Different Courses (different + course)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

From Soviet Modernization to Post,Soviet Transformation: Understanding Marriage and Fertility Dynamics in Uzbekistan

Victor Agadjanian
In this article we analyse the dynamics of marriage and childbearing in Uzbekistan through the prism of the recent socioeconomic and political history of that country. After becoming an independent nation in 1991, Uzbekistan abandoned the Soviet modernization project and aspired to set out on a radically different course of economic, social, and political development. We argue, however, that not only independence but also the preceding period of perestroika reforms (1985,91) had a dramatic effect on social conditions and practices and, consequently, the demographic behaviour of the country's population. Using data from the 1996 Uzbekistan Demographic and Health Survey we apply event,history analysis to examine changes in the timing of entry into first marriage, first and second births over four periods: two periods of pre,perestroika socialism, the perestroika years, and the period since independence. We investigate the factors that influenced the timing of these events in each of the four periods among Uzbeks, the country's eponymous and largest ethnic group, and among Uzbekistan's urban population. In general, our results point to a dialectic combination of continuity and change in Uzbekistan's recent demographic trends, which reflect the complex and contradictory nature of broader societal transformations in that and other parts of the former Soviet Union. [source]

Preparation of 2-phenyl-2-hydroxymethyl-4-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinazoline and 2-methyl-4-oxo-3,4-dihydroquinazoline derivatives formation,

Pavel Hradil
The cyclization of phenacyl anthranilate has been studied with the aim to develop the synthesis of 2-(2,-aminophenyl)-4-phenyloxazole. However, a different course of the reaction than expected was observed. 2-Phenyl-2-hydroxymethyl-4-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinazoline (3a) was formed by the reaction of phenacyl anthranilate (2) with ammonium acetate under various conditions. 3-Hydroxy-2-phenyl-4(1H)-quinolinone (4) arose by heating compound 3a in acetic acid. The same compound was obtained by melting compound 3a, but the yield was lower. Different types of products resulted in the reaction of compound 3a with acetic anhydride. Under mild conditions acetylated products 2-acetoxymethyl-2-phenyl-4-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinazoline (7a) and 2-acetoxymethyl-3-acetyl-2-phenyl-4-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinazoline (8) were prepared. If the reaction was carried out under reflux of the reaction mixture, molecular rearrangement took place to give cis and trans 2-methyl-4-oxo-3-(1-phenyl-2-acetoxy)vinyl-3,4-dihydroquinazolines (9a and 9b). All prepared compounds have been characterised by their 1H, 13C and 15N NMR spectra, IR spectra and MS. [source]

Structure, Agency and Power in Political Analysis: Beyond Contextualised Self-Interpretations

Jason Glynos
This article evaluates Mark Bevir and Rod Rhodes' interpretive approach to political analysis by examining their account of social change. Their work is significant because they have endeavoured to construct a distinctive approach which strikes a productive balance between philosophical reflection and analytical attention to the empirical domain. Moreover, in elaborating their approach, Bevir and Rhodes wage a war along a number of fronts: positivism, institutionalism and post-structuralism, and so an analysis of their work enables us to take stock of a range of contemporary methods and approaches. In considering their underlying presuppositions and commitments, we pay particular attention to their account of human agency and its relationship to social structures and political power. While we agree with much of their critique of positivism, naturalism, realism and institutionalism, we argue that Bevir and Rhodes risk overplaying the role of interpreting the individual beliefs and desires of relevant actors to the detriment of a wider net of social practices and logics. Moreover, in challenging their understanding of the post-structuralist approach to political analysis we develop its resources to enrich the possibilities of a critical interpretivism, moving beyond concepts like tradition, dilemma and situated agency. Put more precisely, we argue that the radical contingency of social structures and human agency , their structural incompleteness , discloses new ways of understanding both their character and their mutual intertwining. For example, we develop the categories of lack, dislocation and political identification to think human agency and its relation to wider social structures. More broadly, we argue that an approach developed around different sorts of logics , social, political and fantasmatic , goes some way to steering a different course between a pure thick descriptivism that focuses principally on individual beliefs and desires on the one hand, and a concern with causal laws and mechanisms on the other. [source]

The relationships between learning outcomes and methods of teaching anatomy as perceived by professional anatomists

K.M. Patel
Abstract Changes in the teaching of gross anatomy have often involved decreasing student contact time alongside the use of new methods for teaching. However, there remains controversy over teaching methods and about whether cadaveric dissection by students should remain the preferred method. Furthermore, decisions concerning changes to curricula are more likely to be taken by choosing a method of teaching rather than by proper evaluation of what are the desired learning outcomes for a course in anatomy. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the attitudes of anatomists in Europe towards the methods of teaching best fitting a series of learning outcomes for anatomy and secondarily to test the hypothesis that, from evaluation of learning outcomes, anatomy is best taught by cadaveric dissection by the students. About 113 completed questionnaires were received from anatomists who are employed at higher education institutions that use various teaching methods. Most anatomists (69%) favored the use of cadaveric dissection above other teaching methods when considering the whole series of learning comes, this method seeming to achieve a range of different course aims/objectives, P < 0.001; Kruskal,Wallis). Consequently, these findings are consistent with our initial hypothesis. However, when individual learning outcomes were considered, the relationship was not so clear cut and, for example, little difference was discernible between teaching methods when considering learning outcomes related to the acquisition of anatomical knowledge. The use of human cadaveric dissection gained more approval when the skills-base was considered rather than just the content(knowledge)-base of an anatomical course. Clin. Anat. 21:182,189, 2008. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

An Approach to Interdisciplinary Training in Postgraduate Education

P Brodin
Aims, A primary goal for clinical graduate training is to provide the student with the expertise required for specialist treatment in the actual discipline. At the same time there is an increasing need for a broader perspective on specialist care and the students should be aware of the limitations inherent in own specialty. In order to plan treatment in the best interest of the patient, and to be prepared to take part in treatments involving other specialties, the students should be exposed to interdisciplinary cooperation throughout the training. An approach to joint academic and clinical training with the purpose of providing graduate students with a broader perspective on specialist care is described and discussed. Material and methods, During their first year graduate students in the 7 different disciplines complete a joint Core Curriculum consisting of 8 different courses to stimulate a scientific approach to their profession and understanding of basic biologic mechanisms. To create a learning environment focusing on the development of interdisciplinary competence, a joint clinic has been established. Teams of students from different disciplines have been organized in order to establish ,partnership' for the treatment of patients with complex problems. The students also take part in the sessions held by a faculty Team of experts for assessment and treatment planning of referred patients with complex problems. Furthermore, faculty members conduct courses and seminars for students from other disciplines and students also participate in selected parts of the regular program in other disciplines. Results, Formal evaluation has so far been conducted for the Core Curriculum. Most students respond that they are satisfied with the courses, and the curriculum has also been adjusted based on the comments. The students report that treatment of patients in need of interdisciplinary treatment has been facilitated by having ,partners' in other disciplines. Participation in the Team of expert's sessions has been appreciated, and the attendance at interdisciplinary courses and seminars has been good. Conclusions, Based on the experience over the last 5 years, the interdisciplinary aspects of graduate training should be expanded to stimulate a holistic approach also to specialist treatment. [source]

From dynamic influence nets to dynamic Bayesian networks: A transformation algorithm

Sajjad Haider
This paper presents an algorithm to transform a dynamic influence net (DIN) into a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN). The transformation aims to bring the best of both probabilistic reasoning paradigms. The advantages of DINs lie in their ability to represent causal and time-varying information in a compact and easy-to-understand manner. They facilitate a system modeler in connecting a set of desired effects and a set of actionable events through a series of dynamically changing cause and effect relationships. The resultant probabilistic model is then used to analyze different courses of action in terms of their effectiveness to achieve the desired effect(s). The major drawback of DINs is their inability to incorporate evidence that arrive during the execution of a course of action (COA). Several belief-updating algorithms, on the other hand, have been developed for DBNs that enable a system modeler to insert evidence in dynamic probabilistic models. Dynamic Bayesian networks, however, suffer from the intractability of knowledge acquisition. The presented transformation algorithm combines the advantages of both DINs and DBNs. It enables a system analyst to capture a complex situation using a DIN and pick the best (or close-to-best) COA that maximizes the likelihood of achieving the desired effect. During the execution, if evidence becomes available, the DIN is converted into an equivalent DBN and beliefs of other nodes in the network are updated. If required, the selected COA can be revised on the basis of the recently received evidence. The presented methodology is applicable in domains requiring strategic level decision making in highly complex situations, such as war games, real-time strategy video games, and business simulation games. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Conversations in conservation: revealing and dealing with language differences in environmental conflicts

Thomas J. Webb
Summary 1Applied ecology aims to translate research into policy recommendations. However, conflicts frequently develop if these recommendations propose a contentious course of action. A first step towards addressing such conflicts is to attempt to understand the values underpinning stakeholder viewpoints. 2We develop a computer-aided Content Analysis to analyse the language surrounding environmental conflicts for insights into stakeholder values. Using the conflict arising over proposals to cull hedgehogs Erinaceus europaeus on several Scottish islands, we show how different stakeholder groups frame the problem in different ways. 3Stakeholder groups supporting different courses of action (culling vs. translocating hedgehogs) use different arguments, the former emphasizing conservation and biodiversity, the latter focusing on animal welfare. Our method results in a graphical representation of this failure to agree on a common way to frame the issue. 4Including texts obtained from media sources illustrates how the media can exacerbate environmental conflicts through the issues they emphasize and the vocabulary they use. 5Synthesis and applications. Our method provides a simple means to quantify levels of stakeholder disagreement concerning potentially contentious environmental issues. Our results provide a starting point for the development of a quantitative, graphical tool for managers, where repeated analysis will aid in monitoring and managing conflicts. In addition, we provide a clear example of the role of societal attitudes influencing the effective implementation of ecological advice, which should encourage ecologists to become more aware of the social environment into which policy recommendations are to be launched and to ensure that their advice does not ignore important stakeholder values. [source]

In the Interests of Clients or Commerce?

Demand, Ethical Indeterminacy' in Criminal Defence Work, Legal Aid, Supply
As a professional, a lawyer's first duty is to serve the client's best interests, before simple monetary gain. In criminal defence work, this duty has been questioned in the debate about the causes of growth in legal aid spending: is it driven by lawyers (suppliers) inducing unnecessary demand for their services or are they merely responding to increased demand? Research reported here found clear evidence of a change in the handling of cases in response to new payment structures, though in ways unexpected by the policy's proponents. The paper develops the concept of ,ethical indeterminacy' as a way of understanding how defence lawyers seek to reconcile the interests of commerce and clients. Ethical indeterminacy suggests that where different courses of action could each be said to benefit the client, the lawyer will tend to advise the client to decide in the lawyer's own interests. Ethical indeterminacy is mediated by a range of competing conceptions of ,quality' and ,need'. The paper goes on to question the very distinction between ,supply' and ,demand' in the provision of legal services. [source]

Teaching sexual history taking to health care professionals in primary care

John R Skelton
Objectives Although it is accepted that history taking is central to correct diagnosis, little work has been undertaken on the development of sexual history taking, particularly in a primary care context where sexual health may not occur to the patient. Embarrassment is recognized as one major problem. This paper reports on a series of teaching interventions designed to help primary health care professionals (doctors and nurses) to identify and deal effectively with sexual health issues in the consultation. Methods 141 participants took part in nine different courses, with 114 returning evaluations. All courses involved tutorial teaching on clinical and ethicolegal issues and role play with trained professional role-players; some involved video-based dramatizations to particularize principles in context. During role play sessions, which were followed by detailed, contextualized feedback, clinical issues, attitudinal issues (e.g. articulating a sense of personal embarrassment, and the risk of stereotyping), and ethicolegal issues were all discussed, as were examples of words and phrases which participants were invited to try out. Outcomes The overall quality of the courses was rated by participants, on average, at 8995 (maximum 100), and the relevance of the topic at 9140. Free text comments centred on the power of the training as a consciousness raiser, on the need to alter communication strategies, the need to change existing clinical practice and the value of role play as a methodology. Interactive courses on sexual health are highly acceptable to participants. [source]

Longterm follow-up of children with traumatic optic nerve avulsion

Veit Sturm
Abstract. Purpose:, We report the longterm follow-up of children with optic nerve avulsion (ONA) caused by traumatic events. The remarkable differences in courses and outcomes may elucidate the spectrum of ONA-associated symptoms and injuries. Methods:, During the last 15 years, three children with ONA were referred to our department. These cases are presented with special attention to their longterm follow-up. Results:, Two patients suffered from complete ONA after head injury. The third patient presented with partial ONA caused by a bicycle accident. Longterm follow-up varied between 7 and 15 years. In the first patient, a pale swollen retina without any visible retinal vasculature was observed early in the course of follow-up. The retina later completely detached. In the second patient, extended fibroglial scarring occurred and an extremely large epiretinal membrane formed and was finally released spontaneously into the vitreous. The third patient developed only mild fibroglial scarring and retinal pigment epithelium hyperplasia. The optic nerve head in this patient came to resemble a morning glory disc. Conclusions:, Optic nerve avulsion can adopt different courses and outcomes in different patients. Final visual outcome seems to depend on the degree of visual acuity immediately after injury. Substantial intraocular architecture changes can occur as a result of ONA. [source]

Blood pressure support in extremely premature infants is affected by different courses of antenatal steroids

GV Nair
Abstract Objective:, To examine the effects of partial, single and multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroids (ANS) on the need for blood pressure support in extremely premature infants. Methods:, Extremely premature infants with gestational age of 24 to 28 weeks were included in this study during a 5-year period. The main outcome measure of the study was the amount of blood pressure support during the first 3 days of life. Results:, The study infants (n = 163) were divided into: infants not exposed (ANS; n = 27) and exposed to ANS (ANS; n = 136). Blood pressure support was significantly lower in ANS compared with No ANS (65% vs 96%; p = 0.003) and in single course (SANS; n = 73) and ,2 courses (MANS; n = 34) compared with partial course of ANS (PANS; n = 29) (62%, 56% vs 86%; p = 0.03). The number of infants who received volume support and the amount of volume support were significantly lower in ANS compared with that in No ANS (p < 0.001) and in SANS and MANS compared with that in PANS (p < 0.02). Conclusion:, Exposure to multiple courses of ANS was as beneficial as single course of ANS in decreasing the need for blood pressure support in extremely premature infants. [source]

Resistance/susceptibility to Echinococcus multilocularis infection and cytokine profile in humans.


Differences have been shown between HLA characteristics of patients with different courses of alveolar echinococcosis (AE). Notably the HLA B8, DR3, DQ2 haplotype was associated with more severe forms of this granulomatous parasitic disease. We compared IL-10, IL-5, interferon-gamma (IFN- ,) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) secretion by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) isolated from eight HLA-DR3+, DQ2+, B8+ AE patients and from 10 HLA-DR3,, DQ2,, B8, patients after non-specific mitogenic and specific Echinococcus multilocularis antigenic in vitro stimulation. PBMC from seven HLA-DR3+, DQ2+, B8+ healthy subjects and nine HLA-DR3,, DQ2,, B8, subjects were also studied as controls. PBMC from AE patients with HLA DR3+, DQ2+ haplotype secreted higher levels of IL-10 without any stimulation and after specific antigenic stimulation than did patients without this haplotype. Higher levels of IL-5 and IFN- , were also produced by these patients' PBMC after stimulation with non-purified parasitic antigenic preparations; however, the specific alkaline phosphatase antigen extracted from E. multilocularis induced only Th2-type cytokine secretion. A spontaneous secretion of TNF by HLA DR3+, DQ2+ B8+ AE patients was also found. These results suggest that HLA characteristics of the host can influence immune-mediated mechanisms, and thus the course of AE in humans; specific antigenic components of E. multilocularis could contribute to the preferential Th2-type cytokine production favoured by the genetic background of the host. [source]