diversity of the population. This detection of diversity is a first and critical step for helping to devise and adopt strategies for control and quarantine of these pathogens in this region. [source]

Subsurface drainage for reversing degradation of waterlogged saline lands

D. P. Sharma
Abstract In irrigated agriculture of arid and semiarid regions waterlogging coupled with salinity is a serious problem. Experimental evidence at several locations has led to the realization that subsurface drainage is an essential intervention to reverse the processes of land degradation responsible for the formation of waterlogged saline lands. This paper presents the results of a study conducted from 1995 to 2000 to evaluate the impacts of subsurface drainage on soil properties, groundwater-table behaviour and crop productivity in a waterlogged saline area of 2200,ha. A subsurface drainage system was installed at 16,m depth with 60,m drain spacing covering an area of 1200,ha (23 blocks) during 1997,99 and compared with an undrained block of 1000,ha. Subsurface drainage facilitated the reclamation of waterlogged saline lands and a decrease in the soil salinity (ECe, dS,m,1) that ranged from 160 to 663,per,cent in different blocks. On average, 357,per,cent decrease in salt content was observed when compared with the initial value. Provision of subsurface drainage controlled the water-table below the root zone during the monsoon season and helped in bringing the soil to optimum moisture content for the sowing of winter crops. In the drained area, the increase in yields of different crops ranged from 188 to 276,per,cent. However, in the undrained area the yield of different crops decreased due to the increased waterlogging and soil salinity problems. Overall the results indicated that investment in subsurface drainage is a viable option for reversing the land degradation of waterlogged saline lands in a monsoon climate. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Reducing runoff by managing crop location at the catchment level, considering agronomic constraints at farm level

A. Joannon
Abstract Runoff and erosion cause frequent damage through muddy floods in the loess belt of Northern Europe. One possibility for reducing damage is to lower runoff on agricultural land by spatially alternating different crops at the catchment level. But crop location results from decisions taken at the farm level. This study aimed to assess the existing leeway to modify crop location in the farms of a catchment, in order to reduce runoff at the catchment's outlet. The case study was the Bourville catchment (1086,ha), cultivated by 28 farmers and located in Pays de Caux, France. First, crop location rules in the 14 main farms of the catchment were analysed on the basis of surveys carried out with farmers, distinguishing spatial constraints from temporal ones. These rules made it possible to simulate crop location on each farm territory for the 2001,2002 crop year. Each field of the catchment was classified depending on whether one or several crops could be sown, taking into account both field history and farmer decision rules. Then two extreme scenarios of crop location in the Bourville catchment were built. Runoff simulation at the outlet with the STREAM model showed that runoff could be reduced while sticking to current farmer decision rules in terms of crop location. Depending on rainfall event characteristics, runoff reduction varied between 135,per,cent and 45,per,cent. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]